Assignment on morphology
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Assignment on morphology Assignment on morphology Document Transcript

  • TASK All languages are similar or different in one way or another. By using the knowledge that you gained from the course, compare your native language with the English language in terms of morphology, syntax and semantics.(a) Study the morphological system of your language and compare it with the inflectional and derivational morphemes in English. Describe and discuss how they are similar or different. ( 10 marks)(b) Analyse how compound sentences are formed in your language. Discuss how it is similar or different to the formation of English compound sentences. ( 10 marks )(c) Choose TWO metaphors that exist in your language and discuss how English expressthe same or similar metaphors. ( 10 marks )(d) Discuss how the similarities and differences that you have discussed above would affect the learning of English by a native speaker of your language. ( 5 marks ) 1
  • 1. INTRODUCTIONIn this task, I am going compare my native language, which is the Kadazan language ofPenampang, with the English language in terms of morphology, syntax and semantics. Then themorphological system of the Kadazan language will be compared with the inflectional andderivational morphemes in English. The Kadazan language and the English language will bediscussed according to similarities and differences to the formation of compound sentences.Metaphors that exist in the Kadazan language will also be discussed and how these metaphorsare expressed in English language. Finally discussion on how the similarities and differences ofthe discussed above will affect the learning of English by a Kadazan speaker.2. DEFINITIONMorphology is the study of meaning in individual units of language. We can also say that themorphology is the study of the structure and content of word forms. In other words, it is theidentification, analysis and description of the structure of words. It refers to the grammar ofwords and how they are formed. It is an important aspect of grammar (along with syntax). Itpresents articles that contribute to the further articulation of morphological theory and linguistictheory in general, as well as provide new and unexplored data. Morphology is also features in-depth analyses of specific languages and comparative, cross-linguistic analyses of the relevantfacts, which give relevant empirical evidence for all theoretical claims made in the journal.(Fromkin & Rodman, 1998) Syntax is the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.Syntax is about how words are sequenced to convey meaning. In other words, syntax is the studyof the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to formgrammatical sentences. It is the technical term for sentence structures. Webster Dictionary( defines syntax as the arrangement of and relationshipsamong words, phrases, and clauses forming sentences. It is the study of the rules, or ‘patternedrelations’ that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. Each spoken language hasa general set of rules for how words and sentences should be structured. 2
  • Semantic is the study of language. It is the study of how we infuse our language withmeaning or how we decipher the meaning in language and how we represent those meanings. Insemantics, we study the linguistic development by classifying and examining changes inmeaning and form. In other words, semantics is scientifically or philosophical study of therelations of words and their meanings. In Linguistics, semantics is the study of relationshipsbetween signs and symbols and what they represent. Morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning. In spoken language,morpheme is composed of phonemes, which is the smallest linguistically distinctive units ofsound, and in written language morpheme is composed of graphemes, which are the smallestunits of written language. In other words, morpheme is the smallest indivisible units of alanguage that retain meaning or the smallest part of a word that can exist alone or which canchange a word’s meaning or function, for example ‘un-’, ‘happy’, ‘-ness’. Morpheme can eitherbe a prefix or a suffix (called bound morphemes), and they must be attached to anothermorpheme to create a word. Morphemes that can exist alone as a complete word is called freemorphemes, for example ‘happy’. (Glossary of Linguistic terms, Steve Campsall, 2009) Metaphor is a figure of speech concisely expressed by comparing two things, saying thatone is the other. In other words, metaphor is a figure of speech in which words or phrases whichare not literally applicable are used in place of another to suggest analogy. Metaphor can also bethe comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in oneimportant way. It is a way to describe something. The word ‘metaphor’ itself is a metaphor,coming from a Greek word meaning ‘transfer’ or ‘carry across’. Metaphors ‘carry’ meaningfrom one word, image, or idea to another. Some metaphors are so common that we may not evennotice that they are metaphors, for example in slogans like ‘Life is a journey. Enjoy the Ride.’(Nissan)’ ( 3 View slide
  • 3. Task (a): Study the morphological system of your language and compare it with the inflectional and derivational morphemes in English. Describe and discuss how they are similar or different.3.1 INTRODUCTIONMorphology is divided into two domains: inflectional morphology and derivational morphology.Inflectional morphology studies the ways words vary in their form in order to express agrammatical contrast, for example, as in the case of houses, where the ending marks plurality.Inflectional morphology deals with the inflectional forms of various lexemes. It has something ofthe character of an appendix to the syntax, which tells us when a lexeme may or must carry acertain inflectional property whilst inflectional morphology tells us what form it takes when itcarries that inflectional property. Other examples are that they are singular or plural (tablebecomes tables) and to indicate tense (change becomes changes / changed / changing) orpossession (the cat’s whiskers). Derivational morphology studies the way in which new items of vocabulary can be builtup out of combinations of elements, for example, in-describ-able. It describes the processes bywhich new lexical bases are formed and the structure of complex lexical bases, those composedof more than one morphological element. The traditional term is simply word-formation.(Huddleston & Pullum, 2002) In the case of the Kadazan language, the morphological system is the same as that ofEnglish language. Some examples of inflectional morphemes and derivational morphemes inboth the English and Kadazan languages are shown below. 4 View slide
  • 3.2 INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES(a) SIMILARITIES(i) Verbs ENGLISH INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES wait-s Third person singular present She waits at home. wait-ed Past tense She waited at home. wait-ing Progressive She is waiting at home. KADAZAN INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES m-indad Third person singular present Mindad isido doiho daamin. min-indad Past tense Minindad isido doiho daamin. poing-indad Progressive Poingindad isido doiho daamin.The above examples of both languages have the same verb meaning that is ‘wait’ (English) and‘indad’ (Kadazan). The ‘s’, ‘ed’ and ‘ing’ are suffixes while the ‘m’, ‘min’ and ‘poing’ areprefixes. However, all the words still refer to the same meaning.(ii) NounsSome examples of inflectional morphemes of English language singular Bird Tombohog plural Birds Tombohog-tombohogIn English, an ‘s’ is added to show that the word ‘birds’ is plural but in Kadazan, the word isrepeated, showing that there are many birds.(iii) Comparisons of Adjectives 5
  • Big Bigger Biggest Agazo Agagazo TagazoThe first column is the root word. In the second column ‘er’ and ‘ag’ are added to the root wordswhile in the third column, ‘est’ and ‘t’ are added to the root words.(b) DIFFERENCESIn my native language, which is the Kadazan language, the morpheme differs from the Englishmorphemes in terms of length, prefix and suffix of the word formation as shown below. Agagazo and ‘bigger’ Length Poingindad and ‘waiting’ Tombohog and ‘bird’The words agagazo, poingindad and tombohog are formed longer compare to the words ‘bigger’,‘waiting’ and ‘bird’ which short in length. Agagazo and ‘bigger’ Prefix and suffix Poingindad and ‘waiting’The inflectional morphemes for the Kadazan language start with prefixes while the Englishmorphemes end with suffixes. In the above examples, prefixes and suffixes are used but themeaning of the verbs or nouns are not changed. These prefix and suffix are bound morphemesand they cannot occur unattached.3.3 DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY(a) SIMILARITIES ENGLISH DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMESPaint (verb) – an action of putting colours Painter (noun) – a person who paints 6
  • Dress (noun) – a garment for a woman or girl Dressing (verb) – an action of putting clothesHope (noun) – desire for something to happen Hopeless (adjective) – most unlikely to improve or success KADAZAN DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMESmanaat (verb) – an action of putting colours tukang saat(noun) – a person who paints Mamakai gaung (verb) – an action of puttinggaung (noun) – a garment for a woman or girl clotheshalapan (noun) – desire for something to Aiso halapan (adjective) – most unlikely to happen improve or successThe above examples of derivational morphemes have different meaning in both English andKadazan language. The verb ‘paint’ becomes a noun ‘painter’ and so do manaat (paint) becomesa noun which is tukang saat (painter). The similarity here is that both English and Kadazanlanguages change in meaning when derivational morphemes are added to the root words.(b) DIFFERENCESI found out that the length and word formations in both languages differ between English andKadazan. The Kadazan morphemes use two words, for example tukang saat, mamakai gaungand aiso halapan, whereby the words before derivational morphemes are added, only one wordis used as in manaat, gaung and halapan.CONCLUSIONThe inflectional morphemes and derivational morphemes have similarities and differences. Butin most cases in the Kadazan language, prefixes are commonly used compare to the Englishlanguage where suffixes are often used. However the meaning of the words when inflectionalmorphemes are used is not changed. As for derivational morphemes, when prefixes and suffixesare added to the base morphemes, the meanings of the words change. 7
  • 4. Task (b): Analyse how compound sentences are formed in your language. Discuss how it is similar or different to the formation of English compound sentences.Basically, a compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. Theformation of compound sentences both in English and in Kadazan languages has similarities anddifferences as will be discussed.4.1 SIMILARITIESIn English language, a compound sentence contains at least two independent clauses joined by acoordinator. The clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction, a correlative conjunction, or asemicolon that functions as a conjunction. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, but, or, yet,so. Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. 1. The lightning flashed and the rain fell. 2. Mary tried the noodles, for her sister tried the syrup. 3. He played tennis, so she went jogging.The above three sentences are compound sentences. Each sentence contains two independentclauses, and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. Note how theconscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. Sentences 2 and3, for example, are identical except for the coordinators. 8
  • In Kadazan language, the formation of the compound sentence is also similar to that ofEnglish language. It has two independent clauses that are related to each other and joined by aconjunction. For the Kadazan language, the conjunctions are like om (and), toiko (or) and nga(but) as shown in the examples. 1. Minongoi hud pasal om minomohi do sada zi Ati di koniab. 2. Minglawa no toihaan di Rowena nga au kozo songkuo pandai moboos. 3. Toombo kaanangan nu, iho topuak toiko tohisou?.4.2 DIFFERENCESIn English, the formation of the compound sentences start with subject and followed by verb andpredicate, as shown in the examples below. a) The lightning flashed and the rain fell. b) He played tennis, so she went jogging.The above compound sentences (a) and (b) start with the subject ‘The lightning’ and ‘He’, whilst‘flashed’ and ‘played’ are verbs and ‘the rain fell’ and ‘so she went jogging’ are predicates. In contrast, the formation of compound sentence for the Kadazan language is the otherway round, whereby the formation starts with the predicate, followed by the subject andsometimes starts with a verb as shown in the examples below. a) Minongoi hud pasal om minomohi do sada zi Ati di koniab. b) Minglawa no toihaan di Rowena nga au kozo songkuo pandai moboos.Minongoi (went) and Minglawa (make over) are verbs. The subjects Ati and Rowena are put afterthe verbs. For summation, the formation of sentences in the Kadazan language is different from thatof English compound sentence in terms of morphology, syntax and semantics. 9
  • 5. Task (c): Choose TWO metaphors that exist in your language and discuss how English expresses the same or similar metaphors.In this task, I am going to discuss two metaphors of the Kadazan language and how Englishexpresses the same or similar metaphors. Basically, a metaphor is when we compare things andsay they are virtually the same. The metaphor is similar to the simile, but does not say that onething is like another thing or other thing. A metaphor is defined as a figure of speech, orsomething that we use to replace ‘normal’ words in order to help others understand or enjoy ourmessages. For examples, we use the phrase ‘the green carpet’ to describe the grass that covers theground evenly, as if the ‘grass’ is the ‘carpet’. Sometimes the breaking of semantic rules can beused to convey a particular idea. ‘Walls have ears’ is certainly ‘anomalous’ but we can interpretthe meaning as ‘you can be overheard even when you think nobody is listening’. Other examplesare as follows: i) John is a snake in the grass.The above sentence can be interpreted literally to refer to a pet snake on the lawn named John. ii. Time is money.It is necessary to know that in our society we are often paid according to the number of hours ordays worked. 10
  • As for the Kadazan language, some examples are as follows:- i. Aavi ginavo nu mogindusuk poimbuhai nopo tuhu nu.The above sentence is a metaphor as a whole as Aavi ginavo nu mogindusuk means ‘you tried sohard to hide’ but poimbuhai nopo tuhu nu means ‘your head is always seen’. The metaphorsimplies to the dagger and its case or cover. No matter how we hide the dagger, the dagger’s headcan always be seen as the ‘head’ does not go into the its case. ii. Tumohop tanak sina igitan tampuk-ampuk.The above sentence is also a metaphor. Tumohop tanak sina means ‘When the Chinese childdives’ and igitan tampuk-ampuk means ‘get hold of the string’, and this refers to the net forcatching fish which have a string to hold with when we cast it to the water. As stated in the examples above and their descriptions, the appearances of metaphors inEnglish and Kadazan languages are obviously similar in terms of how they are going to beexpressed whereby the metaphors can help readers or listener to better understand somethingabout the object or idea and make speeches or writings more lively and interesting. All in all, no matter how the metaphors are shaped in beliefs and attitudes of a specificculture, the interpretation of the meanings is based on the cognitive equivalence, wheremetaphors must be looked at as cognitive constructs representing instances of how peopleconceptualize their experiences, attitudes and practices, and record them. 11
  • 6. Task (d): Discuss how the similarities and differences that you have discussed above would affect the learning of English by a native speaker of your language.After the discussion of tasks (a), (b) and (c), I found out that there are similarities and differencesbetween the English and my native language which is the Kadazan language and it really affectsthe learning of English. The similarities and differences are obviously influenced in terms ofmorphology, syntax and semantics. As mentioned earlier, morphology stresses on the study ofword formation, syntax as the technical term for sentence structure and semantic studies how weinfuse our language with meaning, how we decipher the meaning of the language and how themeaning is represented. Basically, the similarities and differences between the English and the Kadazanlanguages are influenced by the effect of direct translation, time consuming and stress. They arerelated to the inflectional and derivational morphemes of English and Kadazan languages, theformation of compound sentences and the expression of metaphors between the two languages.(a) SIMILARITIESIn the terms of similarities, the Kadazan speakers love to learn English because learning thelanguage will increase their knowledge of the language as their second language. By learning theEnglish language, they will think that they are more educated compare to those who do not learn,so this is some sort of motivation for the Kadazan speakers to be a good speaker among them.Through learning English and at the same time having great knowledge of the Kadazanlanguage, they can create or construct compound sentences as both languages have the sameformation which are joined by conjunctions as stated in task (b). Thus this will decrease the 12
  • mistakes when constructing any sentences. As time goes by, they will become independent afterlearning the English language, so time consumes for an individual to master the second language.(a) DIFFERENCESThe Kadazan language and the English language are not the same. The Kadazan people areconfused when learning English because they thought that English language is the same as theKadazan language so they directly translate whatever the Kadazan words to English wordswithout considering the sentence structure of each language uses. This is because they do notreally understand the term of syntax between the English and the Kadazan languages. Other thanthat, the Kadazan people are confused with used of some words in English which have only onemeaning word in Kadazan. For example, finally, lastly, and ultimately. The Kadazans find ithard to choose the suitable words to be used in the particular sentence. In terms of stress, theKadazan words are stressed lightly compare to English whereby the /t/ and the /p/ sounds arereally stressed. Thus, they believe that it is hard to learn English, so this affect their motivation inlearning the English language as their second language.7. CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, there are similarities and differences between the English and the Kadazanlanguages in terms of morphology, syntax and semantics. Some of the similarities anddifferences are mentioned in tasks (a) and (b) which involved the use of the inflectional andderivational morphemes as well as the formation of compound sentences in both languages.Metaphors expressions in both languages have the same style with the purpose of relating objectsor subjects with other matters in order to be more creative in speeches or writings. Nevertheless,the morphology, syntax and semantics do not affect the learning of English by any nativespeakers. It is the willing to learn that really affects the learning of the English language, so ifone wants to learn English, one should be motivated to be successful as ‘success is the key toexcellence’. 13
  • REFERENCESBahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (2008). Puralan Boros KadazanDusun Id Sikul. Putrajaya Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.David H. Deterding, Gloria R. Poedjosoedarmo (2001). The Grammar Of English Morphology and Syntax For English Teachers in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Pearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd.Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka (2005). Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Bahasa KadazanDusun Tahun 6. Kuala Lumpur: Dawama Sdn. Bhd.Dr David CL Lim, Dr Andrew Ng Hock Soon, Dr Carol E Leon, Assoc Prof Hazidi Abdul Hamid (2009). HBEL4403 Morphology, Syntax and Semantics. Selangor Darul Ehsan: Univision Press. Sdn. Bhd.Fromkin, V & Rodman, R. (1998). An Introduction to Language. Florida. Harcourt Brace College Publishers.Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge Univ. Presssemantics. (n.d.). The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Retrieved November 25, 2009, from website: 14
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