Common errors in English by haroon


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Common errors in English by haroon

  1. 1. COMMON ERRORS IN ENGLISHBY MUHAMMAD HAROON BAIGDepartment of English Language and
  3. 3. ERROR CATEGORIESCategory of Error ExampleIncorrect use of capital lettersSpelling mistakes .Article mistakesLayout/Spacing/MarginsSubject/Verb agreementInaccurate Word ChoiceVerb tense conversion mistakesSingular/Plural mistakesThe student may have entered “English are spokenall over the world” instead of “English is spoken allover the world”.Pronoun Errors .
  4. 4. Explanation about the cause of amistakeLanguage Transfer.Overgeneralization of the target languagerules.Ignorance of rule restrictions.Incomplete application of rules.False concepts hypothesized.Carelessness.
  5. 5. The rules for using capital letters are mostly verysimple.(a) The first word of a sentence, or of a fragment,begins with a capital letter:• Will you please help me in my assignment?• Few pupils can locate Iraq or Japan on a map ofthe world
  6. 6.  Next Sunday Pakistan will hold a generalelection. Football practice takes place on Wednesdaysand Fridays. However, the names of seasons are notwritten with a capital: Like cricket, baseball is played in the summer.
  7. 7.  Hassan speaks English, French, Italian andUrdu. I need to work on my Spanish irregular verbs. Among the major languages of are Hindi,Gujarati and Tamil. These days, few students study Latin and Greek
  8. 8.  Im doing A-levels in history, geography andEnglish. Newton made important contributions tophysics and mathematics. She is studyingFrench literature.
  9. 9.  The result of the French election is still in doubt. The American and Russian negotiators are closeto agreement. There are no mountains in the Dutch landscape.
  10. 10.  The Serbs and the Croats have become bitterenemies. Pakistan’s most popular player is a ShahidAfridi from Karachi
  11. 11.  There will be a debate between Professor Rehman andDoctor Kadir. The Queen will address the House of Commons today. Many people mistakenly believe that Mexico is in SouthAmerica. My friend Imran is training for the Winter Olympics. Next week President Bush will be meeting ChancellorKohl
  12. 12.  London was a prosperous city during theMiddle Ages. Britain was the first country to profit from theIndustrial Revolution. The Greeks were already in Greece during theBronze Age.
  13. 13.  We have long breaks at Christmas and Easter. During Ramadan, one may not eat beforesundown. The children greatly enjoy Eid-ul-Fitr.
  14. 14.  The principal religions of the world is Islam. The Indian cricket team includes Hindus,Muslims, Sikhs and Parsees. The Prophet(PBUH) was born in Mecca. The Old Testament begins with Genesis.
  15. 15.  The Nation is the most popular newspaper. GOOD BYE MR CHIPS was written by Catherine.
  16. 16.  Thomas Edison famously observed "Genius isone per cent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." But there is no capital letter if the quotation isnot a complete sentence: The Minister described the latestunemployment figures as "disappointing".
  17. 17.  the first word of a sentence or fragment the name of a day or a month the name of a language a word expressing a connection with a place the name of a nationality or an ethnic group a proper name the name of a historical period the name of a holiday a significant religious term the first word, and each significant word, of a title the first word of a direct quotationwhich is a sentence a brand name a Roman numeral the pronoun I
  18. 18.  Definition: Lack of subject/verb agreementoccurs when a verb does not agree in numberwith its subject. Examples: One of my teachers are in the office.* Neither Ahmed nor Imran are here today.* No one in the crowd of 10,000 spectatorswatching the football game seem tounderstand why the player was penalized.*
  19. 19. A singular subject demands a singular verb; aplural subject demands a plural verb. That isthe simple principle behind subject-verbagreement.This presentation will explore some of thedifficulties we have with subject-verbagreement and provide some notes aboutavoiding agreement problems in our ownwriting.Links between subjects and verbs willbe shown with red lines.
  20. 20. Indefinite pronouns such as everyone andeverybody feel plural to some writers, but theyare always singular — and take a singular verb.Everyone associated with the projectis proud to be part of the effort.Someone has to be responsible.Don’t be confused by phrases that comebetween the subject pronoun and its verb —phrases that may contain plural words.Each of the project partners is responsiblefor writing a chapter summary.
  21. 21. The verb that accompanies pronouns such asall and some will be determined by whether thepronoun is referring to something that isCOUNTABLE or not.Some of the students in the cafeteria have votedalready.Some of the grain was ruined by the flood.“Students” is countable, but we cannot count “the grain”; it isone lump, one quantity.None is usually regarded as singular, but it canbe used as a plural pronoun.None of the representatives has indicated how heor she will vote. OR None of the representativeshave indicated how they will vote.
  22. 22. With fractional expressions (fractions ordecimal equivalents), the verb will bedetermined by what is being measured: is itCOUNTABLE or not.Two-fifths of the grain is ruined.One-half of the students were convinced thatthere would be no final exams this year.Of all the returns we have counted so far, fiftypercent are in favor of the referendum.A majority of the student body is in favor ofasking the Dean to stay another year.
  23. 23. Phrases such as together with, along with,and as well as seem to join subjects, butthey do not work the same as and: they arenot conjunctions.Some of the hay in the barn, as well as somemajor pieces of farm equipment, was ruinedin the flood.The major spending bill before Congress, togetherwith some other bills that are awaiting action, isgoing to cost taxpayers plenty.
  24. 24. In formal writing, when either and neitherappear as a subject alone (without theirsidekicks or and nor), they are singular.This is true even though the subject seemsto be two things.Neither of these choices appears to besatisfactory.The purchasing office will lend me acompany car or compensate me for travelexpenses. Either is fine with me.When either and neither act as correlativeconjunctions, however, life becomes a bit morecomplicated!
  25. 25. When either and neither act as correlativeconjunctions, the subject that is closer tothe verb determines the number (singular orplural form) of the verb.Neither the principal nor the teachers are atfault.Either the teachers or the principal has to beresponsible for the year-end festival.Has either the President or his aides been intouch with you?
  26. 26. When an expletive construction (there is,there are, here is, etc.) begins a sentence,the subject (which determines the numberof the verb) comes after the verb.There are several explanations for the CivilWar.We were looking down the street when —allof a sudden — here come Joe and his twobrothers.If the management team takes thisattitude, there is very little latitude fornegotiation.
  27. 27. © Capital CommunityAt its best, English spelling can beperplexing, especially for non-nativespeakers and writers. The followingrules and suggestions are offered asaids. You will always be able to findexceptions to these rules, but mostwriters find them helpful.
  28. 28. © Capital Communityi before e, except after c . . . .achieve, believe, bier, brief, hygiene, grief, thief, friend, grieve, chief,fiend, patience, pierce, priestceiling, conceive, deceive, perceive, receipt,receive, deceit, conceit. . . and in words that rhyme with hay. . .neighbor, freight, beige, sleigh, weight, vein, and weigh. . . and some other exceptions. . . .either, neither, feint, foreign, forfeit, height, leisure,weird, seize
  29. 29. © Capital CommunityA final y changes to i when an ending isadded . supply becomes suppliesworry becomes worriedmerry becomes merrier. . . except when that ending is -ing. . .crying, studying. . . And when the y is preceded by avowel. . . . obeyed, saying
  30. 30. © Capital CommunityA silent e is dropped when adding anending that begins with a vowel . . .advance + -ing = advancingsurprise + -ing = surprising. . . but kept when the ending begins with aconsonant . . . advancement, likeness. . . unless the e is preceded by a vowel. .. .argue + -ment = argumenttrue + -ly = truly
  31. 31. © Capital CommunityAdding a prefix seldom changes thespelling of a word.misspelledunnecessarydissatisfieddisinterestedmisinform
  32. 32. © Capital CommunityWe form plurals in English by adding-s or -es. shoesporchesboxesbushesblitzesFor words ending in a consonant plus -y, change the -y to -i and add -es.For proper nouns, keep the -y.toyscompaniesKennedys
  33. 33. © Capital CommunityWhen adding an ending to a word thatends in a consonant, we double thatconsonant when the ending begins with avowel and the last syllable of the word isaccented and that syllable ends in a singlevowel followed by a single consonant.Now that’s a mouthful! Let’s look atsome examples. . . .
  34. 34. © Capital CommunityADMIT + -ed = ADMITTEDWhen adding an ending to a word that ends in a consonant, we double thatconsonant when the ending begins with a vowel and the last syllable of the wordis accented and that syllable ends in a single vowel followed by a singleconsonant.ADMIT is accented on the last syllable and the final consonant is preceded bya vowel, so we double the t before adding, for instance, an -ing or -ed :admitting, admitted.
  35. 35. © Capital CommunityFLAP + -ed = FLAPPEDWhen adding an ending to a word that ends in a consonant, we double thatconsonant when the ending begins with a vowel and the last syllable of the wordis accented and that syllable ends in a single vowel followed by a singleconsonant.FLAP contains only one syllable, which means that syllable has to be accented.The final consonant is preceded by a vowel, so we double that final consonant:flapped, flapping.
  36. 36. © Capital CommunityCOUNSEL + -ing = COUNSELINGWhen adding an ending to a word that ends in a consonant, we double thatconsonant when the ending begins with a vowel and the last syllable of the wordis accented and that syllable ends in a single vowel followed by a singleconsonant.COUNSEL contains two syllables and the final consonant is preceded by avowel, but the word is accented on the first syllable, so we don’t double theconsonant before adding an ending.
  37. 37. © Capital CommunityBEGIN + -ing = BEGINNINGWhen adding an ending to a word that ends in a consonant, we double thatconsonant when the ending begins with a vowel and the last syllable of the wordis accented and that syllable ends in a single vowel followed by a singleconsonant.BEGIN contains two syllables and the final consonant is preceded by a vowel,and the word is accented on the last syllable, so we double the consonantbefore adding an ending: beginner, beginning
  38. 38. © Capital CommunityDESPAIR + -ed = DESPAIREDWhen adding an ending to a word that ends in a consonant, we double thatconsonant when the ending begins with a vowel and the last syllable of the wordis accented and that syllable ends in a single vowel followed by a singleconsonant.DESPAIR contains two syllables, and the final syllable is accented, but the finalconsonant is preceded by two vowels, not a single vowel, so we don’t doublethat final consonant when we add an ending.
  39. 39.  Other errors that came up in the papers includethe following: Sentences that are too flawed grammatically forme to identify a specific error Inaccurate spacing Missing words Missing quotation marks Incorrectly used colons Incorrectly used brackets Inaccurate quotations
  40. 40.  In conclusion, it’s quite interesting to note that,while most linguists agree with Aitchinson, whosays that correction doesn’t help the languageacquisition process of internalizing rules, teachersstill do tend to instinctively correct in the formalteaching process. There are probably a numberreasons for this, for example the teachers’ ownexperience as a language student, and the fact thatit seems more ‘teacher-like’ to do something aboutmistakes. But I believe that by modifying yourapproach from a more punitive one to a moreempowering one, you will be making the process oflearning a language both more human and moreefficient.