The systems involved in change are
Autonomic Nervous System
Glandular System especially adrenal
Most of the physiological change
that take place during emotional
arousal result from activation of
the sympathetic division of the
autonomic system, as it prepares
the body for emergency action.
In normal life, when we experience an intense
emotion, such as fear or anger, we become
aware of many bodily changes which include
rapid heartbeat and breathing,
dryness of the throat and mouth
, increased muscle tension, respiration,
trembling of the extremities and a sinking
feeling in the stomach.
Responsible for most of the physiological changes
ANS is the part of the peripheral nervous
system that carries information between the brain and
all organs of the body.
The ANS affects all of the organs such as
the heart and blood vessels , the
digestive system and so on.
The autonomic nervous system
coordinates their functioning to meet the needs of the
whole organism .
it prepares the body for changes by
modulating the activity of the organism.
Automatic nervous system has two division
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
prepares the organism for vigorous activity
The sympathetic system is responsible for the following changes
Blood pressure and heart rate increase.
Respiration becomes more rapid.
The pupils dilate.
Perspiration increases while secretion of saliva and
Blood sugar level increases to provide more energy.
In case of wound the blood clots more quickly.
Blood is diverted from the stomach and intestines to the
brain and skeletal muscles.
The hair on the skin becomes erect, causing "goose
These reactions are called ‘’fight or flight’’ syndrome because
they prepare the body to combat or run from a threatening
The parasympathetic system which is actually
energy conserving system, takes over and
returns the organism to its normal state.
For example ,during anger , sympathetic
nervous system increases the heart rate and the
parasympathetic nervous system causes tears
to flow in grief
In both the parasympathetic and sympathetic
systems, there is relay station called a ganglion
between the central nervous system and target
also part of sympathetic nervous system
adrenal gland has two parts
both of which participate in emotional responses
display of emotional reactions
It consists of
amygdala is involved In emotional awareness
;it is also produces reaction of aggression when
Septum has the opposite effect. It reduces the
intensity of emotional reactions when stimulated
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