Review of the Related Literature Organizing & Writing a Literature Review
The Literature Review is… <ul><li>A discussion of your knowledge about the topic under study </li></ul><ul><li>A discussio...
The Literature Review is  not … <ul><li>A study-by-study, or article-by-article, description of studies previously done </...
Reviewing the Literature <ul><li>Begin with a search of the available literature </li></ul><ul><li>Critically analyze each...
<ul><li>A  literature review   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources  </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>For a review paper  </li></ul><ul><li>2.  For the introduction (and discussion) of a research paper, masters thesi...
<ul><li>Determine if proposed research is actually needed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if similar research published, resea...
<ul><li>Background knowledge of the field of inquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eminent schola...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate a problem - which topic or field is being  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examined and what...
Tips on Formulating a Problem <ul><li>Select a topic you are interested in  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You want to be fascinate...
Critically Analyzing the Literature <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the author’s description of the study </li></ul...
Critically Analyzing the Literature <ul><li>Delimitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How was the study narrowed? </li></ul></ul...
Critically Analyzing the Literature <ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research design? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>popul...
Organizing the Literature Search: the Tree Diagram subtopic Topic subtopic subtopic subtopic subtopic subtopic subtopic
Writing the Literature Review <ul><li>Always begin with an introduction to the review & end with a summary </li></ul><ul><...
Writing <ul><li>Use APA style & format </li></ul><ul><li>Have your work proofread before submitting </li></ul><ul><li>Foll...
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  • Dear Prof. Gable,
    Thank you so much for your writting about literature review. It's very clear and understandable. I am studying PhD so your writting is very usefull for me.
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  • The Literature Review is a discussion of your knowledge of the research related to your topic of study. It is not a study-by-study, or article-by-article, rendering! The Literature Review should provide the reader with a foundation for the study.
  • literature review

    1. 1. Review of the Related Literature Organizing & Writing a Literature Review
    2. 2. The Literature Review is… <ul><li>A discussion of your knowledge about the topic under study </li></ul><ul><li>A discussion of your knowledge that is supported by the research literature </li></ul><ul><li>A foundation for the study </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Literature Review is not … <ul><li>A study-by-study, or article-by-article, description of studies previously done </li></ul><ul><li>A re-statement of the studies previously done </li></ul><ul><li>A brief overview of articles </li></ul>
    4. 4. Reviewing the Literature <ul><li>Begin with a search of the available literature </li></ul><ul><li>Critically analyze each article (study) you select </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the review with an outline </li></ul><ul><li>Write the review </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the review </li></ul><ul><li>Using the literature, present a rationale for your study </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>A literature review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. dissertations, conference proceedings) relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to a particular issue, area of research, or theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides a short description and critical evaluation of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work critical to the topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offers an overview of significant literature published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on a topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Lyons, 2005) </li></ul></ul>Definition of a Literature Review
    6. 6. <ul><li>For a review paper </li></ul><ul><li>2. For the introduction (and discussion) of a research paper, masters thesis or dissertation </li></ul><ul><li>3. To embark on a new area of research </li></ul><ul><li>4. For a research proposal </li></ul><ul><li>(Burge, 2005) </li></ul>Literature Reviews are Conducted For Various Reasons:
    7. 7. <ul><li>Determine if proposed research is actually needed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if similar research published, researchers might </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggest a need for similar studies or replication . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrow down a problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It can be overwhelming getting into the literature of a field of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>study . A literature review can help you understand where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you need to focus your efforts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generate hypotheses or questions for further studies. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mauch & Birch, 2003) </li></ul>Conducting a literature review will help you:
    8. 8. <ul><li>Background knowledge of the field of inquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eminent scholars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parameters of the field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most important ideas, theories, questions and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hypotheses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the methodologies common to the </li></ul><ul><li>field and a feeling for their usefulness and </li></ul><ul><li>appropriateness in various settings. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mauch & Birch, 2003) </li></ul>Conducting a literature review will give you:
    9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate a problem - which topic or field is being </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examined and what are its component issues? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search the literature for materials relevant to the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>subject being explored. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>searching the literature involves reading and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>refining your problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the data - determine which literature makes a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>significant contribution to the understanding of the topic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze and interpret - discuss the findings and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conclusions of pertinent literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Format and create bibliography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Lyons, 2005) </li></ul></ul>Outline of Review Process
    10. 10. Tips on Formulating a Problem <ul><li>Select a topic you are interested in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You want to be fascinated throughout the process and less likely to lose motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose a topic with a feasible focus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the focus clear and defined and it will be easier to complete than something huge like &quot;headaches“ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get Help - get it early and often. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solicit opinions before you begin, review drafts once start them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You may want to start out with a general idea, review the literature of that area, and then refine your problem based on what you have found. </li></ul><ul><li>(Green, Johnson, & Adams, 2006) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Critically Analyzing the Literature <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the author’s description of the study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>related to your area of interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conclusions relevant? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statement of the Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>restate the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem stated clearly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>significance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis or Research Question(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly stated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to your area of interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit assumptions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to yours? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Critically Analyzing the Literature <ul><li>Delimitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How was the study narrowed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which considerations are relevant to your study? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key concepts & terms? </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Critically Analyzing the Literature <ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research design? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>population & sample? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measurement? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>procedures? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make sense? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what do they say about your area of interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented clearly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful interpretations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications discussed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestions or recommendations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits to practical application? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-state your new knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Organizing the Literature Search: the Tree Diagram subtopic Topic subtopic subtopic subtopic subtopic subtopic subtopic
    15. 15. Writing the Literature Review <ul><li>Always begin with an introduction to the review & end with a summary </li></ul><ul><li>Make the connection for the reader between the subtopics & the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Use direct quotations infrequently </li></ul><ul><li>Always cite your sources </li></ul><ul><li>Present your knowledge on the topics & subtopics </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize each subtopic </li></ul><ul><li>Include a transition paragraph from one subtopic to the next </li></ul>
    16. 16. Writing <ul><li>Use APA style & format </li></ul><ul><li>Have your work proofread before submitting </li></ul><ul><li>Follow all format guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Must be a thorough review, reflected by the depth of the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Should begin prior to the implementation of the study </li></ul>

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