THE SCOPE OFNANOTECHNOLOGY SUBMITTED BY: HARKIRAT BEDI 09106028 I.T.
WHY NANOTECHNOLOGY? Nanotechnology has a huge scope in the coming generations:FUNDAMENTALLY NEW PROPERTIES Once in Nanophase, copper is five times stronger than the ordinary metals. Nanophase ceramics are highly resisting to breaking. EXCITING NEW MATERIALS Carbon nanotubes are fantastic conductors STRANGE SIZE DEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR ! Eg. Nanoparticles of Gold are pink in color
WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY? www.phys.psu.edu www.nasa.gov www.purdue.edu Semiconducting metal junction formed An engineered DNA strand by two carbon nanotubes pRNA tiny motorNanotechnology is the study of the control of matter onan atomic and molecular scaleIt is the creation of functional materials, devices andsystems, through the understanding and control of matterat dimensions in the nanometer scale length (1-100nm), in order to create new properties and to stimulateparticular desired functionalities.
WHAT IS NANOSCALE ? ww.mathworks.com Fullerenes C60 www.physics.ucr.edu 12,756 Km 22 cm 0.7 nm1.27 × 107 m 0.22 m 0.7 × 10-9 m 10 millions times 1 billion times smaller smaller
NANOSCALE SIZE EFFECTS • Realization of miniaturized devices and systems while providing MORE FUNCTIONALITY• Attainment of HIGH SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME RATIO• Manifestation of novel phenomena and properties, including changes in: - Physical Properties (e.g. melting point) - Chemical Properties (e.g. reactivity) - Electrical Properties (e.g. conductivity) - Mechanical Properties (e.g. strength) - Optical Properties (e.g. light emission)
HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY• ~ 2000 Years Ago – Sulfide nano crystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye hair• ~ 1000 Years Ago (Middle Ages) – Gold nano particles of different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass windows• 1959 – “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” by R. FEYNMAN->• 1974 – “Nanotechnology” - Taniguchi uses the term nanotechnology for the first time• 1981 – IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope• 1985 – “Buckyball” - Scientists at Rice University and University of Sussex discover C60• 1986 – “Engines of Creation” - First book on nanotechnology by K. Eric Drexler. Atomic Force Microscope invented by Binnig, Quate and Gerbe• 1989 – IBM logo made with individual atoms• 1991 – Carbon nanotube discovered by S. Iijima• 1999 – “Nanomedicine” – 1st nanomedicine book by R. Freitas• 2000 – “National Nanotechnology Initiative” launched
NanoXplorer IDE• Software forDesigning,Visualizingand SimulatingNanoscale Components• Nanoengineering is atruly multidisciplinaryactivity, requiring toolsfrom chemistry, physics,high-end visualization,mechanical engineering, and other areas• Is unique in that it makes the nanodevice its central design focus and tackles the nanoengineering problem from all angles.
CARBON NANOTUBES• Allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure• Molecular scale tubes of graphitic carbon with outstanding properties.• Length-to-diameter ratio greater than 1,000,000.
PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES The wide range of electronic, thermal, and structural properties of carbon nanotubes vary according to the different diameter, length, and direction of ‘twist’ of the nanotube. For example, carbon nanotubes Are highly conductive both to electricity and heat - exhibit an electrical conductivity as high as copper - thermal conductivity as great as diamond. Have excellent mechanical properties - they are 100 times stronger than steel, while only one sixth of the weight. They offer amazing possibilities for creating future nanoelectronic devices, circuits and computers and in creating nanocomposites for a variety of application scenarios ranging from military to aerospace to medicine.
POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF CNT’s nanometer-sized field emission semiconductor displays and devices, probes and radiation sources interconnects hydrogen storage conductive and high- media strength specialist Research is expected composites to lead to new devices for energy materials, lubricants, storage and energy conversion coatings, catalysts, e Sensors lectro-optical devices, and medical applications.
SPACE Nanotechnology may hold the key to making space-flight more practical. make lightweight spacecraft and a cable for the space elevator possible by significantly reducing the amount of rocket fuel required, could lower the cost of reaching orbit and traveling in space.
MEDICINEWhen its perfected, this method should greatly reduce the damage treatment such as chemotherapy does to a patients healthy cells.Applications such as: Nanotubes used in broken bones to provide a structure for new bone material to grow. Nanoparticles that can attach to cells infected with various diseases and allow a doctor to identify, in a blood sample, the particular disease. Nanoshells that concentrate the heat from infrared light to destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy cells. For a good visual explanation of nanoshells,see next slide.
BATTERIES AND FUELS Companies are currently developing batteries using nanomaterials These will be as good as new even after sitting on the shelf for decades!! Also, Can be recharged significantly faster than conventional batteries. -Can make the production of fuels from low grade raw materials economical, -increasing the mileage of engines, and -making the production of fuels from normal raw materials more efficient
Fuel Cells AND Solar Cells• Nanotechnology is being used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells to produce hydrogen ions from fuel such as methanol and to improve the efficiency of membranes used in fuel cells to separate hydrogen ions from other gases such as oxygen.• Companies have developed nanotech solar cells that can be manufactured at significantly lower cost than conventional solar cells.
WATER POLLUTION• Being used to develop solutions to different problems in water quality.• One challenge is the removal of industrial wastes, such as a cleaning solvent called TCE, from groundwater. Nanoparticles can be used to convert the contaminating chemical through a chemical reaction to make it harmless. Studies have shown that this method can be used successfully to reach contaminates dispersed in underground ponds and at much lower cost than methods which require pumping the water out of the ground for treatment
RISKS INVOLVED• Carbon nanotubes sound like a product designer’s dream. But like many technologies that offer benefits, there are risks too. We have all learned how to handle electricity, gas, steam and even cars and aeroplanes in a safe manner because we need their benefits. The same goes for carbon nanotubes. Mostly they will be perfectly safe, embedded within other materials, such as polymers.• There is some possibility that free carbon nanotubes of a specific length scales may pose health threats if inhaled, particularly at the manufacturing stage. Industry is very conscious of this possibility, and is endeavouring to ensure that any potential hazard is minimised, so that we can all reap the benefits and promise of this new wonder material.
FUTURE IMPACT!!• NanoTechnology has the potential to become a more significant revolutionary force for business than the industrial revolution or the information technology revolution.In fact, many believe that the combined impact of both the industrial and information revolution may approach the magnitude of change that could result from the commercialization of NanoTechnology.• Currently, NanoTechnology is moving from the basic research stage of its evolution into the applied research stage of technology maturity.Today there are several NanoTechnology companies already being traded on the public marketplace. As this technology evolves and matures, you can expect to see many more companies enter this space.