how write the Introduction of a research article


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This presentation is to guide a beginner to write the introduction section of a scientific research article. Examples were selected from the articles in computer science area from university domain.

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how write the Introduction of a research article

  1. 1. The Introduction section by H.N.Gunasinghe AS2010379 CSC 364 1.5 Seminar II Department of Computer Science and Statistics , USJP
  2. 2. Overview Introduction 5 Stages Drafting process Editing Strategies Summery References AS2010379 2 / 20
  3. 3. Introduction  As primary reading audience : editor and referees start reading at the Introduction, an effective Introduction is important  Referees are likely to look here for evidence to answer the following questions: 1 . Is the contribution new? 2 .Is the contribution significant? 3 .Is it suitable for publication in the journal? AS2010379 3 / 20
  4. 4. Five stages to an Introduction General Statements about the field of research More specific statements about the aspects of the problem already studied by other researchers Statements that indicate the need for more investigation (creating a gap ) Statements giving the objectives of the writer’s study Optional statement(s) that give a justification for carrying out the study AS2010379 4 / 20
  5. 5. Stage 1  broad statements giving facts that generally accepted by the audience  Language style Present tense expressing information perceived as always true Present perfect tense expressing what has been found over an extended period in the past and up to the present  References Optional and Depend on the topic and field of study AS2010379 5 / 20
  6. 6. Moving ahead General area of field Sub area of the field Author's topic AS2010379 6 / 20
  7. 7. Moving ahead (ctd)  Writers move their readers through these steps by linking their sentences through the positioning of old and new information.  Old information is any information that the reader already knows; it is placed towards the beginning of sentences.  New information comes towards the end of sentences. AS2010379 7 / 20
  8. 8. Using references in Stages 2 and 3  What ?  Selected literature from writer’s field of study. literature Information published on web sites Published documents Research articles Review articles books Peer reviewed Belong to an organization with scientific reputation  Why?  To justify the study (using argument & show its importance)  Create a gap for his own work AS2010379 8 / 20
  9. 9. Citation methods (1)  Information prominent  Focuses only on information being presented  The default style in many areas of science AS2010379 9 / 20
  10. 10. Citation methods(2)  Author prominent  the name of the author of the information is given prominence McAuliffe (2000) predicts that it will soon be possible to scan three-dimensional objects and receive a complete three-dimensional view of the object scanned. AS2010379 10 / 20
  11. 11. Citation methods (3)  Weak author prominent  the ideas of author(s) are given prominence, but author names do not appear in the main part of the sentence AS2010379 11 / 20
  12. 12. Stage 3: indicating research gap  Use signal words to Indicate the need of future work  E.g: however, remains a major challenge, rarely, not well understood, and presently unclear etc. AS2010379 12 / 20
  13. 13. Stage 4 : Statement of purpose  End of the introduction  Tell reader : “What they will learn about the research is being presented” Aim/ purpose of the study Findings of the study Stage 4 AS2010379 Principal activity 13 / 20
  14. 14. Stage 4 examples AS2010379 14 / 20
  15. 15. Stage 5: value add AS2010379 15 / 20
  16. 16. Drafting the introduction Stage 4 Need More time to write Intended audience Stage 3 Need More searching Their interests Stage 1 Background knowledge Find relevant Stage 2 Stage 2 Find recent Ideas highlighted in title Combine them AS2010379 16 / 20
  17. 17. Editing for Logical flow  Strategy 1: Always introduce ideas  Use informative introduction section to set up expectations in readers.  In paragraphs, use the first sentence as a topic sentence to orient your readers to the main point or purpose of the paragraph.  Strategy 2: Move from general information to more specific information  Readers like to read general information before details, examples or more specific information  Strategy 3: Put old (or given) information before new information AS2010379 17 / 20
  18. 18. Editing for Logical flow (ctd)  Strategy 4: Make a link between sentences within the first seven to nine words  enhances the readability of the writing: that is, the ease with which readers will process the information presented  Strategy 5: Try to include the verb and its subject in the first seven to nine words of a sentence  Sentences with very long subjects and short verbs at the end are often called top-heavy sentences.  Try to avoid top heavy sentences AS2010379 18 / 20
  19. 19. Summary  Introduction is an important component in a report.  Writing an introduction can be divide into five main steps.  There should consistency and a relevancy between every statement. AS2010379 19 / 20
  20. 20. References  Author vs. information. (n.d.). Retrieved 10 20, 2013, from     Monash University: Premadasa, H. S., & Meegama, R. N. (2013). Mobile learning environment with short messaging service: Abeysooriya,R.P., & Fernando, T .G. I .(2012).Canonical Genetic Algorithm To Optimize Cut Order Plan Solutions in Apparel Manufacturing: Udeshani, K.A.G. , Meegama, R.G.N. & Fernando, T.G.I. (2011). Statistical Feature-based Neural Network Approach for the Detection of Lung Cancer in Chest X-Ray Images: Cargill, M., & O’Connor, P. (2009). Writing Scientific Research Articles. A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication. AS2010379 20 / 20
  21. 21. Thank you !! Q&A