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The  Creation Of A  Historic  Monument  Artificial  Reef In  Protaras
 

The Creation Of A Historic Monument Artificial Reef In Protaras

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    The  Creation Of A  Historic  Monument  Artificial  Reef In  Protaras The Creation Of A Historic Monument Artificial Reef In Protaras Document Transcript

    • Control Copy 6.10- - Signature: The Creation of a Historic Monument & Artificial Reef in Protaras, Cyprus Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS-121 Trident 2E 5B-DAB "The right to fish carries with it the obligation to do so in a responsible manner so as to ensure effective conservation and management of the living aquatic resources." Stocks Agreement: Part VII Assistance Fund On 20 July 1974, two empty Cyprus Airways airliners (a Hawker-Siddeley HS121 Trident 1E (5B-DAE), and a Trident 2E (5B-DAB)) were destroyed on the ground by the Turkish Air Force during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIAL Prepared by I Dive Tec Rec Centers Plc Andy Varoshiotis PADI,SDI,DSAT,DAN Instructor For the Cyprus Dive Centre Association Proposal Addressed to: United Nations Mrs.Lisa M. Bettelheim Special Representative in Cyprus Cyprus Airways Public Company Ltd Minister of Agriculture & Natural Resources Department of Fisheries Minister of Commerce & Industry Minister of Finance Cyprus Tourism Organization Cyprus Chamber of Commerce Cyprus Hotels Association-PASIXE-STEK Paralimni Mayor Ayia Napa Mayor Famagusta Mayor GPS Position 35.161937, 33.273457
    • JUNE 2010 Section 1- Executive Summary The Artificial Reef Committee of the Cyprus Dive Centre Association1 is on a mission to create and maintain man-made dive sites that will promote both the local economy through dive tourism and the environmental benefits of using artificial dive sites to save damaging important historic or ecologically-sensitive sites. The word is out that the Protaras coast is one of the Island’s best scuba diving and holiday destinations in the Mediterranean Sea. Dozens of ships (many dating back to the 354 Bc) have gone down in the waters between Cape Greco and Famagusta Bay. Due to the "clear", waters, and natural protection from high winds and surge from the Apostolos Andreas Peninsula the Protaras area is offered as a year round location for local and foreign visitors. It has been estimated that the Protaras attracts in excess of 8000 scuba diving tourists, due to the number of hotels and resorts in the area. It is important to note that the Zenobia Wreck located in the Larnaca Bay attracts around 50,000 divers every year. The most popular reason to build a reef is to create new fishing sites, to enhance recreational diving or snorkeling and to increase reef resources, often to enhance tourism. Everyone from small artisanal fishing villages to five star resorts benefits when reefs are created or enhanced. The Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident, or DH.121, was a British short/medium-range three-engined airliner designed by de Havilland in the 1950s, and built by Hawker Siddeley Aviation2 in the 1960s, after the former became part of that group in 1960. Designed to a British European Airways (BEA) requirement, it sold in small numbers, with 117 produced. The Trident with a trijet is an aircraft powered by three jet engines. Early twin-jet designs were limited by the FAA's "60-minute rule", whereby the flight path of twin-engine jetliners was restricted to within 60 minutes' flying time from a suitable airport, in case of engine failure. In 1964 this rule was lifted for trijet designs, as they had a greater safety margin. This led to a flurry of trijet designs, which by 1980 had become the most popular airliner configuration. Generally, passenger airline trijets are considered to be second generation jet airliners, due to their innovative engine locations, in addition to the advancement of turbofan technology. The Hawker Siddeley Trident was a British built three- engine airliner which was designed to a British European Airways (BEA) specification. The original Trident 1 delivered to BEA improved 1C and 1E versions were then developed. The Trident Two was a longer range and stretched fuselage version. The Trident 3B another stretched version which also had a RB162 booster engine in the tail. Origin: United Kingdom First flight: 1962 Crew: 3 Passengers: 96 - 180 Power: 3 x Rolls Royce Spey (11000 - 14500 lbf) turbofan engines The Rolls Royce RB162-86 boost engine, unique to the Trident 3B, is mounted in a pod in the tail above the central engine. Dimensions: Length: 131 ft. 2 in. (Trident 3B) Performance: Max. speed: 582 mph (Trident Wing Span: 98 ft. 0 in. (Trident 3B) 3B) Height: 28 ft. 2 in. (Trident 3B) (Trident Cruise speed: 550 mph (Trident 3B) 3B) Max. Weight: 155,000 lbs. (Trident 3B) Ceiling: 36,000 ft. (Trident 3B) Normal range: 1,600 nm (Trident 3B) Max. range: 1,800 nm (Trident 3B) 1 http://www.dca-cy.com/ 2 Source:ww.airteamimages.com/data87811.html 2
    • Benefits – International Media Exposure Benefits of Aircraft deployment as an artificial reef are uncommon enough to catch the attention of the news media. Deployment of a passenger aircraft off Protaras for use as an artificial reef will receive massive coverage by local and international news agencies will draw national and international attention to the county's artificial reef program. The and result in estimated advertising benefits will exceed two million Euros, and create over four million personal "impressions" in the media during an 18 month period. Like sunken ships, aircraft, especially if intact, have a recreational diver novelty appeal greater than some other artificial structures. Little known aircraft wreck sites in northwest Florida have been prized fishing locations for recreational anglers for decades. Aluminium alloys, of the correct grade, may exhibit greater corrosion resistance than carbon steel of similar thickness. The corrosion rate will depend on the type of alloy, contact with dissimilar metals, paint coatings, water depth, temperature, exposure to water movement, and fouling organisms. Scuba diving, as a recreational sport and vacation activity, is growing in popularity. New equipment advances and safety innovations are making the sport both more accessible and desirable to a greater number of people, most notably the "Baby-Boomers" demographic segment who have both the disposable income and inclination to participate in adventure tourism. The need to extend the tourism period of the Famagusta Area is imperative. It has been determined that there is a tremendous opportunity for economic growth and job creation stemming from adventure tourism within the Famagusta Region. Surveys administered at trade and consumer shows indicated that the market potential for dive tourism stemming from, and particularly the United Kingdom and the Scandinavian Markets, is virtually untapped. As a response to the factors identified above, the Cyprus Diving Centre Association and many individuals within the scuba diving industry is proposing that an artificial reef be located within the Protaras area near the Liberty Wreck (Sunk May 22 2009) in the Kaparis area. The proposal is that the Cyprus Airways Trident Star II which was hit by the Turkish Air force during the Turkish invasion 3of the island in 1974 be delivered –handed over by the United Nations from the Nicosia Airport to its legal owners and to be scuttled as an Historic Artificial Reef. It will greatly enhance the region's appeal as a dive tourism destination and at the same time promote the Cyprus Problem World Wide since such an event will attract media coverage from all over the World. This proposal is based on the reality that, throughout the world, other organizations having undertaken similar projects have had nothing but excellent economic benefits as a result of increased visitation by scuba divers to those destinations. These regions have also been extremely successful in the relocation of scuba diving and charter boat traffic to the artificial reef, thereby decreasing the burden on existing beaches and moving divers away from the dangers of shipping lanes / channels. The potential for the dive market will be outlined in greater depth within this document. Testimonials and economic impact reports from other communities where warships have been sunk as artificial reefs, such as Nanaimo, British Columbia; Geography Bay, Australia; and San Diego, California indicate that the dive industries of those communities have blossomed past all original expectations, generating new international visitation by dive tourists and their families, new capital investments, new jobs and increased tax revenues for all levels of Government. Although it is exciting to merely be the first sinking of this kind in sea water, it is also important to note that the sinking of Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident, the 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_invasion_of_Cyprus 3
    • would be closely monitored by the scientific community and that it will serve as a pilot project for the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The Protaras artificial reef project will also be used to study the positive impact on fisheries in terms of creating new fish habitat. . From a publicity and marketing perspective, communities within the Famagusta Region could boast about a world-class product. Few destinations that promote themselves as dive tourism destinations have the wealth of heritage shipwrecks that can be found in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. These heritage wrecks in association with a historic airplane as an artificial reef, would truly allow Cyprus to be recognized as a world-class scuba diving destination. Market Potential: The 2010 Commercial and Financial Feasibility Study provides the following information. The estimated number of "active" divers in potential markets is as follows: Cyprus 12,000 Registered divers British Tourist Divers 20,000 A survey conducted in on the diving industry indicated that the main criteria (in order of importance) when choosing a dive destination are: safety; quality of sites; skilfulness of guides; hospitality; support services; cost; accommodation; and location/distance from sites. The survey also indicates that "great travelling distances often separate dive sites from their markets. However, when a site enjoys a good reputation, its popularity takes precedence over this drawback. As for shipwreck divers, it appears that the larger wrecks are the most popular." Another emerging trend is for scuba divers to bring their families along to a dive destination. These family members are not necessarily divers, but will partake in local attractions and other tourism offerings. Demographic Information: The scuba diving industry is traditionally male dominated, with 69% of all scuba divers being male and 31% female, and 77% of scuba divers falling between 18 and 55 years of age. According to PADI4 the number of certified divers worldwide is expanding year after year. Section 2 - Impact of Artificial Reefs 4 Source: http://www.padi.com/scuba/about-padi/PADI-statistics/default.aspx#Graph_1 4
    • Ecotourism has been the fastest growing tourism segment since the 1990s. Dive tourism, a component of ecotourism, provides both recreational enjoyment, a touch of adventure and opportunities for learning and environmental diversification. The 21st century saw a profusion of artificial reef projects and our neighbouring Malta a has been an innovator in the field with 29 new shipwreck in 2009 alone. On the other site of the Atlantic, the Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia (ARSBC) has successfully scuttled numerous ships and one Boeing 737 as artificial reefs. Four of these ships were destroyer escorts (HMCS Chaudiere, Georgia Strait, 1992; HMCS Mackenzie, Georgia Strait, 1995; HMCS Columbia, Campbell River, 1996; and HMCS Saskatchewan, Nanaimo, 1997). Stu Austin of Ocean Explorers Diving in Nanaimo estimates that “the dive tourism business in Nanaimo was up by about 50% in the year since the sinking of the former HMCS Saskatchewan in June, 1997." The ARSBC also sank the 400’ WWII Victory ship, the Cape Breton in 2001. http://www.artificialreef.bc.ca/ The Artificial Reef Society of Nova Scotia has also scuttled a naval destroyer escort, the HMCS Saguenay in 1994, which rests in Lunenburg Marine Park, Nova Scotia. Dive tourism in Nova Scotia was regarded as an economic development option when the fisheries industry declined, leading to high unemployment. The Geographe Bay Artificial Reef Society Inc. of Australia sank the HMCS SWAN, a destroyer escort, off Point Piquet, Dunsborough Western Australia as a dive wreck, artificial reef and tourist attraction. The Geographe Bay Australia group hoped to have 6,000 to 8,000 divers on the Swan in the first year. Figures at the end of the year "were just short of 10,000". Following the sinking of the artificial reef, HMCS Yukon, near Mission Beach, San Diego, California, 22,000 divers visited the ship within the first year. All of the above examples demonstrate that artificial reefs are valuable economic generators. They create revenue and jobs as well as environmental diversity. Main problems of Fisheries Sector & the Benefits of Artificial Reefs The main problems of the fisheries sector are: 1. Reduction of the fishing grounds of Cyprus, because of the Turkish occupation. 2. Overfishing of some demersal and pelagic species. 3. Reduction in the production of the fishing grounds of Cyprus, as well as of the international waters of the Mediterranean and particularly the fishing grounds of the Eastern Mediterranean. 4. Limited capacity of the fishing fleet, because of the age and the insufficient modern equipment of a large part of it. 5. Low educative level of fishermen and their insufficient professional training with new fishing and navigation methods. 6. Competition in the fishery by the amateur fishermen. 7. Absence of necessary installations/facilities for mooring and infrastructures essential for the hygienic unloading of fish catches. 8. Preference of consumers in certain species of fish and the difficulty to accept new species Economic Benefits: 5
    • The Famagusta Region currently has a well-developed tourism infrastructure, including a large number of beds, many restaurants, shopping amenities, outdoor recreational activities, museums and world class tourism attractions. The Famagusta Region also has Kilometres of accessible waterfront as well as a small marina and other waterside attractions. The waters in the Famagusta Region are clear and clean with no thermo-cline gradients and negligible current activity. The establishment of an artificial reef in the Famagusta Region will therefore act as a powerful attraction to these diving markets, in addition to the areas other assets. The Famagusta AR will attract an additional 10,000 recreational scuba diving parties in the first year following its sinking. A conservative estimated daily expenditure of Euro 140.00 per diving party (2 divers) for an average stay of two days translates into an additional Euro 2,800,000. Add in food, and incidentals and this number increases to Euro 8,000,000 in direct tourism revenues in the first year. In addition, the artificial reef could be used as a controlled facility for military, marine police and technical dive training. It should be noted that these estimates are considered conservative by the group because estimated numbers are based on data from other communities with existing reefs such as Larnaca with the Zenobia wreck. With the advent of the Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident as an artificial reef, the Famagusta Region would market its reputation as a premiere dive tourism destination, which will promote the development of additional dive and tourism operations. The influx of diving tourists will likely spur the development of diver- specialized accommodations, campgrounds and other infrastructure requirements such as dive shops and charter services which in turn will provide significant opportunities for entrepreneurs, job creation initiatives and increased municipal tax assessment. Other Project Benefits: Exhibits and equipment commemorating the service of Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident and her crew could be donated to local museums, thereby increasing their appeal as tourist attractions and keeping the memory of the events of 1974 alive. These museums could be packaged together with scuba diving on the artificial reef of Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident. It is also possible that a hyperbaric treatment chamber could be Operational at the Paralimni General Hospital to treat patients suffering from decompression illness or acute life- threatening and/or chronic conditions/diseases that are unresponsive to other forms of treatment. For example, recent studies indicate that collateral tissue damage after cancerous tumour radiation is minimized with pre/post hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Hyperbaric chambers can also be used as research tools to investigate various compression and decompression procedures, human behaviour in hyperbaric environments, equipment performance in hyperbaric environments, selection of diving personnel, and training of physicians and medical personnel in hyperbaric physiology. The appeal and excitement surrounding the scuttling of the Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident as an artificial reef will generate both national and international interest from the media and the general leisure travel market. It is extremely realistic that the National Geographic would follow and document the journey of the Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident, from the Nicosia UN controlled Airport to her final resting place in the Famagusta Bay which will therefore receive international recognition from the worldwide marketplace. As a result, this positive publicity and increased awareness will provide other political and economic spin-offs. Section 3 6
    • Site Selection - Site Specifications / Technical Suggestions: The aircraft's heaviest single structural component is the engine. With the engine removed, the remaining air frame is lighter than heavy gauge steel or concrete structures with similar surface area. Aircraft may require additional ballasting (concrete poured into the fuselage). Use of an external anchoring system would involve additional expense and necessitate periodic checking and maintenance, although this has been shown to be ineffective because of diver tampering. Aircraft are designed to fly. Leaving the wings on in their entirety could cause the aircraft to glide as they descend through the water column. Unless placed in a controlled manner by being lowered to the bottom by crane, aircraft deployed in deep water may have a tendency to be widely scattered on the bottom. This scenario may or may not meet the intended objective of the reef. Wings are often removed from aircraft for ease of transportation and for parts refitting and reuse if the general aircraft type is still in service (the military refer to an aircraft with engine, wings, and landing craft removed as a canoe or carcass) (Scott Mauro, personal communication). However, the complete and permanent removal of wings in their entirety from the aircraft may reduce habitat complexity, compromise structural integrity, reduce stability once the aircraft has been deployed, as well as render the material of lesser interest to divers. The dilemma is that wings, nose sections, and portions of the tail in some more modern military aircraft types have high carbon fibber content and might need to be considered for removal regardless. Only the central fuselage tube remains to function as an artificial reef. Where wings remain on aircraft, multiple through holes should be drilled in the wings to allow air to escape and water to enter. Degreaser should be used to flush out residual fuel and hydraulic fluid. Luminous dials should be removed, as they contain toxic materials. Fuel manifolds should be cleaned, and the aircraft should be completely steam-cleaned prior to deployment. The deeper the depth the plane is placed, and the more protected the environment from major storm events, the better the aircraft seems to fare over a period of decades. Additional concrete ballasting of the fuselage if no anchoring system is planned, is Recommended to improve the surface area/mass ratio. Areas where fish or other marine organisms can be trapped should be opened to water flow by cutting escape holes, removing or completely opening Plexiglas, canopies, etc. The airplane is 131 ft. 2 inches Length Wing Span: 98 ft. 0 inches and Height: 28 ft. 2 inches therefore the minimum reef depth should be 16 meters and maximum depth 18 meters. The ideal location would accommodate as much of the super structure as possible. As a result she must be sunk in water depths of no more than 18 Meters of water, thereby making the top of the reef accessible and appealing to all levels of scuba divers. The area must also be located as far as possible from the commercial shipping channel. In addition, an infrastructure must be taken into consideration to address parking and water / docking access. The ideal location will be identified by working with the department of fisheries of the Republic. Site Location: The actual site selection will be done in conjunction with the ministry of agriculture and the department of fisheries with final approval coming from all the above mentioned agencies. The group has identified a possible location, one which would allow the use of an existing extremely under utilized infrastructure, and build it as a National Historic and Marine Preservation Park. 7
    • The plane site will be very close to the Liberty Wreck 5which has already proven results as an artificial reef6 with lots of different marine life species and fish. The park and entry docks in Golden Coast and Ayia Triada should be upgraded to provide more that enough parking, washroom / change room facilities and canteen service. The park also should provide a boat launching ramp, but there would be the need to install docking that would not infringe upon the 2 beach locations. However, the park is large enough and the docks could be located at the east side of the park near the boat launch ramp and away from the beach areas. The use of this park as a staging area would also completely address the concerns of private citizens and the encroachment upon their land and privacy. It would also eliminate the need for funding to develop the required infrastructure. This would allow the municipality to turn an existing under utilized park facility into a vibrant, revenue generating park. The location that the group has discussed is located approx. 2 to 21/2 nautical miles east Golden Coast marina and 1 nautical mile from Ayia Triada fishing harbour. It is located just west of a mooring zone and is approx. 3/4 to 1 nautical mile from the commercial shipping lane. The location is located in an average of 25 meters of water per chart datum. The current at this location is approx. 0.5 to 1 knot and varies throughout the season, much like the present current situation is on the existing heritage wreck sites in the Cape Greco area. This location would address the concerns of relocating the dive and charter boat traffic away from the commercial shipping lane, still allow all levels of scuba diving and decrease the scuba diving traffic on the existing heritage shipwrecks in the area, while providing the added benefit of utilizing the existing infrastructure that is currently extremely under utilized at Protaras. Proposal for Access and Control after Sinking: 5 http://vimeo.com/8943512 6 http://www.i-dive.com.cy/index.php?lang=en&pageid=74 8
    • Placement of Mooring Blocks and Buoys to Facilitate Dive Boats A minimum of 10 private mooring buoys (according to Department of Merchant Shipping standards for aids to navigation) will be established over the vessel via 1 inch polypropylene line. A number of these mooring lines will be attached to solid footings from the vessel and the others will be moored to 5 ton concrete blocks set at appropriate distances from the vessel. Existing dive services and charter boat operations capable of providing diving services A charter fleet presently exists and has operated in the region for the past ten years. This charter fleet, comprised of several different owners, transports an annual average of 6000 divers to the numerous Locations that lie in the nearby waters between Konos Bay and the Famagusta border line. Fourteen scuba dive shops also presently exist which are capable of serving the divers’ compressed air and equipment requirements. With the advent of the artificial reef, it is expected that other diving operators will migrate to the region due to the increased number of diving parties (estimated to be an increase of 10,000 per year) visiting the artificial reef. Section 4 - Cyprus Diving Consultants Who is CDC The preparation and placement of artificial reefs in a marine environment is a challenging and complex undertaking. From the time of project inception, risk management of the process including the various and often competing interests of-not-for profit local proponents, consultants, clean up contractors and regulatory agencies have to be reconciled. It is for these reasons that we have decided to use the expertise of a group of renowned experts. . Turn Key Vessel Provided by CDC: The only viable option is to utilize CDC to provide the area with a "turn key" vessel. It is for these reasons that we have decided to recommend to form CDC enter into a contract with various sub contractors specializing in commercial diving operations for a "turn key" Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident artificial reef. CDC would be responsible for all cleanup of the craft- engine part remains removal, passenger room removal of all interior, fuel tank cleaning, superstructures preparation, hull preparation etc. The subcontractor is required to remove all wiring according to the European artificial reef directives, prior to transfer. CDC would confirm that this has been completed prior to taking possession. The plane would be cleaned to the defined standard of European Environment standards in order that it can be safely placed as an artificial reef, with minimal environmental impact and Consistent with regulatory and best practice guidelines. Third party inspection and regulatory agency inspections would ensure that all cleanups have been completed to the defined standard. 9
    • Source: http://www.pacificwebsites.com/diving/ All environmental cleanup work would be completed prior to the vessel arriving in the marine park. The only work to be done in the area would be to place and secure the wings on the structure, and removing hatches related to diver safety. CDC would ensure that the plane is safely fastened on trailers for transportation to the area. CDC and the local group would work with the traffic police to address any concerns for the safe transportation to the marine park, where a ship with a high capacity crane will be commissioned for the sinking. Source: http://www.pacificwebsites.com/diving/ . Source: http://www.pacificwebsites.com/diving/ 10
    • Sect ion 5 - Financial Information Financing: Financing for the project will be achieved through corporate sponsorships, UN grants, EU sponsorship, Cyprus Tourism Organization sponsorship in assistance of the provincial and municipal governments, as well as revenue generating initiatives such as licensing, sale of advertising and the sale of merchandise. The main expenditures will be the transportation, cleaning, and sinking of the ship and CDC fees. Currently, a major title sponsor is being sought to finance the purchasing and towing of the ship based on a corporate advertising sponsorship. Cost Analysis: There are 4 major costs that have been identified: 1. Contracting CDC to provide a "turn key" reef. 2. Cleaning the aircraft and removing the wings for transportation on trailers. 3. Towing of Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident artificial reef From Nicosia to Protaras, then from shore on board the crane ship. 4. Preparing the site for the scuttling of the Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 There will be other costs associated with the project such as travelling to various locations in Cyprus. 5. Advertising and office supplies. These costs however are considered small. The cost of towing the vessel can only be determined once a tender has been sent out to perspective tug boat companies. This will be done 2 months before the scuttling date, thereby allowing us to acquire the best pricing. The costs for site preparation will include: 1. Survey of the Sea bottom 2. Mooring blocks for charter / private boats 3. Anchor blocks for the artificial reef These costs will be sent out for tender to ensure the best pricing possible. Other incidental costs such as travel will be the most economical possible. All other costs will be kept to the absolute minimum. After an initial survey by CDC this summer, the estimate from CDC is Euro, 250,000.00 11
    • IMPORTANT NOTES – INFORMATION ON FISHING European Union and International Affairs Cyprus accession to the European Union (EU) and the implementation of the European Aquis Communitaire, related to fisheries, constitutes an obligation of the Cyprus Government in the fields of fisheries research and development as well as in relation to the application of the Common Fisheries Policy. The Fisheries Officers of the Fisheries Resource division participate in the various Working Party Committees of the EU aiming the improvement of the application of Aquis Communitaire and the safeguarding of the Cyprus Governments fisheries policy and strategic objectives. The various EU Structural funds (Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance-FIFG) and the Data Collection Regulation today constitute the most important source of economic support and research of the fisheries sector of Cyprus. Cyprus applies the Single Program Document for Fisheries 2004-2006 and the research program MEDITS (Mediterranean Trawl Survey). Cyprus will be participating in the European Fisheries Fund for the period 2007-2013. Table 1: Cyprus marine capture production 2003 Scientific name Species (groups) Ton Spicara spp Picarels nei 580 Boops boops Boque 151 Mullus surmuletus Stripped Red Mullet 130 Osteichthyes Marine fishes nei 129 Octopodidae Octopuses, etc, nei 93 Sepia officinalis Common cuttlefish 85 Mullus barbatus Red mullet 84 Thunnus thynnus Atlantic bluefin tuna 79 Xiphias gladius Swordfish 47 Sparidae Porgies, seabreams nei 44 Siganus spp Spinefeet(=Rabbitfishes) nei 44 Thunnus alalunga Albacore 30 Scaridae Parrotfishes nei 26 Pagellus acarne Axillary seabream 25 Pagellus erythrinus Common pandora 21 Dentex dentex Common dentex 16 Pagrus pagrus Red porgy 16 Epinephelus spp Groupers nei 15 Seriola dumerili Greater amberjack 13 Elasmobranchii Sharks, rays, skates, etc. nei 13 Serranidae Groupers, seabasses nei 12 Merluccius merluccius European hake 11 Oblada melanura Saddled seabream 11 Scorpaenidae Scorpionfishes nei 11 Euthynnus alletteratus Little tunny(=Atl. Black skipj) 10 Sardina pilchardus European pilchard (=Sardine) 7 Total 1741 The Cyprus marine capture production for the year 2003 is shown on Table 1, *for more information see Fisheries Statistics. 12
    • International affairs Bilateral agreements ratified by the Republic of Cyprus from 1960 are: • The amendments to the Agreement establishing the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean-GFCM. • Agreement to promote compliance with international conservation and management measures by fishing vessels on the high seas • International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas – ICCAT • The United Nations Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea of December 10, 1982, Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks. "The plane was built in the 1960’s and is 120 feet long, has a 96 foot wingspan, and in its stripped state weighs about 20 tonnes. She served the people of CYPRUS very well for many Years. .. 13
    • For further information contact: Andy Varoshiotis, Project Co-ordinator: (99) 689961, or 23823636 or email: andy@i-dive.com.cy Upon Agreement of the above project and financial needs we can provide a step by step project management description with qualitative and quantitative information as well budgets and fusibility studies. LITERATURE CITED Bird, J. 2002. To live and dive in Kwal. In Skin Diver Magazine (Alert Diver Edition) January 2002. pp.38-43. Kaulikauskis, E., Jacksonville Offshore Fishing Club. 1997. From local newspaper article "Restoring valuable offshore habitat - Navy's obsolete aircraft become latest artificial reef", by Stuart Lee Johnston. September 1997. Maher, T. and W. Horn. 1997. DEP OFMAS artificial reef assessment dive team reef evaluation dives, Bay County, FL May 6, 1997. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission artificial reef field report archives. 6pp. Mille, K. and W. Horn. 2001. FWC artificial reef assessment dive team reef evaluation dives, November 20, 2001, Bay County, FL. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission artificial reef field report archives. 4pp. Morrisett, D. J. 1998a. Volusia County reef research team diver field report on dive undertaken October 11, 1998 at Volusia County FL. Reef sites #9 and #2. Ponce De Leon Port Authority (Volusia County) Artificial Reef field report archives. 1p. Morrisett D. J. 1998b. Volusia County reef research team diver field report on dive undertaken December 6, 1998 at Volusia County site #9. Ponce De Leon Port Authority (Volusia County, FL) artificial reef field report archives. 1p. Neal, G. 1996. Volusia County reef research team diver field report on dive undertaken August 18, 1996 at Volusia County reef site #9. Ponce De Leon Port Authority (Volusia County, FL) artificial reef field report archives. 1p. Pybas, D.W., 1991. Atlas of artificial reefs in Florida. Fourth Edition SGEB 20. 40 pp. Florida Sea Grant College Program. Gainesville, FL 32611. Pitcher, T. 2001. Volusia County reef research team diver field report on dive undertaken June 24, 2001 at Volusia County reef site #9. Ponce De Leon Port Authority (Volusia County, FL) artificial reef field report archives. 1p. Pitcher, T. 2000. Volusia County reef research team diver field report on dive undertaken August 26, 2000 at Volusia County reef site #9. Ponce De Leon Port Authority (Volusia County, FL) artificial reef field report archives. 1p. Rinehart, L. T. 1991. The captain's guide to wrecks and reefs. Published by the author. 210pp. 14