Synchronic – Focus of one thing at a time.Polychronic – Time is viewed as a fluid, circular stream where past, present and future unfold simultaneously.Monochronic- Break down into smaller chunks and sequentially link one after anotherUS synchronic, Japanese polychronic and Germans Monochronic
Organization behavior theories
OrganizationBehavior- THEORIESHR-session 2
Culture Differences in communication- High context (not so explicit, depends on env n persons involved) and Low context(explicit communication)
• Drive Theory-Hull• Alderfer’s ERG Model • Alderfer’s ERG theory- need satisfaction as motivation factor, no hierarchy – ERG stands for Existence, Relatedness and Growth thus needs were classified into three categories – In contrast to Maslow’s hierarchy, there was no order in which the needs were satisfied
Herzberg 2 factor theoryHygiene Factors Motivation FactorsFactors that deal with job Factors that deal with jobcontext and lead to job content and lead to jobdissatisfaction. satisfaction..
David McClelland’s Learned Needs nPow-Power motive Need for autonomy and control over others N-Aff- Affiliation motive Establish, maintain, and restore close personal relationships with others nAch-Achievement motive Compete against a standard of excellence or provide a unique contribution, sense of mastery over one’s skills, preferences for challenges, feeling personally responsible for success
Process theories Adams Equity theory and vrooms expectancy model When presented with behavioral options in a situation, individuals select the option with the greatest motivational forces(MF) MF= Expectancy * Instrumentality*Valence Expectancy-if we put in effort, there is possibility of success Instrumentality- Probability that meeting performance expectations will be instrumental in getting rewards Valence- value of the reward as perceived by individual
Expectancy Model in Action First-level Outcomes Second-level Outcomes Self-confidenceEffort Attend class Performance: Self-esteem Study Grade in Class Take notes Prepare for A B C D F Personal happiness exams Overall GPA Expectancy Approval of others Instrumentality Respect of others
Model of Goal SettingChallenge MediatorsGoal difficulty DirectionGoal clarity Effort Performance Rewards SatisfactionSelf-efficacy Persistence Task strategy Moderators Conse- Ability quences Goal commitment Feedback Task complexity • All behavior is motivated • Motivation is a goal directed process • A person who knows his goal will find the knowledge and skills to fulfill the goal
Group PhenomenonGroupthink – a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressuresGroup Polarization/Shift – the tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members
Group dysfunctions..• Free riding- Obtaining benefits from membership not proportional to share of responsibility to generate benefit.• Sucker effect –A member withholding effort to activate the free rider • Violates equity standards. • Violates a fair share of social responsibility • Violates a standard of reciprocity and exchange
SWOT of Teams/groupsStrengths WeaknessesTeam cohesiveness Resource InadequacyHomogeneity & creativity An uninvolved leaderTask interdependence Process lossesSocial facilitation(Perform Social loafing(not working better in a group) as hard as you wouldSocial compensation work as individual)Opportunities ThreatsTeam building Group thinkTrust building Group polarizationTeam communicationEducating team normsAllocating team roles
Path- Goal Theory- Leaders main concern is to help employees stay on rightpath- towards challenging goals and values rewards to attain satisfaction
Operant conditioning-learning theoryBehavior is a function of its consequences.Reinforcement is the consequence that determines the probability of future occurrence of thebehavior.
Perception- A process by which individuals organize andinterpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning totheir environment
Factors That Influence Perception Factors can reside in the perceiver; in the object or target beingperceived; or in the context ofthe situation in which the perception
Attribution Theory Observation Interpretation Attribution of Cause
Fundamental Attribution Error… The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviourof others Internal factors = Ability and effort External factors = Task difficulty and luck • Actor-Observer Bias • Fundamental attribution error does not consider the interpretations of one’s own behaviour. This discrepancy is known as actor-observer bias. • Self Serving Bias • The tendency of individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and failures to external factors
JUDGING OTHERS1.Selective PerceptionSelective perception is the personal filtering of what wesee and hear so as to suit our own needs.People selectively interpret what they see on the basis oftheir interests, background, experience, and attitudes.How does selective perception work?
JUDGING OTHERS3.Stereotyping• Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.
4. PROJECTIONAttributing one’s own characteristics to other people People engaged in projections, can distort perceptions made about others.
Pygmalion Effect Employment Interview Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants.Performance Expectations Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.
Ethnic Profiling• A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation.
Conflict• Task conflict – relates to the content and goals of work (low levels are functional)• Relationship conflict – relates to interpersonal relationships (Always dysfunctional)• Process conflict – relates to how the work gets done (low levels are functional)
Sources of Psycho social Conflict at Various Levels• Intra-individual Conflict• Interpersonal conflict• Structural Conflict
Conflict management styles-Thomas Kilman theory
Models of Decision MakingEffective Decisiona timely decision thatmeets a desiredobjective and is Rational Modelacceptable to thoseindividuals affected by Bounded Rationalityit Model Garbage Can Model
Rationality – a logical, step- by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of Rational Model alternatives and their consequences1. The outcome will be completely rational2. The decision maker uses a consistent system of preferences to choose the best alternative3. The decision maker is aware of all alternatives4. The decision maker can calculate the probability of success for each alternative
Bounded Rationality – a theory that suggests that Bounded Rationality there are limits upon how Model rational a decision maker can actually be 1. Managers suggest the first satisfactory alternative Satisfice – to select the first alternative that is “good enough,” because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimizeManagers conception of the world is simple.They may not go in to determine allalternatives. They use heuristics – short cuts to save mental activity.
Garbage Can Model Solutions Problems Choice opportunities ParticipantsGarbage Can Model –a theory that contendsthat decisions inorganizations arerandom and unsystematic
Bases of Power• Legitimate Power • Power granted by virtue of one’s position and mutual agreement . Managers have legitimate power over their subordinates simply because of the formal positions they hold.• Reward Power • The extent that a person controls rewards another person needs. Examples of organizational rewards are pay, promotions, and work assignments.• Coercive Power • The opposite of reward power. The extent to which a person can punish or physically or psychologically harm someone else. Its use carries a considerable cost in terms of employee resentment and hostility.• Referent Power • This is based on identification with a person and attraction to one who has desirable resources of personal traits. The basis is admiration and a desire to be like someone else or imitates someone else. Similar to charisma. it often involves trust, similarity, acceptance, affection, willingness to follow, and emotional involvement.• Expert Power • The extent to which a person can influence because of a special skill, knowledge or expertise. Expert power can reside in many organizational niches; it transcends positions and jobs.
Personality…• The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.• Enduring characteristics that explain an individual’s behaviour.
The Big five personality factors• Extraversion• Agreeableness• Conscientiousness• Emotional stability• Openness to experience
Extraversion• Sociable• Energy• Assertive• Expressive• Talkative• Preference for other’s company
Openness to experience• Imaginative • Willingness to explore the• Artistic unfamiliar• Non-conforming • Enjoys variety• Curious • Attentive to inner feelings• Original • Intellectual curiosity• Broad-minded• Autonomous• Proactive• tolerant
Positive and Negative Affectivity• Tendency to feel consistently positively/negatively towards objects. Positive Affectivity (PA) and Negative Affectivity (NA) considered basic dimensions of personality.• High PA: high energy, optimism, enthusiasm, pleasurable engagement, like interpersonal relationships, overall wellbeing, job satisfaction, achievement-oriented activities.• High NA: distress, unpleasurable engagement, nervousness, agitation, and pessimism, higher levels of anxiety, dissatisfaction, focus on the unpleasant aspects of themselves, the world, the future, and other people.
Locus of control• The belief that one can control events affecting oneself. • Internals believe they determine what happens to them. • Externals believe fate determines what happens to them.
Self empowerment• Meaning – The fit between the work role and the employee’s values and beliefs.• Competence- The belief that one has the ability to do the job well ( self- efficacy).• Self- determination – Having the control over the way one does work.• Impact – Belief that one’s job makes a difference within the organisation.
Other traits…• Self monitoring – a personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external situational factors.• Risk taking• Type A behaviours
Type A personality• Chronic sense of urgency• Competitiveness• Inability to relax• Impatience with barriers to accomplishment
Emotional Intelligence• Emotional Intelligence: major components – Self awareness: knowing ones emotions – Self-control and resilience managing emotions – Self-recognizing motivation and creativity – Empathy: emotion in others Helping others manage their emotions: handling relationships through social and organisational skills, handling diversity, resolving conflicts, transformational leadership
Providing Organizational Context to Create Positive Work attitudes•Encouraging Citizenship Behavior –Dimensions of OCB: Sportsmanship, Organizational Loyalty, Individual Initiative, Civic virtue and Self Development 54