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Summary writing o level
 

Summary writing o level

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O' LEVEL ENGLISH

O' LEVEL ENGLISH
PAPER 2 READING

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    Summary writing o level Summary writing o level Presentation Transcript

    • BY
    • SUMMARY WHAT IS IT ? A summary , synopsis , or recap is a shorter version of the Original
    • SUMMARY WRITING  In summary writing, you are asked to condense a selected area of text by:  reproducing facts and ideas required by the question,  using your own words as far as possible,  keeping within the word limit specified by the question,  in a well-constructed continuous paragraph.  When marking the summary, the examiners will look at 2 categories:
    • CONTENT AND STYLE  Content - The key points you were asked to select from the passage.  Style  The accuracy and quality of your writing.  - The extent to which you are able to use your own words
    • TOP PRIORITY 1. Read the summary question carefully.
    • SUMMARY QUESTION  Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the ways in which technology has brought disadvantages and advantages to people’s working lives and behaviour.  USE THE MATERIAL IN PASSAGE A FROM PARAGRAPH 3 TO PARAGRAPH 7.  Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than words, (not counting the words given to help you begin.)  Begin your summary as follows: Modern technology has affected our lives so much that we… [25 marks]
    • MODERN INVENTION SUMMARY WRITING PAPER 2
    • PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH 1  Modern inventions have speeded up people’s lives amazingly. Motor-cars cover a hundred miles in little more than an hour, aircraft cross the world inside a day, while computers operate at lightning speed. Indeed, this love of speed seems never-ending. Every year motor cars are produced which go even faster and each new computer boasts of saving precious seconds in handling tasks. Then there is the speed with which we access information wherever we are. Pocket computers and mobile phones enable us to log on to news or contact our friends in seconds, even from some mountain top.
    • PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH 2 All this saves time, but at a price. When we lose or gain half a day in speeding across the world in an aeroplane, our bodies tell us so. We get the uncomfortable feeling known as jet-lag; our bodies feel that they have been left behind in another time zone. Again, spending too long at computers results in painful wrists and fingers. Mobile phones also have their dangers, according to some scientists; too much use may transmit harmful radiation into our brains, a consequence we do not like to contemplate.
    • PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH 3  Our behaviour, also, has felt the impact of modern technology. People seem to be in a rush, and increasingly impatient. Automatic doors on lifts never open quickly enough for us and we tap our feet impatiently if our computers take an extra few seconds to access information on the Internet. Even some of our clothes reflect this impatience, for we need to acquire the right “look” as quickly as possible. Who wants to wear denim jeans as stiff as tin when you can buy them pre-washed, pre-faded and maybe pre-patched at the knees?
    • . PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH 4  The obsession with saving time results in many people trying to imitate computes in an effort to handle several tasks simultaneously – multi-tasking , as it is called. They talk to somebody on the telephone, listen to somebody else nearby, and look at a computer screen, all at the same time. Frequently, the efficiency of their work suffers. Speed of thinking, too, is often confused with intelligence itself. The student who takes pain to weigh up a question before answering will not be considered as smart as those who snap their fingers and glibly claim they know the answer.
    • PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH 5  However, what do we do with the time we have saved? Certainly not relax, or so it seems. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to sit and do nothing, or even just one thing at a time. Perhaps the days are long gone when we might listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world.
    • PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH 6  There was a time when some people’s lives were devoted simply to the cultivation of the land or the care of cattle. No multi-tasking there; their lives proceeded at a much gentler pace, and in a familiar pattern. There is much that we might envy about a way of life like this. Yet before we do so, we must think of the hard tasks our ancestors faced: they farmed with bare hands, often lived close to hunger, and had to fashion tools from wood and stone. Modern machinery has freed people from that primitive existence.
    • PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH 7  Technology has also made work in factories far less tedious, with machines performing the dull, repetitive tasks previously carried out by human hands. The computer, too, has brought major advantages in printing processes. No longer has each individual letter of every word to be set by hand in wooden blocks, ready for the printing press to “read”. Such is the speed of a computer printer that an author can put the finishing touches to a book and see it printed on the same day. The motor-car has been blamed for its polluting effects and its demands for more and more roads, but it has banished the time- consuming and uncomfortable journeys endured in horse- drawn vehicles.
    • PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH 8  Despite the hold that speed has on our lives, its attractions are beginning to dwindle. Countries have abandoned thoughts of ultra- fast, supersonic passenger aeroplanes, and shaving minutes off journeys by road does not win the approval of society as a whole. Possibly the world’s long fascination with speed is finally ending
    • STEPS  1 2 3 4 Where is the area of passage to be summarised? What do you need to summarise? How many parts are there to answer? What is the word limit?
    • . SUMMARY QUESTION  Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the ways in which technology has brought disadvantages and advantages to people’s working lives and behaviour.  USE THE MATERIAL FROM PARAGRAPH 3 TO PARAGRAPH 7.  Your summary, which must be in continuous writing (not note form), must not be longer than 160 words, (not counting the words given to help you begin.)  Begin your summary as follows: Modern technology has affected our lives so much that we… [---
    • SUMMARY STEP 1  FROM  WHICH PARAGRAPH  TO  WHICH PARAGRAPH?
    • SUMMARY STEP 2 UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION REQUIREMENT: WHAT ARE WE SUPPOSED TO BE SUMMARISING?  Summarise the ways in which technology has brought disadvantages and advantages to people’s working lives and behaviour.
    • SUMMARY STEP 3 MARK OUT SENTENCE BY SENTENCE: WHAT WE ARE SUPPOSED TO BE SUMMARISING
    • PARAGRAPH 3  Our behaviour, also, has felt the impact of modern technology. People seem to be in a rush, and increasingly impatient. Automatic doors on lifts never open quickly enough for us and we tap our feet impatiently if our computers take an extra few seconds to access information on the Internet. Even some of our clothes reflect this impatience, for we need to acquire the right “look” as quickly as possible. Who wants to wear denim jeans as stiff as tin when you can buy them pre-washed, pre-faded and maybe pre-patched at the knees?
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HASBROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’SWORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR. Our behaviour, also, has felt the impact of modern technology. People seem to be in a rush, and increasingly impatient. Automatic doors on lifts never open quickly enough for us and we tap our feet impatiently if our computers take an extra few seconds to access information on the Internet. Even some of our clothes reflect this impatience, for we need to acquire the right “look” as quickly as possible. Who wants to wear denim jeans as stiff as tin when you can buy them pre-washed, pre-faded and maybe pre-patched at the knees? Our behaviour, also, has felt the impact of modern technology. People seem to be in a rush, and increasingly impatient. Automatic doors on lifts never open quickly enough for us and we tap our feet impatiently if our computers take an extra few seconds to access information on the Internet. Even some of our clothes reflect this impatience, for we need to acquire the right “look” as quickly as possible. Who wants to wear denim jeans as stiff as tin when you can buy them pre- washed, pre-faded and maybe pre- patched at the knees? DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES
    • PARAGRAPH 4  The obsession with saving time results in many people trying to imitate computes in an effort to handle several tasks simultaneously – multi- tasking , as it is called. They talk to somebody on the telephone, listen to somebody else nearby, and look at a computer screen, all at the same time. Frequently, the efficiency of their work suffers. Speed of thinking, too, is often confused with intelligence itself. The student who takes pain to weigh up a question before answering will not be considered as smart as those who snap their fingers and glibly claim they know the answer.
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HASBROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’SWORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR  The obsession with saving time results in many people trying to imitate computes in an effort to handle several tasks simultaneously – multi-tasking , as it is called. They talk to somebody on the telephone, listen to somebody else nearby, and look at a computer screen, all at the same time. Frequently, the efficiency of their work suffers. Speed of thinking, too, is often confused with intelligence itself. The student who takes pain to weigh up a question before answering will not be considered as smart as those who snap their fingers and glibly claim they know the answer.  ADVANTAGES  The obsession with saving time results in many people trying to imitate computes in an effort to handle several tasks simultaneously – multi-tasking , as it is called. They talk to somebody on the telephone, listen to somebody else nearby, and look at a computer screen, all at the same time. Frequently, the efficiency of their work suffers. Speed of thinking, too, is often confused with intelligence itself. The student who takes pain to weigh up a question before answering will not be considered as smart as those who snap their fingers and glibly claim they know the answer. DISADVANTAHES ADVANTAGES
    • PARAGRAPH 5  However, what do we do with the time we have saved? Certainly not relax, or so it seems. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to sit and do nothing, or even just one thing at a time. Perhaps the days are long gone when we might listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world.
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HAS BROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’S WORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR. However, what do we do with the time we have saved? Certainly not relax, or so it seems. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to sit and do nothing, or even just one thing at a time. Perhaps the days are long gone when we might listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world However, what do we do with the time we have saved? Certainly not relax, or so it seems. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to sit and do nothing, or even just one thing at a time. Perhaps the days are long gone when we might listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES
    • PARAGRAPH 6  There was a time when some people’s lives were devoted simply to the cultivation of the land or the care of cattle. No multi-tasking there; their lives proceeded at a much gentler pace, and in a familiar pattern. There is much that we might envy about a way of life like this. Yet before we do so, we must think of the hard tasks our ancestors faced: they farmed with bare hands, often lived close to hunger, and had to fashion tools from wood and stone. Modern machinery has freed people from that primitive existence.
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HASBROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’SWORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR There was a time when some people’s lives were devoted simply to the cultivation of the land or the care of cattle. No multi-tasking there; their lives proceeded at a much gentler pace, and in a familiar pattern. There is much that we might envy about a way of life like this. Yet before we do so, we must think of the hard tasks our ancestors faced: they farmed with bare hands, often lived close to hunger, and had to fashion tools from wood and stone. Modern machinery has freed people from that primitive There was a time when some people’s lives were devoted simply to the cultivation of the land or the care of cattle. No multi-tasking there; their lives proceeded at a much gentler pace, and in a familiar pattern. There is much that we might envy about a way of life like this. Yet before we do so, we must think of the hard tasks our ancestors faced: they farmed with bare hands, often lived close to hunger, and had to fashion tools from wood and stone. Modern machinery has freed people from that primitive existence. DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES
    • PARAGRAPH 7  Technology has also made work in factories far less tedious, with machines performing the dull, repetitive tasks previously carried out by human hands. The computer, too, has brought major advantages in printing processes. No longer has each individual letter of every word to be set by hand in wooden blocks, ready for the printing press to “read”. Such is the speed of a computer printer that an author can put the finishing touches to a book and see it printed on the same day. The motor-car has been blamed for its polluting effects and its demands for more and more roads, but it has banished the time-consuming and uncomfortable journeys endured in horse- drawn vehicles.
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HAS BROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’S WORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR  Technology has also made work in factories far less tedious, with machines performing the dull, repetitive tasks previously carried out by human hands. The computer, too, has brought major advantages in printing processes. No longer has each individual letter of every word to be set by hand in wooden blocks, ready for the printing press to “read”. Such is the speed of a computer printer that an author can put the finishing touches to a book and see it printed on the same day. The motor-car has been blamed for its polluting effects and its demands for more and more roads, but it has banished the time- consuming and uncomfortable journeys endured in horse- drawn vehicles.  DISADVANTAGES  Technology has also made work in factories far less tedious, with machines performing the dull, repetitive tasks previously carried out by human hands. The computer, too, has brought major advantages in printing processes. No longer has each individual letter of every word to be set by hand in wooden blocks, ready for the printing press to “read”. Such is the speed of a computer printer that an author can put the finishing touches to a book and see it printed on the same day. The motor-car has been blamed for its polluting effects and its demands for more and more roads, but it has banished the time-consuming and uncomfortable journeys endured in horse- drawn vehicles. DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES PARAGRAPH 7
    • SUMMARY STEP 4  Pick out the content points. Avoid the distractors and elaboration points. Never lose sight of what the question wants!  Distractors: phases or sentences which are irrelevant to the what the question wants.  Elaboration points: phases or sentences which do not form points in themselves, but give extra information as examples or explanations.  Remember that there will be more points available than the number you need to score full marks for content (15 marks). Therefore, it is possible to score full marks for content!
    • IGNORE  DISTRACTORS Irrelevant phrases or sentences
    • SUMMARY STEP 4  . An important reminder at this point:  1. Summary does not contain unnecessary information or elaboration or provision of examples.  2. When writing one, do not add any new information or change the meaning of the original text.
    • SUMMARY STEP 4  3. Check the points we have picked out from the paragraphs 3 to 7 to keep only the relevant points.  4. At the same time, run through the same set of paragraphs again to check if we have missed out any other relevant points.
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HAS BROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’S WORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR Our behaviour, also, has felt the impact of modern technology. People seem to be in a rush, and increasingly impatient. Automatic doors on lifts never open quickly enough for us and we tap our feet impatiently if our computers take an extra few seconds to access information on the Internet. Even some of our clothes reflect this our this impatience, for we need to acquire the right “look” as acquire the right “look” as quickly as possible. Who wants to wear denim jeans as stiff as tin when you can buy them pre-washed, pre-faded maybe pre-patched at the knees? Our behaviour, also, has felt the impact of modern technology. People seem to be in a rush, and increasingly impatient. Automatic doors on lifts never open quickly enough for us and we tap our feet impatiently if our computers take an extra few seconds to access information on the Internet. Even some of our clothes reflect this our this impatience, for we need to acquire the right “look” as acquire the right “look” as quickly as possible. Who quickly as possible. Who wants to wear denim jeans as stiff as tin when you can buy them pre-washed, pre-faded maybe pre-patched at the knees? Elaboratio n examples
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HAS BROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’S WORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR DISADVANTAGES PARAGRAPH 4 ADVANTAGES The obsession with saving time results in many people trying to imitate computes in an effort to handle several tasks simultaneously – multi-tasking , as it is called. They talk to somebody on the telephone, listen to somebody else nearby, and look at a computer screen, all at the same time. Frequently, the efficiency of their work suffers. Speed of thinking, too, is often confused with intelligence itself. The student who takes pain to weigh up a question before answering will not be considered as smart as those who snap their fingers and glibly claim they know the answer. The obsession with saving time results in many people trying to imitate computes in an effort to handle several tasks simultaneously – multi-tasking , as it is called. They talk to somebody on the telephone, listen to somebody else nearby, and look at a computer screen, all at the same time. Frequently, the efficiency of their work suffers. Speed of thinking, too, is often confused with intelligence itself. The student who takes pain to weigh up a question before answering will not be considered as smart as those who snap their fingers and glibly claim they know the answer.
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HAS BROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’S WORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR. However, what do we do with the time we have saved? Certainly not relax, or so it seems. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to sit and do nothing, or even just one thing at a time. Perhaps the days are long gone when we might listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world. . DISADVANTAGE S PARAGRPH 5 ADVANTAGE S However, what do we do with the time we have saved? Certainly not relax, or so it seems. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to sit and do nothing, or even just one thing at a time. Perhaps the days are long gone when we might listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world.
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HAS BROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’S WORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR There was a time when some people’s lives were devoted simply to the cultivation of the land or the care of cattle. No multi-tasking there; their lives proceeded at a much gentler pace, and in a familiar pattern. There is much that we might envy about a way of life like this. Yet before we do so, we must think of the hard tasks our ancestors faced: they farmed with bare hands, often lived close to hunger, and had to fashion tools from wood and stone. Modern machinery has freed people from that primitive existence. DISADVANTAG ES PARAGRAPH 6 ADVANTAGES There was a time when some people’s lives were devoted simply to the cultivation of the land or the care of cattle. No multi-tasking there; their lives proceeded at a much gentler pace, and in a familiar pattern. There is much that we might envy about a way of life like this. Yet before we do so, we must think of the hard tasks our ancestors faced: they farmed with bare hands, often lived close to hunger, and had to fashion tools from wood and stone. Modern machinery has freed people from that primitive existence.
    • SUMMARISE THE WAYS IN WHICH TECHNOLOGY HAS BROUGHT DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES TO PEOPLE’S WORKING LIVES AND BEHAVIOUR.  Technology has also made work in factories far less tedious, with machines performing the dull, repetitive tasks previously carried machines performing the dull, out by human hands  The computer, too, advantages in printing processes. No longer has each individual letter of every word to be set by hand in wooden blocks, ready for printing press to “read”. Such is the speed of a computer to a book and see it printed on the printer that an author can put the finishing touches to a book and see printed on the same day. The motor car has been blamed for its polluting effects and its demands for more and roads, but it has banished the time-consuming and uncomfortable journeys endured in horse-drawn vehicles. Technology has also made work in factories far less tedious, with machines performing the dull, repetitive tasks previously carried machines performing the dull, out by human hands •. The computer, too, advantages in printing processes. No longer has each individual letter of every word to be set by hand in wooden blocks, ready for printing press to “read”. •Such is the speed of a computer to a book and see it printed on the printer that an author can put the finishing touches to a book and see printed on the same day. The motor- car has been blamed for its polluting effects and its demands for more and roads, but it has banished the time- consuming and uncomfortable journeys endured in horse-drawn vehicles. DISADVANTAGE S PARAGRPH 7 ADVANTAGES
    • DISADVANTAGES & ADVANTAGES FOUND IN PARAGRAPH 3 People seem to be in a rush. People also seem to be increasingly impatient. we need to acquire the right "look” as quickly as possible  you can buy denim jeans pre-washed, pre-faded and maybe pre-patched at the knees.
    • DISADVANTAGES & ADVANTAGES FOUND IN PARAGRAPH 4 Many people become obsessed with saving time Multi-tasking reduces work efficiency drastically. Thinking speed is confused with intelligence.
    • DISADVANTAGES & ADVANTAGES FOUND IN PARAGRAPH 5 We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to relax Or even do just one thing at a time We are no longer have the patience to listen quietly to a story on the radio letting imagination take us into another world
    • DISADVANTAGES & ADVANTAGES FOUND IN PARAGRAPH 6  We no longer need to use our bare hands for hard manual tasks.  We no longer suffer from hunger.  Modern machinery frees us from primitive existence
    • DISADVANTAGES & ADVANTAGES FOUND IN PARAGRAPH 7  Factory machines free us from dull and repetitive tasks.  Computers revolutionised the printing process  An author can put the  finishing touches to a book and see it printed on the same day.  Motorcars make travelling less time-consuming.  Also make travelling comfortable
    • SUMMARY WRITING  Edit  For these  mistakes PUNCTUATI ON TENSES SENTENCE STRUCTU RE
    • SUMMARY STEP . From POINTS to SENTENCES From SENTENCES to SUMMARY PARAGRAPH Onwards to the 150-WORD SUMMARY
    • People seem to be in a rush... you can buy denim jeans pre-washed, pre-faded and maybe pre-patched at the knees People also seem to be increasingly impatient we need to acquire the right "look” as quickly as possible.
    • Many people become obsessed with saving time. . Multi-tasking reduces work efficiency drastically. Thinking speed is confused with intelligence
    • We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to relax Or even do just one thing at a time. We no longer have the patience to listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world.
    • We no longer need to use our bare hands for hard manual tasks. We no longer suffer from hunger. Modern machinery frees us from primitive existence.
    • . Factory machines free us from dull and repetitive tasks Computers revolutionised theprinting process An author can put the finishing touches to a book and see it printed on the same day. Motorcars make travelling less time-consuming. Also make travelling comfortable.
    • SUMMARY STEP 6 DRAFT ONE Modern technology has affected our lives so much that we seem to be increasingly impatient and in a hurry. We strive to acquire the right “look” as quickly as possible. Many become obsessed with saving time. Multi-tasking reduces work efficiency drastically. Thinking speed is confused with intelligence. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to relax or even do just one thing at a time. We no longer have the patience to listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world. However we no longer need to use our bare hands for hard manual tasks or suffer from hunger. Machines free us from primitive existence and dull and repetitive tasks. Computers greatly simplify the printing process. An author touches up his book and gets imprinted on the same day. Motorcars make travelling less time-consuming and more comfortable.
    • SUMMARY STEP 7 USE YOUR OWN WORDS 1.At the O level, it is important to USE YOUR OWN WORDS, as far as possible. 2. However, do not change the meaning or add new meaning to the original text as a result of using your own words.
    • SUMMARY STEP 7 USE YOUR OWN WORDS 3. Use your own words can also be attained through sentence restructuring. 4. Use your own words should be carried out when editing your Draft One to establish your Draft Two.
    • 3 WAYS TO REPHRASE YOUR SENTENCES CONNECTOR S SYNONYMS OR SYNONYMOU S PHEASES SENTENCE STRUCTUR E
    • SUMMARY STEP 7 EDITING DRAFT ONE TO ESTABLISH DRAFT TWO FOR HANDING 1. In. Modern technology has affected our lives so much that we seem to be increasingly impatient and in a hurry. We strive to acquire the right “look” as quickly as possible. Many become obsessed with saving time. Multi-tasking reduces work efficiency drastically. Thinking speed is confused with intelligence. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to relax or event just do things one by one. We lose our patience to listen quietly to a radio broadcast, letting imagination take us into another world. However we no longer need to use our hands for difficult manual tasks or suffer from hunger. Machines free us from primitive existence and dull and repetitive tasks. Computers greatly simplify the printing process. An author edits and prints his book on the same day. Motorcars make travelling less time-consuming and more comfortable. [132 words]
    • LEARNING POINTS  Let's review the summary writing skills we have learned together!  Summary Question  Read the question properly.  Pick out the key instruction words.  Check the area of text to be summarised.  Keep to the word limit laid down for the summary.  Use the opening words provided in the question. 