1.The nature of language teaching . The definition of teaching.Teaching is an attempt to help someone acquire, orchange some skills, attitude,knowledge, ideal, orappreciation.In other words, the teachers task is to create orinfluence desirable changes in behavior, or intendencies toward behavior, in his/her students.HAROON
The nature of language teaching(Aims and Objectives) 2.. The purpose of English teachinga. To improve their four skills.Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writingb. To cultivate their communicative competence.c. To show them the way to study themselves.Haroon
PRE TASKSa. What are the most important issues when TeachingEnglish today?b. Basic Principles -Students and Teachers (Worksheets)c. Need Analysis - Students (worksheet)
THE AIMS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THISWORSHOPa) to help you to clear the importance as well as theaims of Vocabulary teaching at middle/high school .b) to introduce some commonly used techniques andmethods adopted in teaching vocabulary across thecurriculum.c) to prepare you for the coming teaching practice inthe new academic year
TEACHING VOCABULARY ACROSS THECURRICULUM How would you define Vocabulary? What is Vocabulary?Vocabulary can be defined as“the words we must know to communicate effectively: the wordsin speaking ( expressive vocabulary) and words in listening(receptive vocabulary)”(Neuman and Dwyer, 2009 p.385)
TEACHING VOCABULARY ACROSS THECURRICULUM IMPORTANCE OF VOCABULARY Vocabulary has long been an important topic in academic circles ,but today it could be considered a hottopic. Research on Vocabulary One important finding from research suggests vocabulary learning never stops.(Smith, 1998) It is a natural and lifelong phenomenon. Vocabulary learning is a continual process of encountering new words in meaningful andcomprehensible context.(Harmon,et al.2009). Can you think of an example of encountering words in meaningful context from daily life? Conclusion In short,throughout the life span ,people develop vocabulary effectively as they see wordsin meaningful contexts.
Different Kinds of Words RequireDifferent Kinds of Instruction! Learning a basic oral vocabulary Learning to read known words Learning new words representing known concepts Learning new words representing new concepts Learning new meanings for known words Clarifying and enriching the meanings of known words Moving words into students’ expressive vocabularies Building English learners’ vocabularies(Graves, 2006)
Limited Words (Marzano, 2001, p. 122)Estimated no of terms that can be taught at various Grade LevelsGrade Level No of word per week Total words in 32weeksCumulative TotalK 0 0 01 1 32 322 3 96 1283 4 128 2564 5 160 4165 10 320 7366 15 480 1,2167 20 640 1,8568 20 640 2,4969 25 800 3,29610 25 800 4,096
What does the literature say onVocabulary instruction? Vocabulary instruction should focus on critical words Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely ondefinitions. Teaching word parts enhances understanding. Different types of words require different types ofinstruction. Active engagement improves learning. Repeated exposure is essential.
Characteristics of Effective DirectVocabulary Instruction1. Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions.2. Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and nonlinguisticways.3. Effective vocabulary instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meaningsthrough multiple exposures.4. Teaching word parts enhances students’ understanding of terms.5. Different types of words require different types of instruction.6. Students should discuss the terms they are learning.7. Students should play with words.8. Instruction should focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancingacademic success.
The Case Against Providing OnlyDictionary Definitions When people first learn words, they understand them moreas descriptions as opposed to definitions (Beck, McKeown, &Kucan, 2002)Word DictionaryDefinitionDescriptionillusion An erroneousperception ofrealitySomething thatlooks like onething but is reallysomething else oris not there at all
Building Academic VocabularyA Six-Step Processweekly1 to 5 newwordsperiodicallyall previouswords4. Engage students in word activities5. Discuss words6. Engage student “play” with words1. Introduce wordYOUR FEEDBACK ? How would you introduce/teach newwords ? Student friendly descriptions, examples,explanations, images, etc. Must connect to students’ prior knowledge2. Students generalize meaning3. Students create nonlinguistic representation
ASCD. (2005). Building Academic Vocabulary: StudentNotebook.( Sample)
Discussion & Activities Graphic Organizers Concept MapSemantic Mapping (semantic mapping is visual strategy forvocabulary expansion and expansion of knowledge bydisplaying in categories words related to one another) Frayer Model (The Frayer Model is an adaption of the conceptmodel.It includes word,the definition,the characteristics
The Case Against Providing OnlyDictionary Definitions When people first learn words, they understand them moreas descriptions as opposed to definitions (Beck, McKeown, &Kucan, 2002)Word Dictionary Definition Descriptionillusion An erroneousperception of realitySomething that lookslike one thing but isreally something else oris not there at all
Research on Imagery as Elaboration637 percent higher than… …students who keptrepeating definitions.421 percent higher than… …students who wereusing the terms in asentence.Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary,on average, performed…# ofstudies(Pickering, 2007)
magnify word parts: magn (large, great) -ify (v. to do)
A Quick Note:Student Note Taking OrganizedVocabulary book WORKSHEETS Teacher-created Student notebooks Designatedsection ofnotebookStudents must be able to adjustand build on their understandingof words.