NAMES OF MEMBERS. David Esuron Eyanae Andrew Kamunda Harry Stephen Arunda Ibrahim Yunis Sheikh Cheke Kibandi Yussuf Kaza Mohammed Lucy Wamuhu Kinyanjui Osman Mohamed Matthew Ochieng’ Saisi Hassan Tom Ndalo O. Ezekiel Opiyo Omondi. Sayianet Naisho Fabian Kimong Otto Clement Omongo Onenga
DEFINITIONS: Air: A colorless, odorless, tasteless, gaseous mixture, mainly nitrogen (approx.78 %) and oxygen (approx. 21%) with lesser amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, neon, helium, and other gases. Pollution: Section 2 of EMCA, any direct or indirect alteration of the physical, thermal, chemical, biological, or radio-active properties of any part of the environment by discharging, emitting or depositing wastes so as to affect and beneficial use adversely, to cause a condition which is hazardous or potentially hazardous to public health, safety or welfare or to animals, birds, wildlife, fish or aquatic life, or to plants or to cause contravention of any condition, limitation or restriction which is subject to a license under this Act. Air Pollution: Article 1 (a) of the LRTAP Convention defines air pollution.
Manufacturin g The burning of fossil fuels.CAUSES OF POLLUTION: Volcanic eruptions. Wildfires. Power Lines. Pesticides, insecticides and herbicides. Radioactive Fallout. Fertilizer Dust. Indoor Air pollution. Mining Operations. Mills and plants Agriculture – The Greenhouse Effect.
EFFECTS ON THEENVIRONMENT:Haze.contamination ofthe surface of bodiesof water and soil.Acid Rain Animals cansuffer health effects.
EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY: Air pollution can also have a significant impact on our economy. It can cost a lot to change what we buy, what we use, and how it is produced in order to prevent air pollution. Economic costs are also found in fixing the damage caused by poor air pollution, including health and environmental problems
INTERNATIONAL POLICIES ON AIRPOLLUTION: The 1979 Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Article2: Established a regional framework to protect man and the environment against air pollution, and includes a general obligation on parties to ‘endeavour to limit, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range transboundary air pollution.’ Article 1 (b): Long-range transboundary air pollution is defined as: air pollution whose physical origin is situated wholly or in part within the area under the national jurisdiction of one state and which has adverse effects in the area under the jurisdiction of another state at such a distance that it is not generally possible to distinguish the contribution of individual emission sources or groups of sources. The Trail Smelter Case
The LRTAP Protocols: There are several protocols under this convention. They include; 1984 Monitoring and Evaluation Protocol 1985 Sulphur Protocol 1988 NOₓ Protocol 1991 Volatile Organic Compounds Protocol 1994 Sulphur Protocol 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-Level Ozone
Examples of Regional Policies: Air Pollution Control Act - USA Clean Air Act –USA Lusaka Agreement on Air Pollution West and Central Framework Agreement on Air Pollution Agreement on Air Pollution (Abidjan 2009) East Africa Framework Agreement on Air Pollution Agreement on Air Pollution (2008) WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe.
International Organizations thatdeal with air pollution: UNEP World Meteorological Organization. Office of Air and Radiation – America Air Pollution Information Network for Africa.
KENYAN LEGISLATION:The Constitution: Article 42 – Right to a clean and healthy environment. Article 42 (a) – Intergenerational Equity. Article 69 (1) (d) – The state encourages the public participation in the management, protection and conservation of the environment. Article 69 (1) (g) – the state encourages the citizens to eliminate processes and activities that are likely to endanger the environment. Article 70 – Redress for anyone whose right o a clean and healthy environment has been denied, infringed, violated or threatened. (Polluter Pays Policy)
Provisions of EMCA 1999: Section 2: Section 7 establishes the National Environment Management Authority. Section 78: establishes the Standards and enforcement Review Committee that is to advice NEMA on how to establish criteria and procedures for measurement of air quality. Section 79: the minister can advice NEMA on controlled areas through a gazette notice. Section 80 deals with the licencing of emissions. This is subject to conditions in Section 81. Section 82: emission by motor vehicles and ant other conveyance that causes air pollution is prohibited. Section 84 outlines the reasons that may lead to cancellation of an emission licence.
Other regulations: Air Quality Regulations 2009 The Solid Waste Regulation 2006 to control the emission of methane from dumping sites. Fossil Fuel Emission Control Regulations 2006.
THE OZONELAYER:There is the ViennaConvention for theProtection of the OzoneLayer,1987: Article 1 (1)defines the “ozone layer”as the layer ofatmospheric ozone abovethe planetary boundarylayer.EMCA, section 2 definesthe ozone layer as it isdefined in theconvention.
COMPOSITION OF THE OZONELAYER: Ozone is formed in the atmosphere when ultraviolet radiation from the Sun splits one oxygen molecule into two oxygen atoms (O2). The atomic oxygen then combines with another oxygen molecule to form ozone (O3). Most ozone found in the Earth’s atmosphere occurs in one layer in the stratosphere, between altitudes of around 20 to 50 km. Early in the Earth’s history, the gradual build-up of this layer from oxygen released by marine life allowed life to develop on land. Today, the ozone layer helps to produce the observed vertical structure of the atmosphere, and absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation that would otherwise damage plant and animal life (also causing skin cancer) on the Earth’s surface. In contrast, ozone close to the Earth’s surface is a health hazard, as it is one of the major constituents of photochemical smog.
Causes of the depletion of theozone:a. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)b. Halonsc. Hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)d. Methyl Bromide.Used in: Refrigeration, air conditioning, fire fighting, metal- cleaning, soil fumigation
Hole FormationBased on Twodifferentmechanisms:MeteorologicalmechanismMovement of airfrom one place toanother in the upperstratosphereCold temperature inthe upper atmospherecauses nitric acid tofreeze into crystalsforming wispy pinkcloudsForms a vortex oftightly twisted windsthus forming a hole inthe upper atmosphere
ChemicalMechanismDifferent chemicalsare responsible for thedestruction of the ozonelayerTopping the list : chlorofluorocar bons (CFC’s) man-made, non- toxic and inert in the troposphere In the stratosphere are photolysed, releasing reactive chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone
Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) high energy electromagnetic wave emitted from the sun. It is made up of wavelengths ranging from 100nm to 400nm. UV radiation includes UV-A, the least dangerous form of UV radiation, with a wavelength range between 315nm to 400nm, UV-B with a wavelength range between 280nm to 315nm, and UV-C which is the most dangerous between 100nm to 280nm. UV-C is unable to reach Earth’s surface due to stratospheric ozone’s ability to absorb it. (Last, 2006)
Effects of depletion of the OzoneLayer:-When the ozone layer is depleted the UV-Rays of the sun can penetrate to the earth. They have serious effects namely: Skin Cancer Impairment of the body’s immune system Eye Cataract Damage of the genetic material (DNA) leading to mutation of the affected organisms. Damage to crops Inhibition of photosynthesis or mobility of sea weeds (phytoplankton) including damage to aquatic fauna. Degradation of paints, rubbers, wood and plastics used in buildings.
Effects of depletion ofthe Ozone Layer:-When the ozone layer is depleted theUV-Rays of the sun can penetrate to theearth. They have serious effects namely:Skin CancerImpairment of the body’s immunesystemEye CataractDamage of the genetic material (DNA)leading to mutation of the affectedorganisms.Damage to cropsInhibition of photosynthesis or mobilityof sea weeds (phytoplankton) includingdamage to aquatic fauna.Degradation of paints, rubbers, woodand plastics used in buildings.
THE VIENNA CONVENTION: Article 2 outlines the general obligations which are in summary:a) To take appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely to result from human activities which are likely to modify the Ozone Layer.b) To promote international cooperation in the legal, scientific and technical fields.c) To encourage research, cooperation and the exchange of information among countries which was the main thrust of this convention.d) The Convention also established a mechanism for international cooperation in research, monitoring, and exchange of data on the state of the stratospheric ozone layer and on emissions and concentrations of CFCs and other relevant chemicals.
THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL: It was designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance in the atmosphere, and thereby protect the earth’s fragile ozone Layer. The Protocol is designed to regulate the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). Controlled substances are listed in four annexes, and their respective phase-out schedules are designed to allow for progressive tightening over time as scientific evidence for ozone depletion trend is strengthened and as substitutes for the ODS in question are developed. The parties committed to reduce production and consumption of CFCs by half by 1998 and to freeze production and consumption of halons by 1992. Developing countries were granted a 10-year grace period to meet both obligations. The Montreal Protocol was amended in London on 29/06/1990, Copenhagen on 25/11/1992, Montreal on 17/09/1997 and Beijing in December 1999.
The Multilateral Fund: The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol (MLF) is the financial mechanism which was created in 1990 by the London Amendment to help developing countries meet the agreed incremental cost of fulfilling the Protocols control measures Article 5 of the Montreal Protocol defines countries eligible to receive MLF assistance as any party that is a developing country and whose annual calculated level of consumption of the controlled substances in Annex A is less than 0.3 kilograms per capita. The World Bank is one of four implementing agencies with which countries can partner to access MLF funding. The others are UNDP, UNEP, and UNIDO .
The Global Environmental Facility: The GEF is helping countries with economies in transition (CEITs) that are not eligible for funding under the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol, to implement activities to phase out ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in a manner consistent with these countries’ obligations under the Montreal Protocol. The GEF has contributed by facilitating a large drop in consumption and production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in CEITs.
International Organizations that dealwith protection of the Ozone Layer: UNEP. The Secretariat which co-ordinates implementation and meetings under the Montreal Protocol. The Ozone Action which is a UNEP division of Technology industry and Economics. The European Commission e.t.c.
KENYAN LEGISLATION ON THEOZONE: Section 2 of EMCA describes what the ozone layer is. Section 56 – It addresses protection of the ozone layer.Other Regulations: Ozone Depleting Substance Regulations 0f 2007 In May 2007,the Environmental Management and co- ordination(controlled substances) Regulations under Legal Notice no. 73 of 2007 was gazetted by the Minister for Environment and Natural Resources. This regulation made it mandatory for industries and other stakeholders in the ODS trade to obtain licences to import these substances. Imports of CFC was banned with effect from 11/1/2009 by the government.
Signs of Antartica – Dec. 2005Recovery???There have been somesigns of recovery 1997 satellite showed a decline of several known ozone-depleting gases Satellite images show some slowing down of ozone lossHowever….Recovery is slow….
Images of Antarctica Taken Indicate A Slow Recovery
CONCLUSION:“Whats the use of a finehouse if you havent got atolerable planet to put iton?” – Henry DavidThoreauTheres so much pollutionin the air now that if itwerent for our lungsthered be no place to put itall. ~Robert OrbenLETS NOT BEENVIROMENTALISTS,LETS BE EARTHWARRIORS AND RESCUEIT FROM POLLUTION.