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ppt for recurrent training of airline pilots

ppt for recurrent training of airline pilots



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Itcpilots5 Itcpilots5 Presentation Transcript

  • Instructional Techniques I hear, I forget. I see, I remember. I do, I understand Confucius
  • Lao-Tse (also Lao-tzu) on Effective Learning
    • In the 5th-century BC, this philosopher wrote:
    • "If you tell me, I will listen .
    • If you show me, I will see.
    • But if you let me e xperience , I will learn."
  • Agenda
    • The Learning Process
    • The Training Process
    • Training Methods
    • The Human Behavior & Motivation
    • Impact of Stress on Instructor Performance
    • Effective Communication
    • The Instructor as a Critic
    • Instructional Aids
  • Education & Training
  • Goals of Training Learning to Improve Corporate Performance Learning
  • Definitions
    • Adult learning – a process through which learners become aware of significant experience.
    • Education – an activity undertaken by one or more teachers to change the knowledge and attitudes of individuals.
    • Learning – the acquisition of skills, knowledge and attitudes that change behavior.
    • Teaching – helping someone to learn.
    • Training:
      • To make proficient with specialized instruction and practice or
      • To provide the experiences so that learning can happen.
  • Rules of Learning
    • Stimulate Students
    • Recognize Individual Differences
    • Understanding and Repetition Aid Retention
    • Show It Like It Is
    • First and Last Impressions Are Retained
    • Tie-In Is Essential To Learning
    • “ Belongingness” and “Satisfiers” Aid Learning
    • Active Practice is Best
    • New Learning May Detract From Previous Learning
  • Rules of Learning
    • Showing Errors Can Aid Learning
    • Rewards Aid Learning
    • Recognition is Easier Than Recall
    • Much Is Forgotten Rapidly
    • Known Authorities Are Believed
    • Exact Repetition Effective
    • Fear Is Effective In Small Doses
    • Success Begets Further Success
    • Old and Strong Ideas Are Best Retained
  • Raising the Bar competence What we have KRA (Standards) time Competence development Knowledge assimilated What we need Training Observation & Supervision
  • Focus and ASK (KAS) K nowledge : Acquaintance with facts - Understanding of concepts S kills : - Ability to apply knowledge - Proficiency in solving problems A ttitude / - High self-esteem Abilities - Positive feelings - Superior performance
  • Knowledge
    • Conveying concepts, ideas, facts
    • Content – cognitive learning
    • Ability to demonstrate acquired knowledge, comprehend information, analyze concepts
    • Most common and easily measured
  • Skills
    • Change in ability to do something
    • Easier to identify and determine if met
    • Focus on being able to perform a task or procedure
    • Requires practice and feedback
    • Hard to measure impact
  • Attitudes
    • Used to change feelings, beliefs, values
    • To increase awareness of or sensitivity to certain issues or ideas
    • Most difficult to assess
    • Observed over time
  • ACTION! A S K Objectives always start with an action verb! Criticize Select Choose Assess Evaluate Analyze Decide Adjust Construct Measure Solve Record Demonstrate Develop Design Prove Prepare Compute Define Identify Relate Name Differentiate Explain List Describe Compare Cite
  • First Perspective: Teaching / Training
    • Motivation: Why people learn
    • Instruction: How people learn
    • Context: How the part fits the big picture
    • Explanation: Step by step, digestible small chunks
    • Practice: Demonstrate, practice with supervision, solo
    • Evaluate: Verify learning
  • Dominant Learning Style Learning
    • Visual
    • Auditory
    • Kinesthetic
  • Six Principles of Learning
    • R eadiness
    • E xercise
    • E ffect
    • P rimacy
    • I ntensity
    • R ecency
    • Law of Readiness:
      • A person learns best when
            • 1. He/She has the necessary background
      • 2. Appropriate attitude
      • 3. Is ready to learn.
    • No reason to learn = nothing learned.
    • Law of Exercise:
      • Those things most often repeated are best remembered.
      • It is the basis of practice and drill.
    • After training it right, let them practice .
    • Law of Effect: learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling, and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling.
    • What effect is your training having on learning?
    • Law of Primacy:
      • What is taught must be right the first time.
      • Primacy, the state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakable, impression.
    • Train right, right the first time!
    • Law of Intensity: A sharp, clear, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring one.
    • Make the experience real, applicable, lively, exciting and passionate.
    • Law of Recency: The things most recently learned are best remembered.
    • Reinforce prior learning through exercise.
    • Disuse : A person forgets things which are not used.
    • Interference : People forget a thing because a certain experience has overshadowed it, or the learning of similar things has interfered.
    • Repression : forgetting is due to the submersion of ideas into the unconscious mind. Individuals may unintentionally repress material that is unpleasant, or produces anxiety.
  • Ebbinghaus’ Curve of Forgetting
  • Learning-Esteem Cycle Feeling good about yourself Producing good results Leads to Leads to
  • Learning: Great Tips
    • Practice is more than repetition . Use it or lose it.
    • Cognitive tools are remarkable--but some are limited
      • Attention is a gateways to learning.
      • Working memory fills fast
    • Organization and elaboration support memory
    • Knowledge and beliefs play critical roles in learning
    • Learning is hard work: Strategic persistence pays
    • Knowledge is difficult to transfer
  • Left Brain – Right Brain Neural Pathways Interpretation Response
  • Senses Used in Learning
    • Vision 83%
    • Listening 11%
    • Smell 3 %
    • Touch 2 %
    • Taste 1%
  • All learning Comes From Perceptions
    • Can you see the pattern?
    • Is there a “trick” to seeing the pattern?
    • Can you “unsee” the pattern?
    • How is this like learning?
  • Perceptual Distortion Causes Errors “ A mistake is an event, the full benefit of which has not yet been turned to your advantage .” Edward Land, founder of Polaroid
    • What is my objective?
    • What do I know about the objective?
    • What do I not know about the objective?
    • Where can I find out info about the objective?
    • What material do I need to train?
    • What is my plan to train according to the objective?
    • Does my plan have training value?
    • When/how can I practice?
  • Training Methods
    • Lecture/Presentation Method
    • Demonstration Method
    • Practical Exercise
    • Experiential
    • Practice Method
    • Case Study Or Team Practice
    • Coach And Pupil
    • Independent
    • Plan
    • Prepare
    • Explain
    • Demonstrate/Apply
    • Review
    • Evaluate
    Elements of Training
  • The Active Learning Teacher A teacher is best When students barely know he exists Of a good teacher, who talks little When his work is done, his aim fulfilled They will say, “We did this ourselves.” --adapted from Lao Tzu
  • Effective Facilitation
    • Skillful delivery
    • Enthusiastic
    • Clear
    • Modulated voice
    • Eye contact
    • Appropriate gestures
  • The task of the instructor is not to take students from a state of ignorance to a state of knowledge, but from a state of ignorance to a more profound state of ignorance . If it was easy, anybody could do it
  • Instructor Personality Type ‘A’ persons may suffer from excessive stress
  • Chronic Distress and Health Disorders
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Hypertension
    • Eating disorders
    • Ulcers
    • Diabetes
    • Asthma
    • Depression
    • Migraine headaches Sleep disorders
    • Chronic fatigue
    • Possibly some cancers
    These may impair occupational performance including functions as an effective trainer
  • Ideas for Modifying a Type ‘ A ’ Personality Make a contract to slow down Limit multitasking behaviors Don’t smoke Cut down on caffeine Work on redirecting impatience and controlling hostility Plan fun, relaxing activities Choose a non-Type A role model to observe Simplify life Use time management strategies Listen to your body Establish strong, nurturing relationships
  • Diagnostic Tools “ I keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew); their names are What & Why ; When & Where; Who & How. Rudyard Kipling 'Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked why’ Bernard M. Baruch
  • Learning – Four Stages Unconscious Incompetence Conscious Incompetence Conscious Competence Unconscious Competence
  • Skill Development Process Unconscious Conscious Incompetent Competent 1 2 3 4
  • Unconscious Incompetent
    • Ignorance is bliss
    • Don’t know what I don’t know
    • Naïve, Foolish, Insensitive,
    • Self-Absorbed
    2 Skill Development Process
  • Conscious Incompetent Recognize problems Frustrating Desire change Experiment Minimal success 3 Skill Development Process
  • Conscious Competent Gain momentum Develop style Increased confidence Requires effort Requires adjustments 4 Skill Development Process
  • Unconscious Competent Natural Graceful Charisma Integrated Skill Development Process
  • Low Competence High Competence High Confidence False Competence Unusable Competence Incompetence Low Confidence Mastery Trainability and Risk
    • P urpose/ P lan
    • P repare
    • P ractice
    • P resent / Explain / Demonstrate / Apply
    • Review/Debrief
    • Evaluate
    Summary: Elements of Training P roper P lanning(Preparation) P revents P oor P erformance
  • “ Learning is not compulsory – neither is survival!” W Edward Deming Thank You