Material Handling• Material handling is the function ofmoving the right material to the rightplace in the right time, in the rightamount, in sequence, and in the rightcondition to minimize productioncost.– The cost of MH estimates 20-25 of totalmanufacturing labor cost in the UnitedStates [The Material Handling Industry of America (MHIA)]
Material Handling• According to American society of materialengineers“Material handling is an art & scienceinvolving the moving, packing & storing ofsubstances in any form.”• It involves movement of material mechanically& manually in batches or one by one within theplant.
The most successful brands in the world usesmaterial handling and logistic solutions to gaincompetitive edgeToyotaWal-MartDisneyCoca ColaNASAJohn DeereMitsubishiPepsi-Cola
Goals of Material Handling• The primary goal is to reduce unitcosts of production• Maintain or improve product quality, reducedamage of materials• Promote safety and improve working conditions• Promote productivity– material should flow in a straight line– use gravity! It is free power– move more material at one time– mechanize material handling– automate material handling
Overview of Material HandlingEquipment• Material handling equipment includes:– Transport Equipment: industrial trucks,Automated Guided vehicles (AGVs), monorails,conveyors, cranes and hoists.– Storage Systems: bulk storage, rack systems,shelving and bins, drawer storage, automatedstorage systems.– Unitizing Equipment: palletizers– Identification and Tracking systems
I. Cranes and hoists:-• Over head bridge cranes
20 Principles of Material Handling1.The Planning Principle– Large-scale material handling projects usuallyrequire a team approach.– Material handling planning considers everymove, every storage need, and any delay inorder to minimize production costs.– The plan should reflect the strategic objectivesof the organization as well as the moreimmediate needs.
2.The systems principle: MH and storage activitiesshould be fully integrated to form a coordinated, operationalsystem that spans receiving, inspection, storage,production, assembly, …, shipping, and the handling ofreturns.– Information flow and physical material flowshould be integrated and treated as concurrentactivities.– Methods should be provided for easilyidentifying materials and products, fordetermining their location and status withinfacilities and within the supply chain.
3. Simplification principle– simplify handling by reducing, eliminating, orcombining unnecessary movement and/orequipment.– Four questions to ask to simplify any job:• Can this job be eliminated?• If we can’t eliminate, can we combine movements toreduce cost? (unit load concept)• If we can’t eliminate or combine, can we rearrange theoperations to reduce the travel distance?• If we can’t do any of the above, can we simplify?
4. Gravity principle– Utilize gravity to move material wheneverpractical.5.Space utilization principle– The better we use our building cube, theless space we need to buy or rent.– Racks, mezzanines, and overheadconveyors are a few examples thatpromote this goal.
6.Unit load principle– Unit loads should be appropriately sizedand configured at each stage of the supplychain.– The most common unit load is the pallet• cardboard pallets• plastic pallets• wooden pallets• steel skids
8.Automation principle– MH operations should be mechanizedand/or automated where feasible toimprove operational efficiency, increaseresponsiveness, improve consistency andpredictability, decrease operating costs.– ASRS is a perfect example.
10. Equipment selection principle– Why? What? Where? When? How? Who?– If we answer these questions about eachmove, the solution will become evident.11. The standardization principle– standardize handling methods as well as typesand sizes of handling equipment– too many sizes and brands of equipment resultsin higher operational cost.– A fewer sizes of carton will simplify the storage.
12. The dead weight principle– Try to reduce the ratio of equipment weight toproduct weight. Don’t buy equipment that isbigger than necessary.– Reduce tare weight and save money.13. The maintenance principle– Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduledrepairs of all handling equipment.– Pallets and storage facilities need repair too.14. The capacity principle– use handling equipment to help achieve desiredproduction capacity– i.e. material handling equipment can help tomaximize production equipment utilization.