Salem witchcraft trials
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History of the Salem Witchcraft Trials to go with lesson plan found at http://hti.osu.edu/scientificrevolution/lesson_plans

History of the Salem Witchcraft Trials to go with lesson plan found at http://hti.osu.edu/scientificrevolution/lesson_plans

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Salem witchcraft trials Salem witchcraft trials Presentation Transcript

  • The Salem Witchcraft Trials 1792
  • What do you know of witches and logic? Here is one depiction
  • Salem (Danvers) Witchcraft Trials 1692
    • Background
      • Half-way covenant and congregational strife
      • Frontier wars, winter boredom, jealousy, property disputes, ergot, etc.
    • Over 400 accused (as young as 4)
      • 19 hanged, 1 pressed
  • The Beginning
    • Reverend Samuel Parris came to Salem Village in 1689
      • Elizabeth Parris (9) - Daughter
      • Abigail Williams (11) - Niece
      • Tituba- Housekeeper
        • Stories, fortune telling, hypnosis, Etc...
    • Small group grew larger including adult women
      • Betty Parris became strangely ill
        • Dove under furniture, contorted in pain, fever, loss of speech
  • Memorable Providences by Cotton Mather
    • Described a witchcraft case in Boston with similar symptoms
    • Other girls from Salem Village soon began displaying similar symptoms
    • Dr. William Griggs was consulted to diagnose the illnesses
      • Announced the girls may be "Under the evil hand"
  • Tituba attempted a cure
    • "Urine Cake" fed to a dog
      • She was caught be Rev. Parris and suspicions grew
    • The girls complained of:
      • Pinching and biting sensations
      • Fell down into frozen postures
      • Lost the ability to speak
    • After questioning the girls began naming their afflicters
  • You’re Accused!
  • The Examinations Begin- Not Trials
    • The afflicted girls put on a more polished and perfected performance
      • Magistrates- Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne
  • The Accused
    • Sarah Good denied involvement in witchcraft (Hanged)
      • Beggar and social outcast
      • Said Osborne may be responsible
      • Husband testified against her
      • She never mentioned God in examination
      • Later accusations including Dorcas Good (4)
    • Sarah Osborne denied involvement (Died in jail)
      • Old, quarrelsome, had not attended church in over a year
    • Tituba admitted "forced" association w/Devil
      • Said Good and Osborne were witches and others
      • Showed bruises where other witches hit her
  • Hysteria Spread
    • Court of Oyer and Terminer set up by Governor William Phips
      • Led by Judge William Stoughton
  •  
  • Cotton Mather wrote guidelines to aid magistrates
    • Encouraged spectral evidence
    • Touching test
      • If pain left the girls they were witches (familiars return with contact)
    • Physical examinations for witches marks where familiars sucked
  • Giles Corey was pressed to death for refusing to enter plea
  • Nathaniel Saltonstall resigned commission in disgust
    • Accusations by girls were ignored- due to standing?
    • Stoughton forced jury finding Rebecca Nurse not guilty to deliberate further
  • Letter of Thomas Brattle, F. R. S. October 8, 1692
    • First, as to the method which the Salem Justices do take in their examinations, it is truly this: A warrant being issued out to apprehend the persons that are charged and complained of by the afflicted children, (as they are called); said persons are brought before the Justices, (the afflicted being present.) The Justices ask the apprehended why they afflict those poor children; to which the apprehended answer, they do not afflict them. The Justices order the apprehended to look upon the said children, which accordingly they do; and at the time of that look, (I dare not say by that look, as the Salem Gentlemen do) the afflicted are cast into a fitt. The apprehended are then blinded, and ordered to touch the afflicted; and at that touch, tho' not by the touch, (as above) the afflicted ordinarily do come out of their fitts. The afflicted persons then declare and affirm, that the apprehended have afflicted them; upon which the apprehended persons, tho' of never so good repute, are forthwith committed to prison, on suspicion for witchcraft.
  • Conclusion
    • Tituba held in jail and released after hysteria ended
      • Said Parris beat her to testify against others
    • Increase Mather published Cases of Conscience against spectral evidence
    • Governor Phips ordered exclusion of touching test and spectral evidence
      • Acquittals began and Phips released the remaining accused
    • Reverend Parris forced to leave Salem Village in 1697
    • Many jury members and Judges apologized except Stoughton
      • Stoughton became the next Governor of Massachusetts
  • Nineteen accused witches were hanged on Gallows Hill in 1692:
    • June 10 Bridget Bishop July 19 Rebecca Nurse Sarah Good Susannah Martin Elizabeth Howe Sarah Wildes
    • August 19 George Burroughs Martha Carrier John Willard George Jacobs, Sr. John Proctor September 22 Martha Corey Mary Eastey Ann Pudeator Alice Parker Mary Parker Wilmott Redd Margaret Scott Samuel Wardwell
  • Cotton Mather 1663-1728 Wonders of the Invisible World , 1693
    • The New-Englanders are a people of God settled in those, which were once the Devil's territories ; and it may easily be supposed that the Devil was exceedingly disturbed, when he perceived such a people here accomplishing the promise of old made unto our blessed Jesus, That He should have the utmost parts of the earth for his possession.
  • Resource for Salem trials
    • http://salem.lib.virginia.edu/home.html