• The French Revolution (1789–1799), was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe.• The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. French society underwent an epic transformation, as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants in the countryside.Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy
• Enlightenment ideas• Economic crisis: bad harvest, rising bread prices because of hard winters• Financial crisis: the bankrupt of administration. The third estate was inable to pay more taxes and the only exit was that the privileged estates would pay, but the refused to do it, so the king convoked the Estates General in order to change the taxation system• Influence of American Revolution. The involvement of France in the American war of Independence caused a new financial crisis.
•Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church form 1stestate.•The second estate = rich nobles They own 20% of land and pay no taxes•Third Estate: 98% of population Heavily taxed Made up of two groups The bourgeoisie-the wealthy business owners The peasants and urban poor
Stages Of RevolutionA. Meeting of the Estates GeneralB. The National AssemblyC. The Tennis Court OathD. Fall of the BastilleE. The Great FearF. March on Versailles
• All Estates agreed change was needed – Political reform – Address corruption• But bitter division over how to vote. – Vote by order, Third Estate will lose 2-1. – Vote by Head, Third Estate wins 610- 591.• King Louis XVI requests estates to meet separately
•Third Estate refuses and forms National Assembly•Invites 3rd Estate to sit with them•Seized power away from the First and Second estates
•Vowed to write aconstitution•Members of other estatesjoined•King capitulated to NationalAssembly•The Declaration of the
July 14, 1789° A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly° 18 died.° 73 wounded.° 7 guards killed.° It held 7 prisoners
“ ” • Independent revolutionary agitation in the countryside • Rumors of Royalist troops becoming wandering vandals • Fear breeds fear and peasants start marching • Within 3 weeks of July 14, the countryside of France had been completely changed • Abolition of the Nobility
10/5/1789• Rising bread prices anger woman of Paris. – They march on the assembly. – They march to Versailles.• The woman and mobs attack Versailles.
• Events from October, 1789 through September, 1791• Abolition of the French nobility as a legal order• Constitutional Monarchy established• Economic centralization• Nationalization of the Church --Stage set for subsequent civil war
• The Committee of Public Safety• The Concept of “Total War”• Maximum price ceilings on certain goods• Nationalization of Small Workshops
• Execution of 40,000 “Enemies of the Nation”• Stress on radical definition of equality• Wanted a legal maximum on personal wealth• Wanted a regulation of commercial profits• End of Robespierre’s dictatorship on July 28, 1794
• The Convention was replaced in 1795 by the Directory, a moderate republican government. They made another Constitution, more moderate, and tried to bring peace. They won against Allied States, thanks to a brilliant general called Napoleon Bonaparte.• In 1799 , after a coup d etat by Napoleon, the Directory was abolished and the power given to three consules , one of them Napoleon, because the Directory didn t satisfied anybody.
NapoleonBonaparte • Napoleon’s Rise to Power (1804-1815) • The Napoleonic Code • Establishment of the Bank of France • Reconciliation with the Catholic Church --Concordat of 1801 • Heavy Censorship • Napoleon’s “Art of War”