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2012亞洲NGOs援助與發展研討會 …


主講人:日本非營利組織國際合作中心(Japan NGO Center for International Cooperation - JANIC)理事長

大橋正明 先生

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  • 1. The Operation and Challenges for NGO Platforms: The March 11 Disaster and JANIC @2012 Asia NGO International Dev. Conference in Taipei, Taiwan OHASHI Masaaki (大橋正明) Chairperson, Japan NGO Center for International Cooperation1
  • 2. Contents1. Personal Profile2. The Great East Japan Earthquake and Japanese NGOs (DVD, 21min.)3. “NGO” – definition and roles in Japan4. About JANIC5. Overview of Great East Japan Earthquake (Mar 11, 2011)6. Responses by Governments (National, local, Social Welfare Councils)7. Responses by NGOs8. Overview of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster9.1 Responses by Public and NGOs2
  • 3. 1. Personal Profile3
  • 4. Personal Profile – OHASHI Masaaki(大橋正 明)Present Professor (NGO Studies & South Asia Studies), Keisen University / Keisen University Graduate School of Peace Studies 恵泉女学園大学・大学院平和学研究科 Chairperson, Japan NGO Center for International Cooperation (JANIC) (国際協力NGOセン ター) Vice Chairperson, SHAPLA NEER = Citizens‟ Committee in Japan for Overseas Supports シャプラニール=市民による海外協力の会 Vice Chairperson, Japan NPO Center (日本NPOセンター) Vice President, Japan Society for International development (JASID=国際開発学会) Board Member, AYUS Buddhist Network for International Cooperation アーユス仏教国際協力ネットワーク Treasurer, COMET (Social Welfare Cooperation for the mentally impaired) (社会福祉法人コメット)„90-‟93 Deputy Head of Delegation / Development Delegate in Bangladesh, International Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies & Japanese Red Cross Society (Bangladesh) 国際赤十字・赤新月社連 盟„88-‟90 Graduate Student of International Agriculture & Rural Development, Cornel University (USA)„82-‟87 Secretary General, SHAPLA NEER (Tokyo, JAPAN)„80-‟82 Field Director, SHAPLA NEER (Bangladesh)„79-‟80 Indian Government Scholarship Student in Hindi Language, Central Institute of Hindi (Delhi, India) 78 Graduated from Waseda University (早稲田大学政治経済学部卒業) Correspondence E-mail: 4 4
  • 5. 2. “The Great East Japan Earthquake and Japanese NGOs:From Emergency Relief to Reconstruction, A Turning Point for the Future” (東日本大震災と国際協力NGO) (DVD, 21min. Produced by JANIC)5
  • 6. 3. “NGO” – definition and roles in Japan6
  • 7. General Definition of NGO in Japan One part of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), which are mainly working for global issues, such as; - International cooperation to Poverty Reduction/Development, - Environment, - Human Rights/Discriminations, - Peace/Disarmament, etc.  Non profit= no dividend to sponsor ⇒ profit reinvested for the aim  Non government= not only different, but fully independent  Voluntarism= citizens‟ own initiatives for (global) public interest7 Reference:The Directory of International Cooperative NGOs 『国際協力NGOダイレクリー』
  • 8. Unique Definition of NGO & NPO in Japan  NGO=Non Government Organizations; CSOs mainly working and cooperating internationally on global-scale issues. - Approx. 500. - Mostly with larger funds/scales than NPOs - Some NGO Networks  NPO=Non Profit Organizations; CSOs active in solving domestic and local social issues. - Number unknown , but 45,542 registered as incorporated NPO as of May 31, „12. - Mostly with smaller funds/scales than NGOs - Some Intermediary Supporting Organizations, such as Japan NPO Center, some are established with assistance of local governments8
  • 9. Laws for Registering Public Interest Private Organizationsin Japan PICs as Associations and Foundations, some are regarded more as NGOs than as Asso. & Foundation NPOs and NGOs Source: http://www.kohokyo.or. jp/english/eng_index.h tml9
  • 10. 日本の市民社会組織の法人制度とNGO Legal View on CSOs, Public Interest Corporations(PICs) & NGOs/NPOs1. Association and Foundation 1. 社団法人と財団法人→General Incorporated Association and 財団 Foundation →一般社団法人、一般財団法 Foundation 人 ・社団 ⇒Public Interest Association and Foundation ⇒公益社団法人、公益財団法 Association 人2.Non-Registered Organization CSO N N G 2.任意団体/人格なき社団3. NPO & other PIC based on Special Laws P O→Non-Profit Organization(NPO incl. O 他の特定公益法人(特別法)NGO) →NPO法人(NGOを含む) ⇒Authorized NPOs ⇒認定NPO法人→Social Welfare Corporations →社会福祉法人→Private School Corporations →学校法人(私立学校)→Medical Corporation →医療法人(私立病院)→Religious Corporations →宗教法人→Other PICs 出典:公益法人協会 10 %20framework.html →その他の特定公益法人 出典:公益法人協会の図を参考に論者作成
  • 11. Number of NGOs Established and Shift in Total N umber 45 500 40 Number of NGOs Established 450 Total number of NGOs 35 400 Number of NGOs Total Number of NGOs 30 350 300 25 250 20 団体数:400~500 200 15 150 10 100 5 50 0 0 出典:『国際協力NGOダイレクト11
  • 12. Areas where Japanese NGOs Operate EU North (7%) America (1 %) Asia Latin Middle (80 % America East ) (14%) (12%) Oceania Africa (25 %) (5%) Areas in operation expand all over the world (in more than 92 countries) 出典:『NGOデータブック2011』12
  • 13. 4. About JANIC (国際協力NGOセンター)13
  • 14. About JANIC: Japan NGO Center for International Cooperation JANIC is the largest NGO network with 97 NGO members in Japan 3 pillars of activities 1) Research/Advocacy on Global issues and ODA policies 2) Promotion of the Understanding on NGOs and Cooperation with other sectors 3) Capacity Building and Strengthening of Social Responsibility of NGOs 4 ■Collaborate with overseas network, such as InterAction (USA), KCOC (Korea) 14 14
  • 15. Other NGO Networks in Japan1. Local Networks (地域ネットワーク)‐Kansai NGO Council (関西NGO協議会)‐Nagoya NGO Center (名古屋NGOセンター)‐Fukuoka NGO Network (福岡NGOネットワーク)‐Yokohama NGO Network (横浜NGOネットワーク, etc.2. Issue Based Networks (課題別ネットワーク)‐Japan Platform (JPF):emergency humanitarian aid collaborating with GOJ & business sector (Keidanren)- Japan NGO Network for Education (JNNE) for Education, etc.3. Country-Wise NGO Networks (国別ネットワーク) ;Nepal,Cambodia 15
  • 16. 5. Overview of Great East Japan Earthquake 東日本大震災概観 (Mar 11, 2011)16
  • 17. The Great East Japan Earthquake Time: 14:46 of March 11, 2011 Moment Magnitude: 9.0Mw No. of Victims: dead= 15,870, missing= 2,814, in total= 18,684 as of 11 Sep., 2012 source: National Police Agency, Fleeing & relocated: 343,334 as of 11 Sep, 2012. in Temporary Houses, Temporary Rented Houses, Relative‟s Houses, etc. sources: Age-specific death rate: over 80s;22.1% / 70s;24% / 60s; 19% 20s, 10s and less than 10; 4% or less each Affected Houses/Buildings: fully destroyed; 115,163 / half; 162,015 / partially; 559,321 Affected Boats:22,000 Affected Agri. Field:23,600ha 17
  • 18. The Great East Japan EQ vs Other major EQs sources: & Moment, etc. Magnitude No. of Victims (Mw ) Great East Japan E. in 11 9.0 18,684 Haiti EQ. in 10 7.0 316,000 Great Sichuan EQ. in 08 7.9 68,000 Sumatra-Andaman EQ. in 04 9.3 220,000 921 EQ. in Taiwan in 99 7.6 2,415 Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) EQ. in 95 6.9 6,43418
  • 19. Age and Gender of Victims Victims by Ages and Sexes Population in the affected Area Female女性 Male男性 Less than 9Points:1) Aged people are more victimized than youngers. Victims of less than 20 is 6.5% against 18.5%.2) 92.4% of Victims were drowning due to tsunami, while 1.1% by fire & 4.4% by crushed under houses & others due toearthquake.Note: The figures are % against (male+female) of all ages. Victims are in the Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures and these numbers are reported by police. 19The19 population date is from the 2010 National Census.Reference: Disaster Prevention Report 2011 and
  • 20. Casualties by prefecture (as of July 8, 2011)20
  • 21. 21 21
  • 22. Ria (or Saw-Toothed) Coasts & much higher Tsunami in the areas 22「教育用画像素材集サイト」 3/68.pdf#search=遡上メカニズム 津波
  • 23. Tsunami Heights; 10M in Straight Coastlines, while 40M in Ria Coasts 出典:23 wa/4363b.html
  • 24. 4/1宮城県沿岸部の被災状況、海面から数百メートル離れた所に、津波が駆け上がった 24 模様
  • 25. 4/1 宮城県沿岸部の被災状況、ガソリンスタンドの鉄骨だけが残って 25
  • 26. 4/1 宮城県沿岸部の被災状況、ガソリンスタンドの鉄骨だけが残って 26
  • 27. 27 27
  • 28. 4/8岩手県沿岸部被災状況、学校を除いて全てが消 滅28
  • 29. 4/8岩手県大槌町の息をのむ状況29
  • 30. 4/8岩手県大槌町の息をのむ状況、津波後に火災が起きた30
  • 31. 31 The half buried Signboard says this as the Town Hall of Otsuchi-Ch
  • 32. 32 This 3 story-building is fallen down toward the sea, demonstrating the mightiness of falling tides of the Tsunami. Taken on 14 Apr. 11 in Miyagi Pref.
  • 33. 6. Responses by Governments National, Local, Social Welfare Councils (中央政府、地方自治体、社会福祉協議 会33
  • 34. Emergency Evacuation Center800 Evacuees staying messy atGymnasium of Junior High Schoolin Iwate Pref. at March 29 ⇒©Olav SaltbonesThere was about 700 such centers in March,2011 incl. 115 hotels and inns. ⇇ 400 Evacuees staying in cells partitioned by cardboards at the same Gym. at June 21 34 Photoes: Japan Red Cross Society
  • 35. Temporary HousesLocal Governments hurried constructed theseTemporary Houses in 910 sites, most ofwhich locate isolated places, inconvenient forshopping and hospital. Taken on Jun.21,2011 ⇒ Photoes: Japan Red Cross Society ⇇ Each house has 2~3 small rooms and equipped with basic furniture provided by Red Cross, NGO/NPOs and others. Each 50 houses a community hall is available to promote mutual relations & prevent lonely death cases. ©Nobuyuki Kobayashi(on Apr.14, 2011) 35
  • 36. ⇇After 11 months, debris are mostly removed from affected places. Both pictures are taken on Feb. 19, 2012 in Iwate Pref. Debris are piled up at many locations as disposal of these are over capacity for local governments. Plans to rebuild towns/cities are prepared, but still re-constructions have yet started, probably due to complicated processes and tremendous costs.36 ⇒
  • 37. Views of Iwate & Miyagi after 1.5 Years37 37
  • 38. Views of Iwate & Miyagi after 1.5 Years38
  • 39. Stages for 3/11 Relief and Rehabilitation after self & mutual rescuer/help in Disaster• Disaster~72 Hours: Self+Mutual Help followed by/with Emergency Rescue and Relief• 3 ~7 days: Emergency Rescuer and Relief - main actors are residents and prepared organizations (such as Police, Fire Fighters, SDF/Army, local govt., large NGOs/CSOs)• 7 days~3 months: Emergency Relief in full-swing by various public & private actors, incl. NGOs, NPOs, private companies, cooperatives, hospitals/MDs etc.. Most victims (max.450 thousand) stayed at make- shift evacuation centers, depending on external supplies/supports• 3 ~ 6 months: Recovery and Rehabilitation, as most victims gradually move to rented houses or temporary shelters, hurriedly constructed by local govt. , managing their lives by themselves. The Locations are remote and habitants tend to be isolated, thus needs of help for transportation etc.• 6 months~: Rehabilitation, resume jobs, plan villages/towns reconstruction. 39
  • 40. Govt. Mechanism for Relief & Rehabilitation (R.&R.) to the 3/11-1 Public Administrations in Japan=3 tire system; i) Municipal/Local Govt.(Village, Town, City), ii) Prefectural Govt.(in Japan 47 Prefectures, like Dahrah) and iii) Central Govt. in Tokyo Disaster Responding Unit (DRU、災害対策本部) at Each Admi. Level Central DRU at PM office supplied major food and other essentials in the beginning, assigning many private companies for supplies & transportations Local Fire-fighters, Polices and Delf-Defence Force (SDF) rescued many, and recovered remains. 40
  • 41. Main Actors for Relief & Rehabilitation (except local actors and people)  Central Govt. ⇒ Prefectural Govt. ⇒Local Govt. (City, Town or Village)  Self-Defense Forces(SDF) and US Army  Rescue Teams from various countries (for short period)  Japan Red Cross Society (Hospitals and local volunteers)  Social Welfare Councils (National→Pref.→Local) ⇒volunteer centers  NGOs and NPOs (JAPAN CIVIL NETWORK for Disaster Relief in East Japan=JCN) (OCHA declined the need of foreign volunteers.)41
  • 42. Govt. Mechanism for R. & R. to the 3/11-2 Prefecture DRUs were the focal point to assist municipal DRUs for emergency relief Municipal DRUs looks after every aspects in field SDF mobilized 100,000 members out of 240,000 for rescue, transportation, feeding, clearing wreckage and so on, ending its operations in Aug. (and in Dec. in Fukushima). Most DRUs have later been renamed as Reconstruction Head-Quaters (RHQ, 災害復興対策本部) in Jul.~Sept.11. PM office founded Disaster Volunteer Cooperation Room (DVCR) with a Special Assistant to PM on Mar. 15, which was the primary window for NGOs & NPOs, up to 16 Sept. 11 42
  • 43. Social Welfare Councils, Volunteers 3 tires of Social Welfare Councils (SWC)same to Govt. Observing massive emergence as well as occurrences of many problems -with them (miss-matching, useless/ harmful actions, accommodation, equipment etc.) of volunteers in Hanshin-Awaji Earthquakes and other major ones, prefecture & municipal SWC are to open Disaster Volunteer Center (DVC) to coordinate volunteers who like to support the affected for 6~8 months. National SWC, Japan Community Chest, Japan NPO Center, Keidanren (Japan Business Federation) and some NGO/NPO established Disaster Volunteer Support Project (Support-P) to assist DVCs by finance and provision of trained personnel for volunteer management. 43
  • 44. Numbers of Evacuees and Volunteers Changes in Numbers of Evacuees Changes of Volunteers registered in Evacuation Centers at DVCs In Total Iwate P. Miyagi P Fukushi ma P. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d w m Upt 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a o o1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 e y n M S e 1A J J A O N s t k pr a u ul u e C O h y n y g. p. T. V. All over Japan The 3 affected Pref.44 Source: National Social Welfare Council & JANIC Source: GOJ DRHQ Web & JANIC
  • 45. 45 45 Volunteers from all over Japan in front of Tono Volunteer Center in a morning meeting
  • 46. Inside DVC of Kesen-numa city, staff are also volunteers from the area and NGO/NPO for various works 46 46 such as matching with local needs and external volunteers, safety etc..
  • 47. 47 47 Tents for Registration of Daily volunteers in DVC of Kesen-numa city
  • 48. Volunteer Center & Recovery Center in Miyagiafter 1.5 Years48
  • 49. 7. Responses by NGOs49
  • 50. NGO Response  19 NGOs responded within 72 hours  Another 18 NGOs responded within 1 week  Japan Platform (JPF), emergency funding mechanism, swiftly released required initial budget to their member NGOs out of 5 billion Japanese yen (40 million USD), which made early intervention possible.  Capacity to mobilize resources and international experience made immediate response of NGO possible.  Currently over 50 JANIC member NGOs are operating in the disaster stricken area and some others providing backup assistance from the metropolitan area.50
  • 51. NGO Intervention Timing (1) Emergency Stage (within 72 hrs) 1. Emergency medical care  AMDA Japan, Doctors without Borders, Services for the Health in Asian & African Regions (SHARE) 2. Delivery and distribution of emergency goods  Associations for Aid and Relief (AAR), Peace Winds Japan、JEN、World Vision Japan, ADRA Japan, NICCO, Good Neighbors Japan, Care International Japan, Japan Association for Refugees, International Volunteer Center of Yamagata (IVY) 3. Support of Disaster Volunteer Centers (DVC)  Shanti Volunteer Association (SVA), Peace Boat 4. Child care  Save the Children, Children without Borders, Child Fund Japan51
  • 52. NGO Intervention Timing (2) Emergency to Recovery Stage (within 1 week)  ACE  Bridge Asia Japan (BAJ)  Campaign for the Children of Palestine (CCP)  Caring for Young Refugees (CYR)  Foundation for International Development/Relief (FIDR)  Habitat for Humanity Japan  ICAN  International Cultural Association (ICA)  JOICEP  Japan Asian Association and Asian Friendship Society (JAFS)  Japan International Volunteer Center (JVC)  Japan Overseas Christian Medical Cooperative Service (JOCS)  Japan Team of Young Human Power (JHP)  Life with Friends on the Earth (LIFE)  Medicins du Monde Japon  OXFAM Japan  Plan Japan52  Shapla Neer=Citizens’ Committee in Japan for Overseas Supports
  • 53. NGOs Activities from Relief to Rehabilitation in Affected Areas Mar.~May. Jul.~ Aug/ N Sep.~Nov. E T C J O F O M C E W R O s O N E V D A L O TE T Fin DI A L U A N O B MP e O F & . C T S E R O. n H an O M E A E P C di cia D O E C TI O G D n E l S N T A O R R I R HO g R D R N & T A N E US su U S T R & S & A E v S pp P U A H C L A ol ort L M I E A O T T SU u PL P C G A N M AI I I PP Y P A N L M O OR nt I. D M T O e53 L R T G H U N T er 53 E NI N 出典:JANIC(2011年11月) Y
  • 54. NGOs Locations: Apparently less in Fukushima Pref.No. ofNGOs 集計) Operate from 54 Iwate P. Miyagi P. Fukushima P HQ others
  • 55. Soup-run/ Distribution of goods Distribution of goods to residents in temporary housings (ADRA Japan, Watari, Miyagi)Soup-run to city officials(ADRA Japan, Yamamoto, Miyagi)55 55
  • 56. Distribution of goods Distribution of cooling fans and clothes (AAR, evacuation center in Yamada, Iwate, June 27, 2011)Clean-up and distribution ofbedding materials(AAR, primary schoolgymnasium used as evacuationcenter in Minami-sanriku, Miyagi,June 18, 2011)56 56
  • 57. Health Health Consultation Team staff confirming the schedule of mobile visit patrol (SHARE, Kesennuma, Miyagi)A volunteer nurse conducthearing to the elders(SHARE, Kesennuma, Miyagi)57 57
  • 58. Children/Psycho-social Care Child-friendly space in a temporary tent (CCP, Ando Primary School, Ohtsuchi, Iwate, April 7, 2011)Recover memorial photos fromrubbles(CCP, Ohtsuchi, Iwate, June 3, 2011) 58 58
  • 59. Job Creation/ Early Recovery Survivors hired by “Cash-for-Work” project cleaning up washed up ocean mud in the house and ditches (IVY, Ishinomaki, Miyagi, June 7, 2011)59 59
  • 60. Support in Temporary Housings Distribution of daily necessities & household (JEN, Ishinomaki, Miyagi)Volunteers cleaning up mud fromthe ocean in the road ditches(JEN, Ishinomaki, Miyagi)60 60
  • 61. JANIC’s Response and Functions Backup support 1. INFORMATION: Information collection and sharing • Web site, mailing list, information exchange meeting, • Relief information from field liaison offices in 3 prefectures (now 2) 2. FACILITATION: NGOs, public institutions, funding agencies, private companies (incl. those from overseas) • Manpower, financial, and logistic support, needs-matching, CSR promotion 3. ADVOCACY/NETWORKING: Negotiation, policy recommendation and collaboration with other sectors • Cabinet Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Disaster Volunteer Centers, prefectural governments, international organizations 4. DOCUMENTATION: Document experiences and lessons for future events • Video, records and publications61
  • 62. Information NGO Information Sharing Meeting  Platform and meeting place for information exchange and needs matching among NGOs, corporate CSR, donors, and other stakeholders  21 times, 383 organizations, 442 participants NGO Information Sharing Meeting (April 2, 2011)62
  • 63. Information Web Site/Mailing List/SNS/Meetings  Specialized means to release and exchange information regarding relief activities and needs in the field  Matching records (as of early June, Category Total 2011) Fund 27  Web/SNS Goods 14 105,000 hits Manpower 12 (Japanese site) Logistics 3Specialized sites opened 6,000 hits Misc 2 (English site)immediately for disaster relief both as of Aug. 2011 Grand Total 58in Japanese and English63
  • 64. Facilitation Logistical Support by our Prefectural Field Offices (Miyagi  Iwate  Fukushima)  First-hand information gathering in the field  Info exchange & collaboration with other actors (local, public, private)  Back-up support to NGOs  Needs matchingCollaboration with local agencies JANIC!in 3 field offices: > 50 in Tono(“Tono Magokoro Net” in Iwate)64 64
  • 65. Facilitation Manpower Support  NGO staff dispatched to help field administration at the Disaster Volunteer Centers (DVCs)  Ex-JOCVs to NGOs Financial Support  Set up an untied “NGO Relief Fund” and raised approx. 1 million USD, which released to over 30 NGOs operating on the groundDevised a system to send NGO staff Logistic Supportto Disaster Volunteer Centers (DVC)(ACE, Yamamoto, Miyagi)  Computers: >60  Mobile phone: approx. 100, etc.65
  • 66. Advocacy & Networking Advocacy to the Public Sector  In NGOs activities, ODAs, cross- sector collaboration Mainstreaming Int‟l Standards  Right-based approach  Gender mainstreaming Networking  National, prefectural, municipality Seminar on gender in disaster levels (Sendai, Miyagi)  Public, private, CSO sectors66
  • 67. Networking by JANIC in the East Japan Disaster Relief  International level  Global network: InterAction (USA), Korea NGO Council for Overseas Cooperation (KCOC) , etc.  UN and international agencies  Overseas donors  National level  National government: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Disaster Volunteer Cooperation Office in Cabinet Office  Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)  CSR networks with corporate sector  Japan Platform (JPF)  Joint Committee for Coordinating and Supporting Voluntary Disaster Relief Activities (Shien-P)  Japan Civil Networks (JCN)  Prefectural level  Disaster Volunteer Centers  Local level  Disaster Volunteer Centers  Tono Magokoro Net67  Other local NPOs, CBOs, and local groups
  • 68. Documentation Documentary Video  To promotion NGO relief and rehabilitation operation  To record it for future reference Comprehensive Report  To draw lessons and recommendations for similar future events DVD shooting to promote and  To formulate an action plan to prepare for the future event document NGO activities (Otsuchi, Iwate)68 68
  • 69. In sum… JANIC Bridging “outside and inside” overseas JANIC /JPF domestic disaster area Needs, resource & information (manpower, goods, money, institution)69
  • 70. Current Change in Principal Actors Emergency Recovery Rehabilitation Smooth transition NGOs with a mobility NGOs Coordination & assistance by JANIC NPOs, CBOs, local groups, survivors70
  • 71. Challenges for NGOs for a future Big Disaster in JapanNot Well Prepared except some large/exceptional NGOs before the 3/11⇒For the possibly coming Tokai Great Earthquake, make us prepared ASAP1. Fund Reservation in and for NGOs: JPF was quick and had a large amount, but was no fundprovision for non-JPF small-median NGOs ⇒ a new mechanize or alert the present system.This may prevents donation reduction for int’l cooperation.2. Trainings & knowledge: NGO staff should take more professional trainings for, and learnabout disaster relief and rehabilitation, reflecting international standards to the domestic disaster3. Collaboration and coordination mechanisms or networking across various sectors andamong potential disaster regions4. More involvements in Fukushima is required, but not easy. 71
  • 72. 8. Overview of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster72
  • 73. Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: Totally broken Safety Myth73 73
  • 74. The Massive Radiation Leaking Japan Govt. raised the severity of the nuclear crisis to the level 7, par with Chernobyl, from 5. in 12 Apr. According to the latest estimates, 770,000 tera (1012 or Trillion) Becquerels(Bq) of radiation seeped from troubled Fukushima reactors in the week after the tsunami. This is more than double the initial estimate of 370,000 tera Bq. This amount is about 20% of the official estimate for Chernobyl in 1986. 74
  • 75. 4 points out of thousands Battle Lines of People (1)1. External Exposure: Upper Limit of radiation dose per year was 1 milli-Sivert (mSv)/year, but raised to 20 mSv/year after the 3.11 (For N.P.S. worker:100 mSv/5- years to 250mSv/5y)*1 mSv = 1000 μSv, but be aware that mSv is for one year, while μSv is for one hour in general.*1mSv/year(or 1000 μSv/year)≒{(0.23μSv/h×8hs)+(0.23μSv/h÷4×16hs}×365days(By GOJ, a person stay 8hs outside and 16hs inside where the radiationdoze is ¼ of the outside)The above Formula of calculating yearly dose may neglect possible higherexposures from small hotspots and grounds/soil, as children are much 75closer to ground.
  • 76. 4 points out of thousands Battle Lines of People (2)2. Internal Exposure: by intake of contaminated dusts, water and foods3. People‟s Radiation Measuring Activities4. Calls for “Save Children” by Evacuations76 76
  • 77. 1. External Exposure: Evacuation due to high radiation risk-1 (2011) Evacuation Level: Risk of more than 20 mSv/year radiation exposore Evacuation & other Areas1) Restricted Area, w/i 20 Km of Deliberate Evacuation Area Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Evacuated within a few days from the Disaster.2)Deliberate Evacuation Area, cumulative doze might reach 20 mSv/year. Evacuated deliberately w/I one month. Restricted Area3) Evacuation Prepared Area: b/t 20 &30 Km, most people voluntarily N evacuated, but govt. lifted warning P in Aug.11. Evacuation S Prepared Area4) Some highly contaminated hot-spots that are scatted in hills or drains. 77 77
  • 78. 1. External Exposure: Evacuation due to high radiation risk-2 (2012)Some months ago, GOJ reduced somerestricted areas:①Areas of 1~20 mSv/year ⇒hastendecontamination and then approve to return②Other reddish/yellow areas are stillrestricted areas because of more than 20mSv/year. Some are for some decades, andsome may be after some years ifdecontamination continue successfully.In general, highlands are more contaminateddue to fallouts, but gradually coming down tofoots and finally to the ocean via rivers &ground water 78 78
  • 79. Radiation Doses in Fukushima (μSv/hour) Radiation Doses in Fukushima & East Japan on Daily NewRadiation Doses in East Japan by M/o Education (μSv/hour)1.8~80.3 M above the ground on 28th. (average) Max. prior to March 11 1 M above the ground on 27th Paper of Asahi on Feb. 29, 2012 Total Radiation Doses in Fukushima since the end of March 2011, in mSv Shinjuku, Tokyo79
  • 80. GOJ’s Ministry of Education HP provide figures of air dose of radioactivity all over Japan. The above figures are observed in Fukushima city. Some figures are well above of 0.23μSv/h.80 80
  • 81. EE: Dose of 1,589 residents who lives very near to Fukushima Daiichi NPS in 4 months (excluding NPS workers) 81 mSvSource:
  • 82. EE: Evacuating Population from Fukushima: 157,667(8.0% of Fukushima Prefecture population)Evacuation In Fukushima: 95,583 as of 12 Jul., 12Evacuation outside of Fukushima:62,084 as of 7 Jun, 12Source: Fukushima Pref. HP 82 82 Source: IMC
  • 83. Behind: Troubled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 20 Nov. 11. No body exits except TEPCO workers and Policemen.83 83
  • 84. 54.84 μSv/hour above a gutter on very near the Fukushima Daiich84 84
  • 85. In-Patients were hurriedly evacuated from the Naraha Hospital, 3 Km from troubled FNPS.85 85
  • 86. Starved Cow Carcass in 20 Km Radius86 86
  • 87. Abandoned Cows in 20 Km Radius87 87
  • 88. Empty Tomioka Railway Station in 20 Km Radius & Destroyed by Tsunami88 88
  • 89. Decontamination =removing surface soil/leaves, washing by pressured water etc. 1) not well established tech., so even after it, radiation is not always substantially lower 2) Who should do this? Volunteers or paid & trained workers? How those people should be protected? 3) High costs for decontamination. Who should bear the costs? At present, the half of the costs is borne by local govt., but how about the other half? 4) No idea to dispose wastes (soil and other garbage) out of decontamination, like all nuclear wastes89
  • 90. Photos of Decontamination Washing a roof of house with high-pressure water. ↓ ↥Top soil of a playground is removed Photos: 8&p=%E9%99%A4%E6%9F%93 90
  • 91. Internal Exposure (IE): Lenient Japan’s Provisional Criteria for contaminated Water & Food, prepared only after the Nuclear Crisis & too Lenient => Finally a new criteria ready Provisional Criteria From 1 Apr.12 Caesium-134, Caesium-137 200 Bq/kgDrinking water 10 Bq/kg (10 Bq/L ICRP)Milk and milk products 200 Bq/kg 50 Bq/kgVegetables 500 Bq/kg (370 Bq/kg by JapanGrains Govt. for food import after 100 Bq/Kg Chernobyl)Meat, Egg, Fish and othersIf one takes 200gram milk, well contaminated to the above figures every day, annual dose will be 759 μSv. from themilk.91
  • 92. Internal Exposure (IE):by foods Sea Fishes: High radiation detected from small fish, Silver-stripe round herring (Spratelloides gracilis) in Fukushima sea coasts a few weeks later. Still very limited fishing and selling of sea fishes in many adjacent areas due to the high-contamination through the bio magnification (concentration through food chain) , and also due to base-less rumor. Sweet Water Fishes: in Fukushima, fishing banned except carefully cultivated ones. Vegetables: initially many leaf-veg. were contaminated, but now much relaxed due to established radiation measuring points . Meats, milk and milk products (power milk) Rice: large areas banned for cultivation, but some farmers prove that organic farming prevent radiation transfer from soil to rice. Drinking Water: very high after 2-3days of accident. Now well checked and controlled. 92
  • 93. 9. Responses by Public and NGOs93
  • 94. People’s Radiation Measuring Activities In General, people are more suspicious to official announcements and figures after the Fukushima crisis. Local governments monitors radioactivity levels of various places food sample, but not well covered. Hence many initiatives to measure radiation levels in and out of Fukushima: by concerned citizens, mothers, famers & Fishermen (their Coops.), retailers, restaurants, and so on. Now most local govt. & organizations have own measuring machines and checking most products. 94
  • 95. Call for “Save Children” by Evacuations A group of NGOs checked urine of 10 children Internal Exposure levels and found all samples positive with around 1.0 Bq/liter. Several Organizations campaign to evacuate children and pregnant women from Fukushima. Even short time evacuations, internally radioactive things might be discharged. ⇒ practices of week-end evacuations, vacation evacuations, one semester evacuations, if not longer evacuation.Please see Fukushima Network for Saving Children from Radiation. 95
  • 96. Some of Other Major Problems Evacuation/Housing: isolated locations, lonely aged persons ⇒ Community Rebuilding Unemployment/jobless/poverty (especially women) Livelihood Supports and Compensations by Govt. and TEPCO, plus newly created divisions among compensation levels and not-compensated. Security & maintenance of unattended properties & homes Harmful Rumors & Discrimination Decontamination: high costs, health risks, long times to cover, and lack of disposal places of contaminated soils Returning (or no scope for returning) to own home/town ,or not clear picture of (temporary/permanent) Relocation. Those who can afford have already relocated personally, with/without resident registration. And many other problems.(for more info. 96
  • 97. - Crisis in Fukushima is still on-going, and JANIC will continue to monitor/record the unprecedented processes for sharing these with global people, so that you will be albe to fight/protect well at the next occasion. - But do you really like to have Nuclear Power Station in you area/country? Usually local people/govt. are forced to agree in front of big money and job opportunities. Be Careful! Local people protected themselves by wearing like this. 9797 (taken in Iwaki city of Fukushima Prefecture on March 27, 2011)