Coal tech-r&d in india


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Coal tech-r&d in india

  1. 1. COAL CONSERVATION, UTILISATION AND RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT IN INDIACOAL CONSERVATION1 Conservation of coal enjoins maximum recovery of in-situ reserves ofcoal. Coal deposits in India occur mostly in thick seams and at shallowdepths. These aspects are taken into account during mine planning andoperation in ensuring maximum recovery.2 Mechanised opencast mining in India is one of the very importanttechnology of coal production of thick seam from shallow depth.. Thepercentage recovery by this method is up to 80% to 90% of the in-situcoal reserves. The coal production from opencast method in Indianmining is more than 75% of total production. This trend is likely tocontinue in near future. The thick seam deposits earlier developed inBord and Pillar method or other methods of underground mining whichhad been standing on pillars for long in absence of a suitable technologyof extraction have now become extractable by opencast mining withHEMM equipment of suitable type. This method has been tried withsuccess in some of the mines of WCL, BCCL, CCL and ECL mineswhere underground mining was carried out in the past under therelatively shallow cover.3 In case of SCCL, the scope for planning for opencast mines is limited,longwall methods are being applied in the case of underground mines toachieve higher underground production with higher percentage ofrecovery.The longwall method of mining is also being implemented in SECL,ECL and BCCL in Coal India.. The overall recovery in longwalltechnology is comparatively more than the recovery in B&P mining .Mines having difficult geo-mining conditions like steep and irregularcoal seam deposits, gassy seams, contiguous and multi-section seams, 1
  2. 2. necessitate the introduction of some specific technology for exploitationof such deposits.For extraction of multi-section seams of thickness more than 4.8 mtrs.methods such as Blasting gallery, Sub-level Caving, and Cable boltinghave been adopted in some of the mines. In Margherita area of NECspecial methods of mining such as, Bhaska method, Tipong method,Shield method, and Flexible roofing have been tried . Presently Tipongmethod and Scraper assisted chamber method are in use.SAND STOWING4 Sand stowing in underground mines is yet another effective means ofcoal conservation, which is widely in use for extraction of coal pillarsfrom underground coal seams and coal seams lying underneath built uparea, such as surface structures, railway lines, roads, rivers, nallahs,Jores, etc. Sand stowing is also used for protection against fire in coalseams.Under Research & Development activities for increased extraction ofcoal, the following projects have been taken up :(i) Optimal extraction of coal in locked up pillars underneath aquifersand fragile ecology - CMRI/SECL(ii) Development of an efficient method of extraction of developedpillars for seam thickness up to 3.5m - SECL(iii) Optimal extraction of coal locked in pillars of multiple and thickseams - NIRM/SCCL(iv) Optimisation of pillar parameters for development and finalextraction of highly inclined seams at SCCL mines - SCCL/ NIRM. 2
  3. 3. (v) Depillaring with cable bolting using LHD at MadhusudanpurColliery - ECLCONTROL OF MINE FIRES & SUBSIDENCEJHARIA COALFIELDIn the Jharia coalfield, at the time of nationalisation of coking coalminesin 1972, there were reportedly, 70 active fires over an area of 17 sq.kms.A number of schemes for control of fires envisaging an outlay of Rs.114.57 crores, are under various stages of implementation. So far thefollowing results have been obtained.1. No. of fires completely Ten. The remaining liquidated 60 fires are by and large under control.2. Fires affect reduction 40%. of surface. Presently 9 sq. km is affected by fire (as per study carried out by international consultants) out of 17.32 sq. km, as per 1986 estimate3. Blanketing done Over 22 million m3 3
  4. 4. 4. Nitrogen flushing done Over 3.0 million m35. Sand stowing done Over 50 million m36 Fire belts reclaimed Joga, Kustore, Ena, and converted into Pootkee, sendra Green Belts. Bansjora Lodna etc.Under IDA credit to the Govt. of India, BCCL received a loan of US $12.00 million for developing a long-term plan for carrying outinvestigation and preparation of recommendation of measures forextinguishing controlling fires and preparation of Environmentalmanagement Plan (EMP) for Jharia Coalfield. M/s GAI-METCHEM, ajoint venture of USA/ Canada was appointed for preparing the ‘FIREFIGHTING PROGRAMME’ and M/S NORWEST MINE SERVICESof Canada for preparation of the EMP; The major observations/findingsare given below.A. FIRE FIGHTING PROGRAMME1. Overall fire shave reduced in area from about 17 sq. km (186) to (196)2. Dhanbad-Patherdih Railway Line ( is endangered by fires andrequires grout stabilisation relocation preferred.3. Adra-Gomoh Railway Line requires protection by isolation trench andwater curtain.4. Ekra, Kari and Catkari jores are endangered by fires and requireimmediate grout stabilisation. 4
  5. 5. 5. Jharia and Kirkend towns and other built up areas are endangered dueto fires and require immediate isolation from fires. Shifting of townshipshave been recommended as a better option.6. Some fires may be excavated as part of profitable opencast miningprojects such as Block-III, Kusunda Block-IV and Tisra.B. PREPARATION OF EMP FOR JHARIA COALFIELD.1. 22,300 families are required to be shifted.2. Predominant air pollution is from road generated dust and vehicleexhaust.3. Contribution of dust by traffic is about 37% of total pollution load inJCF.4. The coalfield contributes about 15% of the total pollution load in theDamodar River.5. Construction Of small reservoirs to the North of the coalfields acrossthe streams is recommended.6. Continue the existing plantation programme and encourage socialforestry.SUBSIDENCE PROBLEM IN RANIGUNJIn the past, prior to nationalisation of coalmines, unscientific mining wascarried out under shallow cover, which has resulted in some areas inRanijunj Coalfield being threatened with subsidence. Illegal mining isaggravating this problem.An apex monitoring committee (AMC) had been constituted with ShriH.B. Ghosh, Ex-DGMS & Retired CMD, CMPDIL as Chairman andrepresentatives of Govt. of West Bengal, DGMS, CMPDIL, ECL, CMRIlocal representatives etc. to go into the problem of subsidence in the 5
  6. 6. Ranigunj Coalfield AMC has examined 49 unstable localities initially, inJune’92 of which 11 were found to have no apparent danger 21 morelocalities were examined by AMC later in Sept’95 of which one has noapparent danger.In addition to the areas examined by the APEX MONITORINGCOMMITTEE, ECL and CMPDIL have identified 2 more unstableareas. Thus identified unstable areas total to 72. Out of this thepopulation of one site has been rehabilitated. Out of the remaining 71areas, 47 are to be rehabilitated and 24 being densely populated have tobe stabilised.However, out of these 71 areas, 12 have no apparent danger. RecentlyDGMS has indicated 171 unstable localities, which are being examinedin detail by Technical Sub-committee of AMC. The absence of anyproven technology for stabilisation of old inaccessible waterloggedworking indigenous technology of hydro-pneumatic stowing has beenadopted for stabilisation of 5 sites viz. FATEPUR, BORACHAK,HARIPUR, ARUN TALKIES and KUMAR BAZAR.HIGH LEVEL COMMITTEEA High Level Committee was constituted with Secretary Coal asChairman to go into the problem of subsidence & fire in Ranigunj andJharia Coalfield and suggest mitigative measures. The Committeesubmitted its report in January’98. The recommendations of theCommittee were accepted by the Govt. of India and are summarisedbelow(i) Shifting of settlements over unstable areas to non-coal-bearing zones(ii) There should be a total ban on any new construction over declaredunsafe areas. Govt. of Bihar should also enact a suitable legislation in 6
  7. 7. line with the one already existing in West Bengal preventingconstruction over unsafe areas.(iii) Participation and assistance from State Govt. and localadministration is essential. Any enforcing agency entrusted withresponsibilities of carrying out mitigating measures against fire andsubsidence in RCF and FCF should be adequately represented by theabove authorities.(iv) The mitigating measures against subsidence and fire hazards arevery costly options and fruitful implementation can only be possiblethrough separate executing agency with separate funding. Formation andrepresentatives of such agencies responsible for formulating schemes,their implementation and management of funds should be finalised at theearliest. A broad outline of executing agencies has been evolved inconsultation with the concerned State Govt. and the Govt. companies.(v) Hydro-pneumatic stowing technology currently begin used in somelocations in RCF has been found to be a very slow process. High-pressure slurry pumping technology should be tried at some locations inBCCL for stabilising inaccessible unstable underground workings.(vi) Intensive Stabilisation work of unstable areas under locations wherepopulation cannot be shifted like Ranigunj town, should be carried outand persons affected in the high rest but low-density areas may berelocated in a phased manner.(vii) For arranging fund for the purpose of stabilisation and relocation ofpopulation the money could be made available either through plannedexpenditure approved by the planning Commission or unplannedexpenditure from CCDA fund after making suitable enactment.(viii) Considering the urgency one scheme each by ECL and BCCL forshifting of population from unsafe areas may be taken up withoutwaiting for institutional arrangement for funds from planned fundsavailable with Ministry of Coal. 7
  8. 8. (ix) The Interim Reports submitted by BCCL and ECL jointly with Stateauthorities indicating the likely affected population and financialimplications should be kept in mind while drawing up priority-wiseschemes from immediate and effective solutions.IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THEHIGH LEVEL COMMITTEE1. BCCL has put a total ban on construction of new quarter of on unsafeareas. BCCL is not constructing any houses over coal bearing areas.2. Mining Area Development Authority (MADA) has also issuednotification banning any new construction over critically endangeredareas in BCCL.3. Enactment of suitable legislation banning construction over unsafeareas is still awaited from Govt. of Bihar.4. The District Administration has appealed through local newspapergiving details of the endangered areas of or immediate evacuation,particularly from areas under illegal occupation.5. Govt. of Bihar has been requested to constitute a Sub-authority forrehabilitation of non-BCCL people from endangered areas. This has notbeen done so far.6. BCCL has, as a one-time measure of goodwill, identified arehabilitation city to be handed over to the State Govt. for constructionof 3100 houses for non-BCCL people.7. One R&D project has been started to establish the technology of highpressure stowing at Madhuban Colliery, meanwhile, filling of 8
  9. 9. inaccessible voids is being done presently by hydraulic sand stowingthrough surface bore-holes in many locations in BCCL.EMSC SCHEMESThe schemes under implementation are as under;Subsidence Control Scheme Status1. Schemes for stabilisation Completed on below Kari Jore at Kusunda- schedule in June,’99 Industry boundary2. Stabilisation below Jharia Completed ahead of water Board Tank at E. schedule in Nov’99 Bhuggatdih Colliery3. Stabilisation below Kusunda Under Railway year Implementation4. Stabilisation below Chatkari Under Jore at Joyrampur Colliery Implementation5. Stabilisation of Bata Morc of CMRI has done a Jharia Town detailed study of the unstable area of jharia town, funded by BCCL at a cost of Rs. 3. lakhs. CMRI has been awarded the work of stabilisation of Bata More by BCCL on 9
  10. 10. turn-key basis at a further cost of Rs. 30 Lakhs,. About 80% of the job has been completed.Fire ControlThe following fire control schemes are under implementation:1. Scheme for dealing with fire at Lodna Colliery.2. Scheme for dealing with fire at Rajapur Colliery.3. Scheme for dealing with fire at Industry Colliery.4. Scheme for dealing with fire at Alkusa Colliery Colliery.RehabilitaitonA scheme for rehabilitation of people from most endangered areas ofBCCL has been approved in May’98 at a sanctioned cost of Rs. 33.88Crores (under revision) for construction of 1500 BCCL houses and 3100non-BCCL houses. Around 350 house are in different stages ofconstruction.COAL UTILISATION14 The following major jobs on coal utilisation have been undertaken :1. A report on investigation on explosion in ESP of Boiler No.2 of NLChas been prepared and submitted to Neyveli Lignite Corporation. 10
  11. 11. 2. Project Reports on 100 tpd SSF plants for seven proposed units underprivate sector have been prepared and submitted to the parties.3. Design package for SSF plant has been modified and prepared forrelease of know- how.4. Licence Agreement between three SSF units & CMPDI has beensigned and technical know-how released to them.5. Joint Inspection of softcoke/ hardcoke manufacturing units (54 innumber), linked with subsidiary companies of CIL, have been carriedout with CIL & linked companies.6. Pre-commissioning, guarantee test-run and capacity assessment ofMuraidih SSF plant of BCCL have been undertaken with BCCL.7. Joint Inspection of 3 SSF plants under private sector has been carriedout with linked company CCL.8. Commissioning of two 100 tpd SSF plants under private sector hasbeen completed successfully.S&T Project15 The R&D activities in coal sector are administered through an Apexbody namely, Standing Scientific Research Committee (SSRC) withSecretary (Coal) as its Chairman. The Other members of this apex bodyinclude Chairman of CIL, CMDs of CMPDIL, SCCL and NLC,Directors of concerned CSIR Laboratories, representatives ofDepartment of S&T, Planning Commission and educational institutions,amongst others. The main functions of SSRC are to plan, programme,budget and oversee the implementation of research projects and seek 11
  12. 12. application of the findings of the R&D work done. For in house R&Dwork of CIL, R&D Board headed by Chairman, CIL is also functioning.The SSRC is being assisted by four Standing Sub-Committees, eachdealing with one of the four relevant major areas of research:- - Production, Productivity & Safety- Coal Beneficiation- Coal Utilisation - Environment& EcologyCMPDI acts as Nodal Agency for co-ordination of research activities incoal sector, which involves identification of thrust areas for researchactivities, identification of agencies, which can take up the researchwork in the identified fields, processing the proposals for Governmentapproval, monitoring the progress of implementation of the projects,preparation of budget estimates, disbursement of funds etc.16 The list of completed S&T Projects as on 30.12.99 is given below:1. Development of technology for conversion of backfilled areas in Ballarpur opencast for Agriculture -WCL & IISc2. Development of technology for production of additives based on coal tar products for coal water slurry fuel - CFRI3. Utilisation of syn-gas from coal synthesis of higher olefins through oligomerisation of olefins from Syn-gas - CFRI4. Subsidence studies for development of models with special reference to multi seam mining in India - CMRI5. Industrial application of vorsyl separator in BCCL/CCL coal washeries - RRL, Bhopal. 12
  13. 13. 6. Development of viable techno-economic know-how for beneficiation of non-coking coal for power generation - CFRI7. Introduction of automation system in the coal preparation plant at Sawang Washery - CMPDI8 In seam seismic survey – CMPDI9 Development of mechanised spraying system for spraying fire protective coating material for industrial application in the coal benches of large opencast projects – CMRI.10 Ecological & aerobiological studies of coal mine area – Vinoba Bhave University.11 Biological method of employing VAM fungi and nitrogen fixing bacteria – NLC/Madras University12 Handi method of coal categorisation and prediction of spontaneous heating risks in mine – CMRI/ISM/CFRI.17 Status of Coal S&T Projects as on 31.12.99 is given below:i) Projects on-going - 36(as on 1.4.99)ii) Projects approved during - 19 13
  14. 14. 1999-2000iii) Projects completed - 12during 1999-2000iv) Projects dropped - 02during 1999-2000v) Projects on-going - 41( as on 31.12.99)18 Project funded by CIL R&D Board:i) The Standing Parliamentary Committee on Energy and modernisationand Growth for the Coal Industry pointed out the need for a full-fledgedR&D Board in CIL for modernisation and growth of the coal industry.ii) As an outcome of the above, the R&D Board was constituted by CILin August, 1995.iii) The Chairman, CIL is the Chairman of the R&D Board and allCMDs of the Subsidiary Companies and the Director(Tech.) ofSubsidiary Companies are also its members by rotation for a period ofone year. CGM (CP), CIL is the Member Secretary of the Board.iv) An Empowered Sub-Committee has been constituted to assist R&DBoard to plan, programme, budget, monitor and seek application ofresearch findings.19 Status as on 31.12.99 of R&D Projects, sanctioned by R&D Board ofCIL, is given below: 14
  15. 15. i) Projects on-going (as on 1.4.99) - 08ii) Projects approved during 1999-00 - 05iii) Projects completed during 1999-00 - Niliv) On-going projects as on 31.12.99 - 12v) Projects dropped during 1999-2000 - 0120 The list of 12 on-going R&D projects is given below: 1. High capacity sand flushing through boreholes at Madhuband Colliery, BCCL. - CMPDI/BCCL. 2. Resource survey characterisation and blending studies of Low-Volatile coking coal for their use in steel industry. - CMPDI 3. Restoration of Biodiversity on OB dumps & back filled areas using integrated Biotechnological approach. – WCL. 4. Optimisation of ambient air quality monitoring networks and application of mathematical models of air pollution control in N. Karanpura Coalfield under CCL. - CMPDI/BIT MESRA. 5. Depillaring by caving with yield pillar technique at Parascole Colliery. - ECL. 15
  16. 16. 6. Depillaring with cable bolting using LHD at Madhusudanpur Colliery - ECL 7. Utilisation of over-burden material through modification of physico-mechanical properties for construction of haul road. - BIT/CMPDI. 8. Development of computerised continuous mining equipment condition monitoring system for maximum machine available time of working machines in mine - SECL/CMRI. 9. Application of chemical treatment and centrifugation in environment - friendly disposal of coal washery tailing. - CMPDI/CCL 10. Strata control, roof support design for development and depillaring operations at Tandsi Project, Kanhan Area, WCL with detailed geo-technical study including measurement of in-situ stress and its effect. - WCL/CMPDI 11. Determination of efficacy of soil segment etc. for prevention of spontaneous heating in coal stock pile of Samleshwari OCP, MCL. - MCL. 12. Geo-mining statistical database of South Karanpura Coalfields - CCL.21 Schemes under the head "Environmental Measures &Subsidence Control"(i) The thrust areas of Environmental Measures & Subsidence Controlare restoration and control of degraded land due to mining and control ofsubsidence, particularly in Jharia and Raniganj coalfields. A third sub-head titled "Social Mitigation" has been added and 2 schemes under thissub-head have been sanctioned. 16
  17. 17. (ii) A provision of Rs.79 Crores has been kept for IX Plan outlay forEMSC Schemes. Schemes have been sanctioned under different Sub-heads as detailed in Table-A and are being implemented(iii) Completed Schemes :(a) Out of the 26 schemes, 4 schemes concerning identification ofSubsidence Prone areas and remedial measures for their safeguards havebeen completed during 98-99. Table-A Sub Head No. of Approved Disbursement Remarks Schemes Cost upto 99-00 (a) 8 27.33 13.12 4 Environmental Schemes completed Measures (b) 16 24.34 11.58 till 98-99 Subsidence Control (c) Social 2 66.40 2.00 Mitigation TOTAL 26 118.07 26.70(b) Based on the completion of these four Schemes, Master Plans forrehabilitation and control of fire and subsidence for ECL & BCCLcommand areas for the Raniganj and Jharia coalfields have beenprepared. These Master Plans cover the aspects of controlling the coal 17
  18. 18. mine fires and stabilising subsidence prone areas in the coalfields.Where the subsidence cannot be controlled by technical measures, therehabilitation of the inhabitants overlying such unsafe areas has beencovered . The report prioritises the locations to be taken up forimplementation of the three activities i.e. subsidence control, fire controland rehabilitation. The prioritisation is based on degree of dangerassessed for different locations.(c) A Scheme for stabilisation of developed workings in XIII seambelow Kari Jore at Kusunda-Industry colliery boundary in BCCL, hasbeen completed by sand filling into the voids through boreholes andcement grouting under pressure for consolidation of strata at a cost ofRs.4.40 lakhs.(d) Scheme for subsidence control by stabilisation below Jharia WaterBoard Tank at East Bhagatdih Colliery of BCCL has also beencompleted at a capital outlay of Rs.68 Lakhs.The completion report for the above two schemes are under preparation.(iv) On-going Schemes :(a) For reclamation of abandoned coal mines in ECL, 511 ha. degradedareas of OB dumps and opencast voids have been completed during theyear by Social Forestry Division of Govt. of West Bengal and Bihar.Action for bio-reclamation of balance 380 Ha. is in progress. Similarlyout of 728 Ha. of degraded land to be reclaimed in CCL, about 500 Ha.have been taken up for bio-reclamation. Further areas will be taken up inthe year 2000-01.(b) Procurement of most of P&M for implementation of 4 Nos. of Fireand Subsidence Schemes have been completed in BCCL and work hasbeen started to deal with coal mines fires at Lodna, Rajapur , Alkusa andIndustry collieries of BCCL. 18
  19. 19. (c) Similarly, procurement of P&M for implementation of hydro-pneumatic stabilisation at five new localities in ECL (Palasban, Gwalabasti, Porar bandh, Pottary and Bhut Doba) have been completed fortaking the job departmentally.Hydro-pneumatic stabilisation beneath Fatehpur, Borachak and Haripurvillages are in process.(d) Social Mitigation projects : Two Social Mitigation projects , oneeach for BCCL and ECL command area has been sanctioned forrehabilitating the people living in the endangered areas. The details ofthe two Schemes are as under :Sl.No. Name of the Scheme Sanction Capital Sanction letter( Rs. in crore)1. Shifting of people from 33.88 34012/28/97-most endangered areas CRC dt.19.5.98of BCCL2. Rehabilitation of four 32.52 34012/29/97-unstable locations in ECL CRC dt. 19.5.98While sanctioning these schemes, the EFC allowed release of only crore for each of the schemes for initial work. Further release offunds was to be made after recommendations of a committee constitutedby Deptt. of Coal to review the physical progress of implementation ofthese two rehabilitation schemes . The committee, constituted by DOCin Sept99, has submitted the report in Nov99.The status of the implementation of above two schemes, beingimplemented in BCCL and ECL, is given as under: - 19
  20. 20. 1. Progress in BCCL:(I) Present Status:(a) BCCL has initiated action for construction of 1500 houses at 6locations on the non-coal bearing land viz. at Bhimkanali, near KatrasCoal Dump, Bhuli, Nichitpur, East Bassuriya and Amtaal. The workorder was awarded in Sept98. Subsequently, five more work orders havebeen issued for construction of additional houses.(b) 32 Nos. of quarters have been completed at Bhimkanali, 48 units arenearing completion near Katras Coal Dump and 156 quarters are in mid-stage of construction.(c) The process of shifting people from the endangered areas has beenstarted and the first lot of 9 Nos. of old houses in the endangeredlocations of Block-II OCP and 5 nos. at Phularitand have beendemolished completely and 13 families have actually shifted in newlyconstructed houses at Bhimkanali. Shifting activities for the remainingfamilies are in progress.(II) Constitution of Sub-Authority by Govt. of BiharGovt. of Bihar has not constituted the Sub-Authority, so far as per therecommendations of the High Level Committee. A Committee was,however, constituted under the Chairmanship of Commissioner, NorthChhotanagpur, Hazaribagh including Dy.Commissioner, Dhanbad andCMD, BCCL as members. The committee had deliberated on the issueof rehabilitation of non BCCL people during a meeting held on05.09.98. BCCL has offered land for construction of 3100 houses, as aone time measure for rehabilitation of non-BCCL persons.In order to expedite construction of 3100 houses by the Govt. of Bihar, aSub-authority was required to be set up immediately by the State Govt.In this regard, several reminders have been sent since June98 to the 20
  21. 21. Govt. of Bihar. Letters have been sent to Secretary, Mines & Geology,Govt. of Bihar on 22.06.98, 21.07.98 and 25.09.98 for constitution of theSub-Authority. This matter was also discussed by CMD, BCCL with theSecretary and Commissioner, Mines & Geology, Govt. of Bihar on14.10.98.Inspite of the actions initiated by the BCCL, the Govt. of Bihar has notso far constituted the Sub-Authority.(III) Expenditure Incurred or Provision of Funds:An amount of Rs.1.0 crore released by the Govt. of India in 98-99 hasbeen spent by the BCCL for the construction work of 1500 houses.Release of additional funds is in process.2. Progress in ECL:(I) Present Status:Various steps have been taken for implementation in association withthe State Govt. officials for the purpose of finalising the agreement withthe local villagers for shifting of 4 identified unstable areas. The presentstatus is as follows :-Sl.N Name of Constituti Completi Identificati Agreement Agreemo. unstable on of on of on of land with ent with localities Village socio- for Village Village Committe economi rehabilitati Committee committ e c Survey ion on ee proposed regardin compensat g ion identifie package d land. 1 Shudamdih Yes Yes Yes No. No. 21
  22. 22. Ph-1 2 Refugee Yes Yes Yes No. No. Bastee(Ban gal Para) 3 Kenda Yes Yes Yes No. No. Village 4 Harishpur No. No. No. No. No. VillageAddl. Secretary, Ministry of Coal, wrote to Chief Secretary, WestBengal, who instructed District Magistrate and other officials to expeditethe implementation of these Schemes. Inspite of follow-up by ECL, noprogress has been made.On 14.07.99, Director of Industries, Govt. of West Bengal, hadconvened a meeting in the office of ADM, Asansol to discuss the presentstatus of the progress made so far in this regard. All the required detailshave been submitted to DM, Asansol in the month of July99 itself, butno further discussion or progress could be made.(II) Initiative and Co-operation from State Govt.A stronger initiative on the part of the representative of the StateGovernment is necessary to persuade the affected villagers to come to anagreement regarding location of rehabilitation sites and compensationpackages.(III) Capital Expenditure incurred and Provision of Funds: 22
  23. 23. No expenditure could be incurred under this scheme till date since thesites for rehabilitation are not finalised and the compensation packagefor the Project Affected People has not been jointly agreed upon.23 During 1999-00 no new EMSC scheme has been approved by thecompetent authority (upto December, 1999).24 Status of EMSC Schemes as on 31.12.99 is given below :-(i) On-going schemes - 22(as on 1.4.99)(ii) Schemes approved - NILduring 1999-00(iii) Schemes completed - 2during 1999-00(iv) Scheme dropped - NILduring 1999-00(v) On-going project - 20as on 31.12.99Schemes completedtill 31.12.99( Since inception ) - 6 23
  24. 24. CONTROL OF MINE FIRES & SUBSIDENCEJHARIA COALFIELDIn the Jharia coalfield, at the time of nationalisation of coking coal minesin 1972, there were reportedly, 70 active fires over an area of 17 sq.kms.A number of schemes for control of fires envisaging an outlay of Rs.114.57 crores, are under various stages of implementation. So far thefollowing results have been obtained.Under IDA credit tot he Govt. of India, BCCL received a loan of US $12.00 million for developing a long-term plan for carrying outinvestigation and preparation of recommendation of measures forextinguishing controlling fires and preparation of Environmentalmanagement Plan (EMP) for Jharia Coalfield. M/s GAI-METCHEM, ajoint venture of USA/ Canada was appointed for preparing the ‘FIREFIGHTING PROGRAMME’ and M/S NORWEST MINE SERVICESof Canada for preparation of the EMP.1. No. of fires completely Ten. The remaining liquidated 60 fires are by and large under control.2. Reduction of surface 40%. are affected by fires. Presently 9 sq. km is affected by fire (as per study carried out by international consultants) out of 17.32 sq. km, as per 1986 estimate3. Blanketing done Over 22 million m3 24
  25. 25. 4. Nitorgen flushing done Over 3.0 million m35. Sand stowing done Over 50 million m36 Fire belts reclaimed Joga, Kustore, Ena, and converted into Pootkee, sendra Green Belts. Bansjora Lodna etc. *****For a Comprehensive introduction to Coal, kindly refer to:WORLD COAL INSTITUTEWORLD COAL INS TITUTEWORLD COALINSTITUTE 25