Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Kocatepe Report November 2010


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. The Expedition on a Historic Wreck in Cyprus The Turkish Destroyer TCG Kocatepe (D-354) (17/12/1971 - 22/7/1974) Expedition Leader: I Dive Tec Rec Centres Plc. Research Report Prepared by Andy Varoshiotis PADI,SDI,DSAT,DAN Instructor, Member of the Cyprus Dive Centers Association (CDCA), Member of the International Nautical Archaeology (INA) PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIAL NOVEMBER 2010 Control Copy Signature
  • 2. Section 1- Executive Summary Starting from 1971, the Turkish Navy acquired a total of ten U.S.-built FRAM I Gearing class destroyers from the United States, namely Adatepe-II (D 353) (1971), Kocatepe-II (D 354) (1971), Tınaztepe-II (D 355) (1972). When the Cyprus operations begun at 20th of July 1974, Kocatepe destroyer was ready at the Mersin Harbour. KOCATEPE DESTROYER SHIP WRECK (D 354) sinking of the ship: When the Cyprus operations begun at 20th of July 1974, Kocatepe destroyer was ready at the Mersin Harbor. It was heard that the Greek Ships would change their flags with Turkish flags and use radio operators who knew Turkish. That era's head minister Ecevit was interviewed with the American authorities but couldn't accomplish anything. While the operations going on, Turks got an intelligence that was saying that there was a Greek fleet around Paphos at 21st of July 1974. Because of this S-2E class Tracker Sea Sentry planes belonging to the 301 fleet were sent to area for sentry. The radar was showing 4 destroyers and 7 cargo ships headed to the island. For confirmation, RF-84F planes belonging to the 184th fleet were sent to area. But no physical contact made. Kocatepe and two other destroyers were sent to area for investigation. There was little or no armed contest at the beachhead on 21 July 1974, and during this time, the second wave of Turkish forces departed from Mersin port. Following the dispatch of the L176 Lesvos landing craft vessel to Paphos by the Hellenic Navy, the Turkish Air Force received reports of a Greek task force of ships off the coast of Paphos and assembled a force of around 28 strike aircraft from two squadrons to attack the force with 750lb bombs and guns. This however, was a signals deception performed by the Greek Cypriot Naval Command, which transmitted false radio signals indicating that three Turkish destroyers (looking for the Lesvos) off Paphos, were in fact Greek ships. They were actually the Turkish Navy vessels D-354 Kocatepe, D-353 Adatepe and D-355 Tinaztepe. All three vessels were struck by friendly fire, and in turn put up 20mm and 40mm anti-aircraft fire, reportedly downing three aircraft. The D-354 Kocatepe sustained a fatal hit and sank with the loss of 54 crew. ["Cyprus, 1974", by T. Cooper and N. Tselepidis, published October 28, 2003 for ] Having intercepted intelligence that Greek Cypriot Commander of the Navy, Lt. Col Papayiannis is heading to Karavas to assess the size and dimensions of the Turkish landing force, a team of 12 Turkish parachutists are dropped on the Mirtou-Asomatou road in order to ambush his convoy. The Turkish troops manage to wound Papayiannis before they are wiped out by his personal guard force, forcing the Greek Cypriot plan to be abandoned. At the morning of 21st July everyone was waiting information. Because Greek support could reach the island. Also none of planes made contact; the Anamur radar was showing the ships. Turkish operation center was determined to block the fleet. At 1:00 pm an attack was planned on this fleet. At 2:00 pm F- 100D planes from 111th fleet and F-104 planes from 141th fleet got on their way. For stopping a possible Greek landing, all the ships around the area would be bombed. The report that came shocked everyone, who was waiting good news that would say Greek ships found and sunken. Because in the area that Turkiye didn't supposed to have any ships, Turkiye confirmed not to have any ship, Turkiye had 3 destroyers. Which one of them was Kocatepe and which sunken by Turkish planes at 22nd of July 1974. The others Adatepe and Maresal Cakmak had reached to Mersin with survivors and wounded. With this tragic accident Turkiye lost 54 good marines. The best reasons of this accident were the need to stop any Greek landing, tension of this possible landing, and the intelligence about the Greek ships with Turkish flags. After this, the possible leaks, needs and musts had been completed in the Turkish army. Also gossips were saying that there could be an interference with the radar systems of the Turkish navy. It is thought that the ship was sunken near Akrotiri. Before the ship sunken, the crew abandoned the ship with the order of the Captain Colonel Guven Erkaya. The survivors had been rescued by different navies. A group including captain had been rescued by Israel navy, a group had been rescued by English and some rescued by Turkish navy. Captain Ian Mckechnie (unpublicized for political reasons, was his ship-to-ship transfer by helicopter of 72 survivors from a Turkish destroyer, sunk by friendly fire during the Cyprus war in 1974. He was later awarded the Turkish Distinguished
  • 3. Service Medal, the only foreign recipient in the history of Ataturk's republic, and allowed to wear it by the Queen. The captain of the Kocatepe destroyer had become the head of the Turkish Navy on the following years.
  • 4. 2 shaft; General Electric steam turbines; 4 boilers; 60,000 shp Speed: 36.8 knots (68.2 km/h) 4,500 nmi (8,330 km) at 20 knots (37 km/h)
  • 5. details weight (tons): 3460 disp (surf) dimensions: 118,9 x 12,5 x 5,8 m material: steel engine: General Electric geared steam turbines, 4 boilers, dual shaft armament: 6 × 5 in /38 cal guns (3×2) guided by a Mark 37 Gun Fire Control System with a Mk25 fire control radar linked by a Mark 1A Fire Control Computer stabilized by a Mk6 8,500 rpm gyro, 12 × 40 mm Bofors gun (2×2, 2×4), 16 × 20 mm Oerlikon cannon, 10 × 21 inch torpedo tubes power: 60000 s.h.p. speed: 36.8 knots
  • 6. F-100D being bombed up for the mistaken and ill-fated attack on the Turkish destroyer Kocatepe with M-117 750 pound bombs Sixteen F-104Gs of 141.Filo each carrying a 750 pound bomb departed from Ankara/Mürted in the time from 1443 to 1451. In addition two more Filos, 112. Filo with F-100Cs and 191. Filo with F-104Gs were put on ready alert.
  • 7. FACTS: THK F-104G (64-17783 of 191.Filo) - Shot down by Turkish naval AA fire? 21st July 1974 * THK F-100D (55-2825 of 111. Filo) - Shot down by Turkish naval AA fire? 21st July 1974 * THK F-100C (54-2083 of 112.Filo) - Shot down by Turkish naval AA fire? 21st July 1974 * The Turkish Navy destroyer D-354 Kocatepe was erroneously sunk by Turkish fighter aircraft on 21st July 1974. * The Turkish Navy destroyer D-353 Adatepe was erroneously damaged by Turkish fighter aircraft on 21st July 1974.
  • 8. * The Turkish Navy destroyer D-355 Tinaztepe was erroneously damaged by Turkish fighter aircraft on 21st July 1974. • THK F-102A (54-1403 of 142. Filo) - Claimed shot down with AIM-9B Sidewinder by F-5A (66- 9137) of the EPA, piloted by G.Dinopolous of 337MAH. Disputed. 22nd July 1974 * THK F-102A (55-3413 of 142. Filo) - Claimed destroyed due to fuel starvation after engagement with F-5A (66-9137) and F-5A (63-8414) of EPA, piloted by G.Dinopolous and T.Scabardonis of 337MAH. Disputed. 22nd July Sunday July 21, 1974 14:30 Cyprus The Naval Commander of Cyprus is moving along the road between Mirtou and Asomatou, on his way to Karavas so as to determine the state of the Turkish forces on the beachhead and possible Hellenic measures. A force of about 10-12 Turkish paratroopers is dropped from a transport aircraft, and manage to injure the Commander prior to their destruction. His mission is postponed. Cyprus ELDYK, now reinforced with the additional 450 troops that disembarked the "Lesbos", manages to obliterate an entire Turkish regiment at Kioneli. The GEEF once again orders the unit to withdraw, in order perhaps to make sufficient forces available for the defense of the airport. Hellas The landing ship "Rethimno" heads to Cyprus carrying the 573 TP and 550 Cypriot volunteers. Cyprus The Commander of the Naval Station in Pafos informs the GEEF that 3 ships (the destroyers Turkey had sent in search of the "Lesbos") have been detected. The GEEF responds that this is a Hellenic task force, knowing that its communications were monitored. The Turkish Air Force Command sends 7 aircraft to sink the ships, without first verifying the presence of Turkish vessels in the area.
  • 9. 14:35 Cyprus The Turkish aircraft spot the 3 destroyers 10 nm west of Pafos and begin their attack. The visible Turkish flags are ignored as a Hellenic attempt at confusion. 2 or 3 aircraft are shot down by the defending Turkish ships. 14:45 Cyprus The Turkish Navy destroyer "Kocatepe" is sunk, while the other two suffer significant damage that renders them non-battle worthy. The ships head towards Mersina having suffered more than 232 dead from the sunken ship alone. Turkey claimed this event as a resounding victory against the Hellenic Navy up until July 25 - the date they announced the loss of the "Kocatepe".
  • 10. The survivors of the Turkish destroyer Kocatepe which was sunk during the conflict were treated at TPMH RAF Akrotiri Cyprus - The Princess Mary's Hospital until repatriated to Turkey by the Turkish Red Cross.
  • 12. SHIPS HISTORY The USS HARWOOD (DD861), a Gearing class destroyer, was the last combatant vessel built by the Bethlehem Steel Corporation at their San Pedro, California, shipyard. The ship is named for Commander Bruce Lawrence Harwood, an heroic aviator, who was killed while leading a fire fighting party aboard the USS PRINCETON (CVL 23) when that vessel was under attack by enemy Japanese aircraft in the vicinity of the Philippine Islands, during the Second Battle of the Philippine Sea on 24 October 1944. CDR Harwood was awarded the Navy Cross and Purple Heart Medal posthumously. The ship’s keel was laid on 29 October 1944, launched on 22 May and was commissioned 28 September 1945, just six weeks after World War II ended. The first Commanding Officer was CDR Reid P. Fiala, and X.O. was LCDR A. J. Wanamaker, Jr. For the first three and a half years of her life, the ship operated with the Pacific Fleet and was home ported at San Diego. HARWOOD made two Far East Cruises, during which she visited ports in China, Japan, Korea, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Okinawa. Between these two cruises she underwent three months’ overhaul at Bremerton, Washington, in late 1947. In January 1949, she entered Mare Island, California, shipyard for an eight months’ overhaul. At this time the most modern anti-submarine equipment then known was added to the ship, and she was redesigned an escort destroyer (DDE). Subsequently, she was transferred to the Atlantic Fleet, arriving at her new homeport, Newport, Rhode Island, via the Panama Canal in August 1949. For the next six months, the HARWOOD conducted short exercise cruises in the Atlantic, visiting Key West and Bermuda. In March 1950 the ship participated in Operation PORTREX in the Caribbean, one of the first large post-World War II anti-submarine hunter- killer operations. After another period of local operations, the ship became part of the Operation Development Force. While developing cold weather operational methods, she visited Argentia, Newfoundland, and Reykjavik, Iceland, and steamed north of the Arctic Circle giving her crew their first experience with continuous daylight. After an upkeep period, HARWOOD made her first Mediterranean cruise, joining Sixth Fleet in September 1950. In the Mediterranean, she visited ports in Sicily, Malta, and on the French Riviera. In January 1951, she provided plane guard services for the light carrier Monterey off Pensacola and was an anti-submarine school ship in Key West. She then went into a five months’ navy yard overhaul. After a brief period of competitive exercises, the HARWOOD proceeded to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for the usual post-yard six week period of refresher training designed to test her battle readiness and the quality of her yard work. Following her return to Newport, she participated in a major Atlantic Fleet operation, entitled LANTFLEX and then spent Christmas holidays in her homeport. In January 1952, the ship departed for a three months’ Mediterranean cruise during which she visited ports in France, Italy, and North Africa. On her return, she became a unit of the Atlantic Hunter-Killer Forces whose operations took her to the North Atlantic, where she had a short trip in Grennock, Scotland, and to sub-Arctic waters off Norway. By autumn, she was operating off Newport, and she spent the Christmas period in Fall River, Massachusetts. In February 1953, the ship began her third tour of duty with the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean where she participated in two months of exercises with navies of other NATO nations. Late spring was spent in Boston Naval Shipyard, after which the HARWOOD won her third straight Battle Efficiency Award, the Navy “E”, during refresher training at Guantanamo Bay. During the fall of 1953, she conducted destroyer exercises off Newport, again spending the winter holiday season moored at Fall River. In spring of 1954, the HARWOOD engaged in the appropriately named Operation SPRINGBOARD, a month long Caribbean cruise including air defense and anti-submarine exercises. On
  • 13. this cruise, the ship visited San Juan, Puerto Rico, Saint Thomas, Virgin Islands; and Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republic. After SPRINGBOARD, she conducted local hunter-killer operations and prepared for a four and a half-month Mediterranean tour, which began in September. On this long trip, the HARWOOD covered the entire length of the Mediterranean Sea, going as Far East as Imir, Turkey, and Beirut, Lebanon. In January 1955, she returned to her homeport. In spring of 1955, the ship came under operational command of the Atlantic Anti-Submarine Forces. Employment with this command occupied the next nine months, after which the ship acted as an engineering school for Atlantic destroyer personnel for the remainder of 1955. Following a three month yard period in Philadelphia and the usual subsequent refresher training at Guantanamo Bay, midshipmen from the Naval Academy and universities with Naval ROTC units embarked in the HARWOOD for two months summer cruise in the Eastern Atlantic during which she visited Barcelona, Spain, and Dublin, Ireland. In the early winter of late 1956 before severe cold weather set in, and after completing an anti-submarine patrol for Russian submarines in the North Atlantic incident to the Russian invasion of Hungary, HARWOOD departed Newport, one in a division of three DDE’s, and, together with a submarine, proceeded south to Havana, Cuba for a short recreational stop rudely interrupted one Sunday morning when several busloads of Fidel Castro’s rebels attempted to shoot up then Cuban President Bautista’s presidential palace. After a brief stop in Panama, HARWOOD transited the Panama Canal and proceeded south to the old Spanish Main port of Cartagena, Colombia for a goodwill visit and then further south to Salinas, Ecuador, Callao, Peru, and Valparaiso, Chile for joint anti-submarine warfare training exercises before returning to Newport in early Spring of 1957 at the end of that three month cruise. (thanks to Philip D. Isaac) A visit to Bermuda preceded a Mediterranean cruise, which occupied the last five months of the year 1957. Operations in the Atlantic and Caribbean interspersed with upkeep periods, a yard period in Boston, and training at Guantanamo Bay, laid the groundwork for the ship’s assignment to Task Force Bravo. The mission of this group was to develop new anti-submarine tactics to augment World War II methods. Few people know that the Navy maintained Ready ASW groups to protect our coasts from unfriendly submarines one of which was TF Bravo . HARWOOD operated with TF Bravo which alternated with TF Alfa patrolling our East Coast. Click here for a great story and pictures of the USS Wasp fire Harwood helped put out while operating with Task Group Bravo. While with Task Force Bravo, a combination NATO exercise and Midshipmen Cruise was made in conjunction with the Canadian and British navies. The Saint Lawrence Seaway was opened in July 1959, and the ship visited Quebec. She spent early fall engaged in LANTFLEX 59, an all-Atlantic Fleet operation. The winter of 1959-1960 was spent in local operations with a month at Newport for the Christmas leave period. In March 1960, the HARWOOD again deployed to the Caribbean and in April had her first taste of operations against a nuclear submarine, the Skipjack. After a brief NATO operation with Canadian Forces, the ship departed from Norfolk with twenty midshipmen for the Mediterranean Midshipmen Cruise 60. During this cruise, the largest single gathering of warships since World War II occurred in Golfo de Palma Bay in Sardinia. The ship returned to Newport in late August, then engaged in independent steaming and destroyer exercises, closing out 1960 with a visit to Miami where the crew was able to see the annual Orange Bowl Game. In early January 1961, she exercised with the nuclear submarine, Robert E. Lee. After a short period in Boston, the ship escorted Polaris carrying submarines off Cape Canaveral.
  • 14. The remainder of spring 1961 was spent preparing for entry into New York Naval Shipyard for the Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization program (FRAM). The FRAM program consists of virtually rebuilding a ship from the hull up and was designed to increase the life of the many destroyers built during World War II by six to eight years. On 2 May 1961, the HARWOOD entered the yard. The FRAM overhaul lasted exactly nine months, during which the profile of the ship was substantially altered. Among other changes, the bridge was totally reconstructed, new types of torpedo tubes were installed, and the anti-aircraft guns were removed to accommodate a hanger and launching deck for the DASH, an anti-submarine helicopter. On 1 January 1962, the homeport was changed from Newport, Rhode Island, to Mayport, Florida. After leaving the yard on 2 February 1962, HARWOOD spent a week at Newport, where the married members of the crew made arrangements to move their families to Mayport. On 12 February 1962, the HARWOOD arrived at her new homeport, Mayport, Florida, and only one week later proceeded to Guantanamo Bay for her most rigorous period of refresher training to date. Three days in Kingston, Jamaica, provided a short break during this time. The ship returned to Mayport on 15 April, leaving for her latest Mediterranean cruise on 22 May, stopping at Rota, Spain, for two days, and passing through the Straits of Gibraltar. On 3 June, the HARWOOD, along with all other escort destroyers, was redesigned a general-purpose destroyer (DD). This cruise proved to be her most extensive to date, for it included a six week’s voyage to the Middle East. This involved two transits of the Suez Canal and took the ship as Far East as Karachi, Pakistan, 10,000 miles from Mayport. She returned to her homeport on 12 October. The long awaited period of leave and upkeep was abruptly interrupted by the Cuban crisis. On only four hours notice, the ship got underway for the Caribbean on 26 October, leaving forty-five of the crew on shore. All of these were flown to the ship within ten days. After nearly a month of continuous steaming, she returned to Mayport on 21 November, just in time for Thanksgiving. The ship provided plane guard services intermittently for the Lexington for the next two weeks. The HARWOOD moored at Mayport for upkeep and Christmas leave on 10 December. After operations in the Caribbean for the first half of 1963, the HARWOOD left on 3 August for another Mediterranean Cruise and visited the following ports: Golfo di Palmas and Aranci Bay, Sardinia; Palmero, Sicily; Naples, Messina and Livorno, Italy; Golfe Juan and St. Raphael, France; Pollensa Bay, Mallorca, and Valetta, Malta. The HARWOOD returned to Mayport, Florida on 23 December 1963. On 1 May 1964, she left for another Midshipmen Cruise, stopping at Oslo, Norway; Antwerp, Belgium; Southampton, England and LeHarve, France, returning to Mayport in August. From Mayport Harwood deployed to the Mediterranean twice, participated in the Cuban quarantine operation, and was a recovery ship for the Mercury astronaut launching in May 1963. 22 July 1966 saw Harwood departing Mayport for her ninth Mediterranean cruise. Ports of call included Theoule-sur-Mer, France, Naples, Italy, and Beirut, Lebanon prior to transiting the Suez Canal for operations under COMIDEASTFOR. After a brief visit at Jidda, Saudi Arabia, Harwood was treated to a real taste of British Hospitality as she visited Aden, Bahrain and Mombasa, Kenya. The latter port proved to be the most interesting when the Officers and crew where treated to a tour of the Tsavo National Game Preserve. On the way to Mombasa, HARWOOD crossed the Equator at 45-00o and . in true Navy tradition, 230 Pollywogs were initiated into the Royal Order of Shellbacks.
  • 15. Transiting the Suez Canal on 2 November 1966, Harwood rejoined the Sixth Fleet for a week of operations before making visits to Naples and Genoa, Italy for some well earned rest and liberty. While inport Naples, Harwood Change-of-Command Ceremonies saw Cdr. William S. Guthrie relieve Cdr. R.T. Whitlock as commanding officer on 17 November. At this same ceremony the ship received the Desron 16 Battle Efficiency "E" won in fiscal year 1966, and the Operations "E" for departmental excellence. A brief five day visit to the exciting city of Barcelona, Spain came in early December after which the ship arrived in its homeport of Mayport on 17 December. In 1966 and early 1967, she operated out ofMayport, Florida and the East Coast until sailing for her 10th Med deployment on 29 June, 1967. Reaching Rota, Spain, on 10 July, HARWOOD joined the 6th Fleet, an element of stability in the ancient and volatile sea, which had so recently been churned by the Arab war with Israel. The HARWOOD deployed to Vietnam on 10 April of 1968. After transit of the Panama Canal and brief but enjoyable stays in San Diego and Pearl Harbor, HARWOOD, the lone wolf of DesRon 14, began her long journey across the Pacific to Subic Bay, R.P. There she underwent a short upkeep and preparation before leaving for Vietnam and the gunline. Naval gunfire support off the coast of South Vietnam was her primary duty, and one in which she was extremely successful. HARWOOD spent forty-two days on the gunline in support of our troops ashore, destroying or damaging 410 enemy bunkers and structures, neutralizing numerous storage and assembly areas and accounting for many confirmed enemy causalities, firing a total of over 10,000 rounds. In this effort, the Naval Gunfire Support Officer working for the 1st Marine Division and directing the HARWOOD’s targeting was a former 1st Lt on the HARWOOD. In addition, HARWOOD operated off the coast of North Vietnam in OPERATION SEA DRAGON, during which time she worked with the USS BERKELEY in a massive interdiction of enemy waterborne logistics craft described as “one if the heaviest off-shore bombardments of the war”, Fifty-eight “WBLC’s” were either destroyed or damaged by the HARWOOD-BERKELEY team. Of these, thirty-six were officially credited to the HARWOOD. On five separate occasions the ship was taken under fire by enemy coastal defense batteries and in one instance received a hit in her after gun mount, inflicting two personnel casualties and resulting in two Purple Hearts and one Bronze Star awarded to HARWOOD crew members. During this 1970 Med deployment, HARWOOD distinguished herself in operations with carriers, oilers and other destroyers. She was part of the effective show of United States strength in the Eastern Mediterranean during the September 1970, Middle East crisis. Also during this time HARWOOD participated with other NATO forces in exercises off the coast of Greece. The Harwood was loaned to Turkey 17 December 1971 and was decommissioned and stricken from the rolls February 1, 1973. On 15 February, 1973 HARWOOD was transferred to the Turkish Navy, and renamed TCS Kocatepe, D- 354. Her last Commanding Officer and Executive Officer were Captain Robert M. Marshall, USN, and LCDR McGhee, USN. On 22 July 1974, a tragic military blunder occurred during the brief conflict on Cyprus, in which a Turkish plane or planes, bombed and sank a Turkish destroyer mistaken for part of an invading force from Greece.
  • 16. MISSION OBJECTIVES: -Planner 3.43 by R. Hemingway, VPM code by Erik C. Baker. Decompression model: VPM-B DIVE PLAN Surface interval = 1 day 0 hr 0 min. Elevation = 0m Conservatism = + 2 Dec to 50m (3) on Nitrox 25.0, 15m/min descent. Level 50m 16:40 (20) on Nitrox 25.0, 1.49 ppO2, 47m ead Asc to 21m (23) on Nitrox 25.0, -9m/min ascent. Stop at 21m 0:47 (24) on Nitrox 25.0, 0.77 ppO2, 19m ead Stop at 18m 1:00 (25) on Nitrox 25.0, 0.70 ppO2, 17m ead Stop at 15m 3:00 (28) on Nitrox 25.0, 0.62 ppO2, 14m ead Stop at 12m 3:00 (31) on Nitrox 25.0, 0.55 ppO2, 11m ead Stop at 9m 3:00 (34) on Nitrox 80.0, 1.51 ppO2, 0m ead Stop at 6m 4:00 (38) on Nitrox 80.0, 1.28 ppO2, 0m ead Stop at 3m 6:00 (44) on Nitrox 80.0, 1.04 ppO2, 0m ead Asc to sfc. (44) on Nitrox 80.0, -9m/min ascent. Off gassing starts at 32m OTU's this dive: 56 CNS Total: 24.0% 2833.1 ltr Nitrox 25.0 334.9 ltr Nitrox 80.0 3167.9 ltr TOTAL