Leadership begins with Self-knowledge―Self-knowledge is the basis for character… Character is the root of integrity… Integrity provides the foundation for leadership‖ ―Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things‖ (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)
Definition of Leadership Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential." - Warren Bennis "The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers.― - Peter Drucker
Leadership is all about:» Listening» Motivating» Inspiring» Trust» Competitive spirit» Collaboration» Action» Taking people to greater heights» Working with participants on the how and helping them figure out the what and why» Walking the walk and Talking the talk... walking alongside
―Leadership that pulls together people with diverse talents, backgrounds, experiences and interests, encourages them to step up to responsibility and continued achievement, and treats them as full scale partners and contributors.Leadership is not about memorising techniques or devising the perfect game plan. It is about really paying attention to people – really believing them, really caring about them, really involving them.‖
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A LEADER AND A BOSS BOSS LEADER Tells what to do Tells why to do and how Relies on authority to do. Drives his men, Depends on goodwill. Delegates Inspires his men responsibility Delegates authority only Shows who is wrong Shows what is wrong Demands respect, Commands respect Production oriented People oriented Gives all credit for all Blames others for successes. failures Believes in ―WE‖ Believes in ―I‖.
Three Styles ApproachDoor number 1 Door number 2 Door number 3
Who put him in charge? Who makes thedecisions? Does anyone get a say? Door Number 1: Autocratic
Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone elseHigh degree of dependency on the leaderCan create de-motivation and alienation of staffMay be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
Door Number 2: Democratic Wow! That was a really good idea! What do YOU think? Thank you all for working together!
Encourages decision making from different perspectivesMay help motivation and involvementWorkers feel ownership of the firm and its ideasImproves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the businessCan delay decision making
Bored and unresponsive Whatever attitude Nothing gets accomplishedDoor Number 3: Laissez-faire
When the team is highly capableWhen team members are able to analyze the situationWhen close monitoring of a decision is not neededWhen there is full trust and confidence in the team membersNot suitable for lesser experienced employeesLack of motivationPoor productivity
Leadership Traits Physical Social Personality
Physical Make a good first impression Flexible Analytical ability Appearance isn‘t everything
Personality Self confidence Ambition Taking the initiative Responsible
Leadership theoriesThere are three main theories that attempt to explain Leadership. Personality Trait Theories Behavior theories Contingency Theories
Trait theoryEarlier researchers believed that there were certain unique characteristics in people that made them leaders . According to them , a person must possess certain unique personality traits that are essential for effective leadership.One of the trait theories is the ―Great Person ― theory which emphasized that leaders might not be born with the desired leadership traits but can be acquired by learning and experience.Researchers also tried to study the relationship between physical traits and leadership, but were unsuccessful to establish a valid relationship.
Behavior traitsThe behavioral theorists concentrated on theunique behavioral aspects found in leadersthat enabled them to attain effectiveleadership. Following are the our mainbehavior theories of leadership1. The Ohio State studies2. Universities of Michigan studies3. The Managerial Grid4. Scandinavian studies
The Ohio State studies In 1945 researchers from various fields conducted studies on leadership at Ohio State university. The research was based on a questionnaire called ‗Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire’. They narrowed down to two independent dimensions along which an individual‘s leadership behavior could be studied.1. Initiating Structure – Individual‘s ability to define his own task as well as the subordinates tasks and also accomplish them in time. People who score high in this dimension put pressure on subordinates to meet deadlines and maintain certain level of performance.2. Consideration – This refers to the extent to which a leader cares for his subordinate, respects their ideas and feelings and establishes work relations which are characterized by mutual trust and respect.The studies revealed that the people who scored high on both the dimensions were able to achieve higher performance as well as job satisfaction.
University of Michigan studiesA research was conducted at the Survey Research Centre at the University of Michigan. It was conducted on twelve pairs of sections, each section consisted on one high producing section and one low producing section.During the study, researchers also interviewed 24 supervisors and 400 workers. And following was observed.1. Employee-oriented dimension2. Production-oriented dimensionResearchers concluded that leaders with an inclination towards employee-oriented dimension resulted in higher job satisfaction and greater productivity.
Hersey and BlancHard’s situational theoryThe situational leadership model focuses on the fit of leadership style and followers maturity .Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles.The situational leadership model views leaders as varying their emphasis on task and relationship behaviours to best deal with different levels of follower maturity.The two-by-two matrix shown in the figure indicates that four leadership styles are possible.
1. Telling Style — giving specific task directions and closely supervising work; this is a high-task, low-relationship style.2. Selling Style — explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way; this is a high-task, high-relationship style.3. Participating Style — emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions; this is a low-task, high- relationship style.4. Delegating Style — allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions; this is a low-task, low-relationship style.
Servant leadership A leadership philosophy in which an individual interacts with others - either in a management or fellow employee capacity - with the aim of achieving authority rather than power. The authority figure intends to promote the well-being of those around him/her.
Ten Characteristics of Servant LeadershipListeningEmpathyHealingAwarenessPersuasion Conceptualization Foresight Stewardship Commitment to growth of people Building Community
“wHen tHe effectiveleader is finished with his work, the people say it Happened naturally.” - Lao Tse 604-531 B.C.