Types of sentences

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Types of sentences

  1. 1. TYPES OFSENTENCESBy Haslinda Midy
  2. 2. Sentences are categorized in two ways:• By structure1. Simple2.Compound3.complex• By purpose1. Declarative2.Interrogative3.Imperative4.Exclamatory
  3. 3. Types of Sentences byStructure
  4. 4. Simple Sentence• A simple sentence, also called an independentclause, contains a subject and a verb, and itexpresses a complete thought. For examples:Haslinda2013A. Some students like to study in the mornings.B. John and Ali play football every evening.C. Alice goes to the library and studies every day.* The underlined words are subjects while the redwords are verbs.~ The three examples above are all simple sentences.Note that sentence B contains a compound subject, andsentence C contains a compound verb. Simplesentences, therefore, contain a subject and verb andexpress a complete thought, but they can also contain acompound subjects or verbs.
  5. 5. Compound Sentence• A compound sentence contains two independent clausesjoined by a coordinator. The coordinators are asfollows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so [FANBOYS]. Exceptfor very short sentences, coordinators are always precededby a comma. For examples:Haslinda2013A. My father speaks English but my mother speaks Malay.B. Alex was sick, so his mother brought him to a clinic.C. Aman played football, for Mariam went shopping.* The underlined words are subjects while the red wordsare verbs while the coordinators and commas are ingreen.~ The above three sentences are compound sentences.Each sentence contains two independent clauses, andthey are joined by a coordinator with a comma precedingit.
  6. 6. Complex Sentence• A complex sentence has an independent clause joinedby one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentencealways has a subordinator such as, because, since,after, although, or when or a relative pronoun suchas that, who, or which. For examples:Haslinda2013A. When Aziz handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher thelast page.B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.D. After they finished studying, John and Maria went to the movies.E. John and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.* The underlined words are subjects while the red words areverbs and the coordinators and commas are in green.~ When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator , acomma is required at the end of the dependent clause.When the independent clause begins the sentence withsubordinators in the middle, no comma is required.
  7. 7. Consider the following examples of simple,compound and complex sentencesSimple ~ My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.Compound ~ My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.Complex ~ Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.Haslinda2013In the first example, there are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited meto a party" and "I do not want to go." The second example joins them together into asingle sentence with the co-ordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could stillstand as independent sentences -- they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tellwhich is most important. In the third example, however, the sentence has changedquite a bit: the first clause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has becomeincomplete, or a dependent clause.A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or acompound sentence because it makes clear which ideas are mostimportant. When you write ‘My friend invited me to a party. I do not wantto go.’ or even‘My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.’, the reader willhave trouble knowing which piece of information is most important toyou. When you write the subordinating conjunction "although" at thebeginning of the first clause, however, you make it clear that the fact thatyour friend invited you is less important than, or subordinate, to the factthat you do not want to go.
  8. 8. 1: The teacher walked into the classroom, greeted the students, and took attendance.SimpleCompoundComplex2: Juan played football while Juanita went shopping.SimpleCompoundComplex3: Juan played football, yet Juanita went shopping.SimpleCompoundComplex4: Although Mexico has the better football team, it lost.SimpleCompoundComplex5: The island was filled with many winding trails, a small lake, and dangerous wild pigs.SimpleCompoundComplexNow, state the type of sentences below.Haslinda2013
  9. 9. Helen Keller1: Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, in 1880 and died in 1968.SimpleCompoundComplex2: Until she was 19 months of age, her sight and hearing were normal.SimpleCompoundComplex3: At the age of 19 months, a severe illness left her deaf and blind.SimpleCompoundComplex4: When she was seven, she began her education in reading and writing with AnneSullivan of the Perkins Institute for the Blind.SimpleCompoundComplex5: Through persistence and stubbornness, Anne breaks through Helens walls of silenceand darkness and teaches her to communicate.SimpleCompoundComplexHaslinda2013
  10. 10. 1: The Americanization of Shadrach Cohen is a short story about values by BrunoLessing.SimpleCompoundComplex2: Shadrach Cohen had two sons, Abel and Gottlieb.SimpleCompoundComplex3: When Abel and Gottlieb moved to New York, they opened their own business in theirfathers name.SimpleCompoundComplex4: The business was successful, so Abel and Gottlieb told their father to join them inNew York City.SimpleCompoundComplex5: When Shadrach came, he brought Marta, the family maidservant.SimpleCompoundComplexHaslinda2013
  11. 11. Types of Sentences by Purpose
  12. 12. Declarative Sentence• Declarative sentences in the English languageare the sentences that form a statement. Forexamples:Haslinda2013A. Tomorrow I will go to the store.B. Yesterday I left school early.C. I told her to wear the blue skirt.D. She did not want to eat the pizza that I gave her.E. We walked to the mall together.~ Used to make a simple statement. Most sentences aredeclarative.
  13. 13. Interrogative Sentence• Interrogative sentences in the English languageare the sentences that form a question. Forexamples:Haslinda2013A. What do you think I should wear the pink shoes or thewhite sneakers?B. What did the teacher say to you yesterday?C. Did you go to the movies yesterday?~ Used to ask a question. See also Rhetorical Question.
  14. 14. Imperative Sentence• Imperative sentences in the English languageare the sentences that make a command orrequest. For examples:Haslinda2013A. Get me some water.B. Leave that cat alone.C. Go to the store for me.D. Bring me some ice.~ Used for commands, with the pronoun you alwaysimplied.
  15. 15. Exclamatory Sentence• Exclamatory sentences in the English languageare the sentences that attempt to powerfulfeelings, or emotions. For examples:Haslinda2013A. Im leaving!B. I cannot wait to graduate!C. I love you so much!D. We beat that other team good!E. I cant believe how tall giraffes really are!F. I cant believe this, I am so upset!~ An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamationpoint.
  16. 16.  1. Many people visit Harvest festival at Penampang in May.a. Declarativeb. Interrogativec. Imperatived. Exclamatory 2.  Tomorrow is my birthday !      a. Declarativeb. Interrogativec. Imperatived. Exclamatory3.   Have you ever visited Niagara Falls ?a. Declarativeb. Interrogativec. Imperatived. Exclamatory5.   What would you like for dinner ?a. Declarativeb. Interrogativec. Imperatived. Exclamatory4.   Close the door .a. Declarativeb. Interrogativec. Imperatived. ExclamatoryNow, state the type of sentences below.Haslinda2013
  17. 17. ____ Have you read this newspaper article?____ We are late for the meeting.____ Stop that right now!____ Remember to watch your step as you leave theroom.____ Are the packages here yet?____ Professor Franklin said that the situation wouldimprove.____ Leave those old plates in the closet.____ That dessert was awesome!____ Painting is a relaxing hobby.____ These are the best seats in the stadium!Each of these sentences is either a declarative (DEC), an interrogative(INT), an exclamatory (EXC), or an imperative (IMP) one. Write theappropriate three-letter combination next to its corresponding type ofsentence.Haslinda2013
  18. 18. Four Types of SentencesDirections: Identify each type of sentence and explain your answer.1. The students wanted to go on a field trip.Type: ________________________Why? _______________________________________________2. Can we go to the Adventure Theme Park?Type: ________________________Why? _______________________________________________3. Be on your best behavior for the next two weeks.Type: ________________________Why? _______________________________________________4. After a couple long weeks of keeping their hands to themselves, quietlyfocusing on instruction, and cleaning up their messes, the students wererewarded with a fieldtrip.Type: ________________________Why? _______________________________________________5. We are so excited about going to Adventure!Type: ________________________Why? _______________________________________________Haslinda2013
  19. 19. Study Smart

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