Buckminster Fuller’s knowledge
building curve says that new
knowledge that doubled every
century shall now double every
If Rip Van Winkle were to wake up today, he
would be awestruck by the multimedia
messages and the world around him.
But if he were to wake up in a classroom,
the only thing that would have changed is
the colour of the blackboard!!!
• Einstein said “ We cannot solve problems using
the same kind of thinking that we used when we
created them.” Applied to education, we cannot
educate today's children using the same
methods we used yesterday.
In education, most of the change has
focused on Teaching-Learning. The
focus now is shifting to
assessment, which is believed to be
the driving change in education.
• The challenge lies in reformulating
curriculum, reformatting standards, developing
instructional strategies to deliver them and
designing assessments that measure these
Using the data driven approach
towards assessment, teachers and
students would have multiple ways
to measure competencies. A balance
of formative, summative and
alternate assessment would be the
• Tests would be taken over time as students show
readiness and mastery of content. Test scores
would show growth rather than merely
comparisons to others.
•Fundamental skills include core
Reading, Writing, Math, Science
and Social studies.
Once the foundations are
built, 21st century skills
support, enable and facilitate the
WHAT THEN ARE THESE 21st
Initiative and self direction
3) LIVING IN THE WORLD
Civic responsibility and
Leadership and Responsibility
College and career readiness
21st CENTURY ASSESSMENT
• 21st century assessment will be part of a
larger system that supports student
learning, and is incorporated at all levels.
ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE
• Visible performance based work generates
data that can inform curriculum and
• Assessments are developed keeping
incorporating best practices in feedback and
• Feedback is to be targeted to the goal and
ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE
• Lesson design, curriculum and
assessment require flexibility.
• Assessment needs to be adaptable to
students and settings.
• Students‟ decisions, actions, applications
vary, thus making assessment flexible too.
ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE
• Assessment needs to be incorporated on a
day to day basis, rather than a once a year
• Assessments are informed by awareness of
meta cognition. Students consider their
choices, identify alternative strategies and
represent knowledge through different means.
ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE
• The desired 21st Century goals and
objectives should be clearly stated and
• Learning objectives, Instructional
strategies and assessment methods
should be clearly aligned.
• Students build on prior learning in a logical
ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE
USING MULTIPLE METHODS.
• Assessment continuum should include a
spectrum of strategies.
• Students should be able to demonstrate
knowledge and skills through relevant
tasks, projects and performances.
• Authentic performance based assessment
should be emphasized.
ASSESSMET SHOULD BE
• Results should be routinely posted on a
database along with standard based
• Students receive routine feedback of their
• Educational community recognizes
achievement of students beyond standardized
ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE
• It should be precise and technically
sound, so that use are consistent with their
administration and interpretation.
• It should measure stated objectives and
21st century skills with legitimacy and
• Assessment should be fair to all.
BLENDING OF FORMATIVE AND
• Formative assessment requires a systematic
and planned approach. Evidence is gathered
throughout the instructional process and
teaching is responsive to that evidence.
• Summative assessments are administered at
the end of the instruction. It provides a
snapshot of a student‟s knowledge at that
• There is little consensus on what 21st century skills
• Complex thinking is difficult to express. Assessing it
will require explicit processes and measures.
• Need to alter the perception that 21st century skills
are an add on. Instead they need to be integrated
into the teaching learning system.
• Intensive professional development is required for
students, teachers, school leaders and policy
THE GRASSHOPPER AND
If instruction involves the business
of conveying knowledge, then
assessment is sometimes the
ASSESSMENT OF 21st CENTURY
SKILLS IS A LENS THROUGH WHICH
TO VIEW CONTENT KNOWLEDGE.
• Rubrics are generally the most specific of the
21st century measures and include explicit
indicators of achievement at all levels.
• They are more descriptive than rubrics and can
be used by both teachers and students for peer
and self evaluation.
RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMM.
message for a
present info to
Is aware or the
can organize the
info to meet the
Unclear of the
the purpose of
some facts in a
purpose of the
Uses a full range
of resources to
selects a few
are a good
match for the
only a few
• Checklists are more functional and contain a list of essential targets
and desired outcomes. They can be used while the students are in
the process of learning or on the completion of the activity.
CHECKILST FOR PRESENTATION
Introduction captures attention of audience
Objectives are stated in the introduction
Content is clear and understandable.
Presentation is logically sequenced
Projects voice so all can hear
Uses technology to effectively support message
Summary synthesizes main idea.
• Learning contracts are agreements between students
and teachers that describe the learning outcomes and
strategies for achieving them.
• They give the students a choice over personal goals
and strategies to achieve these goals.
• They provide for differentiation of learning and
assessing and can be used to hold learners
• They encourage a blending of core content and 21st
TOPIC, UNIT OR
Completion dates and deadlines:
Resources recommended/ required
Assessment of learning ( formative and
• Self reflection and assessment are important lifelong
skills that can be developed and supported in the
• Self assessment may be daily or long term, oral or
written, done individually or in small groups.
• Elements of self assessment include opportunity for
reviewing learning, identifying confusion, providing
evidence of learning, evaluating progress, planning and
SAMPLE SELF ASSESSMENT
What did I learn?
What worked and what did not?
What steps can I take to improve my writing?
What three habits of mind did I use and how did I apply them?
How well did I listen to the ideas of others and make a
contribution to the group?
• If I were to do this again, here is what I would do differently:
• It is important to make students aware of the importance of non
judgmental peer review and to make it a regular part of the learning
• A structure such as a checklist can help students stay focused on the
Peer Assessment of Group Project
4=Strongly agree 3=Agree 2=disagree 1=strongly disagree
All members contributed equally and fairly to the group.
Members of the group worked together well
When we disagreed , we were able to settle it promptly without
hurting each others feelings
Group members encouraged each other towards achievement
• Teacher can use formal or informal observation to
assess student understanding to use 21st century skills.
• Observation can be anecdotal or may be combined
with a checklist or rubric.
• Teacher can note the use of web based reference
material, actively listening to others‟ contributions,
building on others ideas, adding original ideas to the
discussion etc. to the checklist.
• Logs help students track their work towards a target. They can be
used by both teachers and students to show progress towards a
• Eg, a student assembling an electronic portfolio may track his own
progress, set schedules and post messages to other students.
PROJECT PROGRESS LOGS:
What goals have I worked towards?
What have I learned?
What are my next steps? What is the timeframe?
Whom can I collaborate with to improve my work?
How have I used my critical thinking skills?
How would I assess my progress so far?
• Graphic organizers can be used to assess students‟ knowledge,
understanding and critical thinking.
• A design that contains only partial information can be given to the
students , who can then fill it with teacher support.
• You tube
• They provide a window into a student‟s thinking and
• A journal entry begins with a response to a question.
“Compare a decision you had to make to the one made
by the character in the story”. Or “How will you use
your new knowledge in your next blog posting?”
• They help students assimilate new content, describe
points of confusion or reflect on controversial issues.
• They can be supported with wikis and other supporting
• Formal and informal questioning can be used to move
students forward with their learning.
• Formally they can be used to assess previous
knowledge in the beginning of a lesson or for closure of
• A series of questions ranging in cognitive complexity
from understanding to application, analysis and
synthesis can add depth to the lesson.
• Portfolios can be used to demonstrate processes and
growth in relation to selected Learning Objectives.
• They can be used to display 21st century skills such as
Problem solving, creativity and information literacy and
reflect strengths and weaknesses.
• To be objective and comprehensive, assessment of
student portfolios should be based on contracts,
rubrics, peer/self assessment.
• E- portfolios are becoming increasingly popular.
• Definitions of Critical Thinking
include concepts of analyzing
information, applying strategies
for deciding, readiness to
consider ideas ,using logical
enquiry, making inferences,
appraising evidence, testing
conclusions, making accurate
judgments and analyzing
Mrs GREENLY’S CLASSROOM
• Mrs Greenly is covering an interdisciplinary unit on Genetically
• Begins with an introductory KWL activity, wherein students write on
sticky notes and paste them on the KWL chart.
• She determines their knowledge level and presents them with core
knowledge and vocabulary needed along with a self assessment
rubric where students can track their progress.
• After a quick formative assessment she decides which resources and
strategies to use.
• She puts the students in groups to read two opposing articles on GM
• Groups are then reformulated with student choice. They can choose
to be a scientist, farmer, nutritionist, politician etc.
• Using previously acquired digital literacy skills, they complete
a web quest for in depth information on GM foods.
• A world forum is set up with representatives from each interest
group. Some students present the groups‟ findings while
others become part of the evaluation panel.
• All students participate in peer review, using a specially
• Finally, the groups prepare a product that can be a brochure,
power point presentation, prezi, video, website, blog, poster or
any other platform.
• Each group presents 5 important facts for the others to know.
• The desired critical thinking skills are woven into the
assignment and are clear to the students.
• Problem solving is the
basic process of
and making informed
• It is used when an
easy answer to
problem does not exist.
It involves the following
Knowledge and Skills:
Describing the problem with
depth and clarity.
Evaluating alternatives and
Gathering information to
make informed choices.
Evaluating the problem. If
required, revisit it.
STEPS IN PROBLEM
• Understand the problem
• Brainstorm possible solutions
• Devise a plan
• Carry out the plan
• Evaluate the result
Beyond the classroom, Problem solving has global,
local and personal applications. Those of us
who develop problem solving skills are better
equipped at solving conflicts in the real world.
• Create a pretend scenario for students that requires
them to think creatively to make it through. An example
might be getting stranded on an island, knowing that
help will not arrive for three days. The group has a
limited amount of food and water and must create
shelter from items around the island. Encourage
working together as a group and hearing out every
child that has an idea about how to make it through the
three days as safely and comfortably as possible.
PROBLEM SOLVING RUBRIC
COMPETENT APPRENTICE NOVICE
basics of the
some details &
Explains a part
of the problem
but has trouble
all parts of the
of the problem.
Comes up with a
Described 1 or
Had no solution
or is not sure of
picks one that
Gave a simple
Is not able to
Analyzes all the
picks up one that
• Creativity is the ability or
power to create, to produce
through imaginative skill
and to bring into existence
• Originality, uniqueness,
connections and forming
new patterns are the core
• Creativity is the process
of making something that
hasn't been made before
- be it a painting, an
idea, a solution, a
relationship or a new
dance move. It is a set of
beliefs and attitudes as
much as it is a toolbox of
skills and knowledge.
PODUCTS THAT STUDENTS
• A dog leash/collar that carries the dog‟s water bottle.
• A twirling spaghetti fork and an automatic coffee
• A car seat for a pet.
• A sleeve sneeze catcher.
• An educational twister game.
• A new musical instrument with both percussion and
• In my Physics class (VIII) at the end of the session when the
students are familiar with the concepts of air resistance,
buoyant force, Newton‟s laws, they are given to design an
Egg Lander that would land an egg from a height without
• Students are divided into groups of 4 or 5 and work
collectively to create an Egg Lander, that they research,
design, test their design, modify if needed and finally launch
• Each group then prepares a product like a ppt, video, prezi
• Metacognition is an expensive way of
saying “Thinking about one‟s own Thinking”.
• It requires taking active control over thinking
and learning and using strategies for
enhancing learning and performance.
• It considers how learners take in, store and
• Darwin observed that “Ignorance more frequently
begets confidence than does knowledge”
• In classrooms, ignorance cannot be bliss.
• When an athletic team loses a game, they go
back and review the tapes. They analyze errors
and device strategies to improve their
performance in the next game. This is
SELF ASSESSMENT CAN HELP
STUDENTS UNCOVER THEIR THINKING
• Assessment strategies can be wrapped into other
• Think aloud: Students talk, think and record their
• Written responses to writing prompts.
• Graphic organizers while the work is in progress
• Anecdotal records.
• Questionnaires that give students insight into their
•What do you know about this topic?
•What do you want to know about this topic?
•What resources are you considering exploring?
•Where did you start? What did you do first? Why?
•Describe your steps.
•Which resources seem worthwhile? Why?
•How did you know you were doing along? What did you ask yourself?
•What problems did you run into? How did you adjust your process in
•How did you know you reached your goal?
•What worked to produce a high quality product?
•Describe any new strategies you used.
•What would you do differently if you were starting over?
11/24/2013 you do in relation to the requirements of the assignment?
2006 All Rights Reserved
• Communication involves creating meaning, imparting
knowledge, skills and beliefs to others and receiving
inputs from multiple sources.
• Learning in school and in the outside world is based on
effective communication. Today‟s teacher has a vast
array of resources like audio, video, digital images and
technologies that connect students in real time, even to
• Students can record their learning and explain their
thinking, share with others, display their work, thus
increasing the relevance and meaning of knowledge.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR THE
21ST CENTURY CLASSROOM.
• Verbal communication such as conversation, debate,
persuasion, constructive dialogue etc.
• Receptive communication skills: Paying attention,
listening and comprehending.
• Reading, viewing and listening to multiple types of
• Producing effective communication through oral,
written, visual, non verbal and technical media.
• Expressing views and preferences in a neutral manner.
ACTIVITIES THAT INVOLVE
They can be integrated with other instruction or used as a
Communication skills can be assessed using checklists and
• Collaboration is learning to plan and work together, to
consider diverse perspectives, to participate in discourse
by contributing, listening and supporting others. It is
about recognizing and valuing individual contributions
towards the group‟s productivity and improvement.
• Collaborative learning is based on the idea of synergyThat the whole equals more than the individual parts.
• A brilliant example: Facebook was created from the
collaborated ideas of many people
• Balance listening and speaking, leading and following
in a group.
• Demonstrate flexibility, compromise, empathy.
• Consider, prioritize and advance the needs of the
• Work together to create new ideas and new products.
• Share responsibility for completing work.
• Work respectfully with others to make decisions that
include the views of multiple individuals.
Checklist / rating
• Self and peer
• Teacher observation
• Student logs and
• Visual literacy refers to both understanding
(interpretation, analysis, evaluation) and
production ( creativity and synthesis of
ideas) of digital images.
• Methods and modes include pictures,
photographs, comics, symbols, maps,
graphic organizers, infographics, graphs,
• Students of class 8 of my School worked in
groups to research on topics of their choice and
prepared infographics as the end product, to
illustrate what they have learnt.
• A checklist or a rubric to assess Visual literacy
should include organization, labelling, use of
colour etc. This will help the students to
understand the grading criteria and it will also
ensure consistency on the part of the teacher.
A CHECKLIST OR RUBRIC FOR
ASSESING STUDENT WORK
Interprets symbols used in the imagery.
Understands meanings and draws inferences.
Compares source to other resources on the topic
Draws on previous knowledge to make meaning.
Critically analyzes the work.
Translates images into written language in one‟s own
• Creates a visual response to the work.
• 8 to 18 year olds are spending 8 to 10 hours a day
interfacing with media in the form of TV, music,
computer, smart phones, video games.
• Nicholas Carr states that deep reading is being
replaced by superficial and cursory learning, die to the
bombardment of the brain with constant stimuli.
• In his research found that digital natives are better at
multitasking and short term decision making and less
capable of complex reasoning and emotional aptitudes
THE CHANGING ROLE OF
• The teacher‟s role has changed from a deliverer of
information to that of a conductor of learning who helps
the students to reflect and apply what they have learnt.
• Thus, assessment too must be flexible. Multiple
methods using multiple modalities will help students
demonstrate their skills and knowledge in many ways.
• Technology will both guide and track learning and
Rubrics and checklists
Thinking and acting logs and journals
Peer and self assessment
Observation, student conferences
CIVIC & CITIZENSHIP SKILLS
• These are the skills that we need to live in a world that
we cannot visualize today.
• Studies have shown that these skills can be explicitly
• Value of civic engagement has shown to improve with
participation, increased understanding, tolerance and
respect for others.
• Prepare a skit on Historical figures and
present them to the elementary/junior
• Topic Day: Students can research topics
like „Services for seniors‟, „Health care for
the underprivileged children‟ prepare and
present a product like a ppt, poster, prezi,
tweet, infograph, website, blog etc.
• Cultural awareness to recognize, respect
and accept the interdependence of all
cultures and countries.
• Education should empower students to
build a knowledge of global issues.
• Student exchange programs provide both
the cultures an opportunity to learn from
• Youth for Understanding is an International
Cultural program that my school is
COLLEGE AND CAREER /
• Begin with a good foundation in core areas, but academic
knowledge alone is not enough.
• Students should be able to rise to higher levels of Blooms
Taxonomy, solve problems, draw on their creativity, and
are insightful into how they think and learn.
• Communication, Collaboration, Technology expertise build
workplace skills that employees value.
• The emphasis on college and career skills to reduce the
gap between skills learnt in high school and skills needed
in college and the workplace.
MYTHS AND TRUTHS ABOUT 21ST CENTURY
TEACHING, LEARNING & ASSESSING
It is not for everyone
Students of all ages, grades, subjects, genders,
cultures and achievement levels benefit from it.
It is too hard for some
When used thoughtfully and appropriately, all level of
Classrooms will become
There may be some messiness, but learning occurs
in a non linear fashion
It is more important to
teach core content
Core content must be integrated with 21st century
skills, as they support each other. They must be
It makes more work for
It is a change that requires a different approach to
teaching and assessing.
It will replace tests
It will increase the spectrum of assessment that are
used to determine learning.
• Assessing 21st century skills by Laura Greenstein.