BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGYPresented By:Hassan Razzaq BTN-B5-06M. Ahmad BTN-B5-12
Contents• Introduction• History• Technology Review• Applications• Advantages of Bluetooth Technology• Disadvantages of Bluetooth Technology• Conclusion
IntroductionBluetooth is a short-range and low power wireless technology originally developed for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs).• Short-range radio frequency technology that operates at 2.4 GHz on an Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band.• Effective range of Bluetooth devices is 10 meters.• It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to data cables.
Value proposition of Bluetooth Cordless headset mouse Cell Data accessphone point Internet access Cable replacement Ad hoc networking
History• The word "Bluetooth" is taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Bluetooth, he had been influential in uniting Scandinavian tribes into a single kingdom.• Bluetooth was named so because 1) Bluetooth technology was developed in Scandinavia. 2) Bluetooth technology is able to unite differing industries such as the cell phone, computing, and automotive markets.
Comparison with other Technologies• 802.11 802.11 has higher bit rate as compared to Bluetooth. But has higher power consumption. Basically a LAN Technology so not a competitor to Bluetooth.• IrDA (Infrared Data Association) IrDA is low cost but require line of sight and it is only point to point technology.• Home RF Home RF is competing technology but Bluetooth has better position in market.
Technology Review• Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency –hoping spread spectrum.• Supports data rate of 1 Mbps.• The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG).
Classes Of BluetoothBluetooth devices are classified according tothree different power classes, as shown in thefollowing table.
PiconetsTwo or more Bluetooth units sharing the same channel.• One device acts as a master and the devices connected to it act as slaves.• Slaves can not directly send data to each other.• In effect, the master acts as a switch for the piconet and all traffic must pass through the master.• There can be up to 7 active slaves in a piconet but only one master.
ScatternetsA set of two or more interconnected Piconets is called Scatternets.• A Bluetooth unit can be a slave in two or more piconets, but it can be a master in only one.• Devices that participate in two or more piconets may act as “gateways.”• Bluetooth units can only transmit and receive data in one piconet at a time.• Piconets may be identified by the masters identity and clock.• Devices give notification of inactivation to master before becoming inactive in its piconet for a finite length of time.
Setting up Connection• Any Bluetooth device will transmit the following sets of information on demand:• Device name.• Device class.• List of services.• Technical information, for example, device features, manufacturer, Bluetooth specification, clock offset.
• Any device may perform an inquiry to find other devices to which to connect, and any device can be configured to respond to such inquiries. However, if the device trying to connect knows the address of the device, it always responds to direct connection requests and transmits the information shown in the list above if requested. Use of device services may require pairing or acceptance by its owner, but the connection itself can be started by any device and held until it goes out of range.• Every device has a unique 48-bit address. However these addresses are generally not shown in inquiries. Instead, friendly Bluetooth names are used, which can be set by the user. This name appears when another user scans for devices and in lists of paired devices.
Pairing• Pairs of devices may establish a trusted relationship by learning a shared secret known as a passkey . A device that wants to communicate only with a trusted device can cryptographically authenticate the identity of the other device. Trusted devices may also encrypt the data that they exchange over the air so that no one can listen in. The encryption can, however, be turned off, and passkeys are stored on the device file system, not on the Bluetooth chip itself. Since the Bluetooth address is permanent, a pairing is preserved, even if the Bluetooth name is changed. Pairs can be deleted at any time by either device.
Frequency –Hoping Spread Spectrum• The protocol operates in the license-free ISM band at 2.4-2.4835 GHz. To avoid interfering with other protocols that use the 2.45 GHz band, the Bluetooth protocol divides the band into 79 channels (each 1 MHz wide) and changes channels up to 1600 times per second. Implementations with versions 1.1 and 1.2 reach speeds of 723.1 Kbit/s. Version 2.0 implementations feature Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) and reach 2.1 Mbit/s.
Bluetooth Protocol Stack• LMP The Link Management Protocol (LMP) is used for set-up and control of the radio link between two devices.• L2CAP The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Used to multiplex multiple logical connections between two devices using different higher level protocols.• SDP The Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) allows a device to discover services offered by other devices, and their associated parameters.
Applications• Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands-free headset or car kit. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular.• Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required.• Wireless communications with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard and printer.• Transfer of contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders between mobile phones with Computers.• Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers, medical equipment, bar code scanners, and traffic control devices.
Advantages• Bluetooth is used widely across countries and almost by everyone.• It has simple features.• It is free of charge and not added to our budget.• It allow us to stay cord free.• It has the ability to keep our information private.• Bluetooth isnt requires a line of sight.• It provides ranges of up to 100 meters.
Disadvantages• More battery power when Bluetooth is enable on the phone all day.• Throughout all device, when using Bluetooth internet, the connection sometimes may run very slow so Bluetooth internet is not highly suggested for all cases.• The only real downside s are the data rate and security. Infrared can have data rates of up to 4 M Bps, which provides very fast rates for data transfer, while Bluetooth only offers 1 M Bps
Conclusion• Bluetooth is a short range radio link wireless technology used to connect various device by a invisible link getting rid of wires.• Last but not the least, WHENEVER THINK OF WIRELESS,”THINK BLUETOOTH”, this is the best way of communication.