QuestionsBy: Hannah TricamoVisual Art educationin the United States andChicagoNext
Questions• What is the history of arts education in theUnited States?• What are the benefits of art education?• What is the state of art education in Chicago?• How is visual art taught in schools?• How are elementary school teachersaccommodating after recent changes in arteducation?• What roles do museums and communityorganizations in Chicago play in art education?Next
How I conducted my inquiryNext• I observed art classes at South LoopElementary with two art teachers• I observed art classes at Blaine Elementary (anarts magnet school)• I researched the history of art education, benefitsof art education, and museums/communityorganizations through internet websites, books,news articles, and publications from local andnational organizations
How does this apply to FND 510?Next•This project examines how art education relates to:•“Key turning points in American educational history”•“The process of change and the political, economic, andideological underpinnings of reform in American schoolsover time”•“No Child Left Behind: Politics, assumptions, advantagesand controversies”•“Pedagogical practices of imagination and arts”
History of Art Education in the USNext1960’s and 1970’s: The “arts in education” movement believes that art is an “experience” that can be achieved through process participationand rejects art that is regimented. Federal and state funding for arts education increased and enrolment in high school art classes peaked.1947: The National Art Education Association was founded. This is the leading professional membership organization exclusively for visual arts teachers, andits mission is to advance visual arts education to fulfill human potential and promote global understanding ("National art education" )1912: Alfred Stiegliz puts children’s artwork on display in his New York gallery, recognizing them as artists (Greenough, 2000)1903:Binney and Smith introduced the first Crayola crayons in a box of eight colors after noticing a need for safe, high quality, and affordable wax crayons(“Crayola”)Early 20th Century: John Dewey experimented with a new approach called “Progressive Education.” He believed that art education was a foundational partof curriculum because it developed creativity, self-expression, and an appreciation of the expression of others (Heilig, Cole & Angelica, 2010)1883: The National Educational Association creates an art department that gives teachers ideas and guidelines to teach art in the classroom.By the late 19th century, students learned to appreciate the arts through “Picture Study” and practiced hand-eye coordination throughdrafting and drawing (Smith, 1996)Art education in the United States has had both advancements and setbacks from theLate 19th Century to the present
History of Art Education in the US, continuedNext2002: Congress passed No Child Left Behind which holds states accountable for English and math. Art is listed as part of the core curriculum,but states are not required to report on instruction time or assessment data (Pederson, 2007)1994: Congress passed the “Goals 2000: Educate America Act,” the first federal legislation to identify arts as part of the core curriculum (Goals2000: Educate America Act, 1994)1994: The National Endowment for the Arts and the Department of Education created the National Voluntary K-12 Standards for the Arts, thefirst policy project of national scope (Heilig, Cole & Angelica, 2010)1983: “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform” is released by the Reagan administration and focused on science and mathcurriculum to make American students as competitive as their international counterparts (Smith, 1996)1982: The Getty Center for Education in the Arts created Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE), which focused on asystematic and sequential program for studying art history, art criticism, aesthetics and art production. (Smith, 1996)
National Standards for Visual ArtsEducation• 1. Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes• 2. Using knowledge of structures and functions• 3. Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols, andideas• 4. Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures• 5. Reflecting upon and assessing the characteristics and merits oftheir work and the work of others• 6. Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines*These goals are expanded upon for each grade levelNextExamples ofmulticultural artprojects
Illinois State Goals for Visual Arts Education• 25. Know the language of the arts.• 26. Through creating and performing,understand how works of art are produced.• 27. Understand the role of the arts incivilizations past and present.*These goals are expanded upon for eachgrade levelNext
Lessons the Arts teachNext• The arts teach children to make good judgments about qualitative relationships.Unlike much of the curriculum in which correct answers and rules prevail, in thearts, it is judgment rather than rules that prevail.• The arts teach children that problems can have more than one solution and thatquestions can have more than one answer.• The arts celebrate multiple perspectives, teaching students that there are manyways to see the world.• The arts teach children complex forms of problem solving and require the abilityto surrender to the unanticipated possibilities of the work as it unfolds• The arts teach children that words and numbers do not define the limits of ourcognition• The arts help children learn to say what cannot be said through emotional feelings• The arts position in the school curriculum symbolizes to the young what adultsbelieve is importantFrom Ten Lessons the Arts Teach By Elliot Eisner (2002)
Benefits of Art Education to At-RiskYouthNext• “The Arts and Achievement in At-Risk Youth”study by the National Endowment for the Artsfound:– Socially and economically disadvantaged children andteenagers who have high levels of arts engagement orarts learning show more positive outcomes in avariety of areas (grades, test scores, high schoolgraduation, college enrollment and achievement) thantheir low-arts-engaged peers– At-risk teenagers or young adults with a history ofintensive arts experiences show achievement levelscloser to, and in some cases exceeding, the levelsshown by the general population studied.
The state of art education in ChicagoNextThe art teachers Ispoke with said thatnot all principals valueart education highly.
CPS Art Education Plan• Recent news “CPS gets $1 million for Arts Education Plan”– Strategies for increased art education to begin 2013-2014– Goal: Dedicated weekly arts instructional time of 120 minutesfor elementary students and increased art credit options forhigh school students– Goal: Significant increase in professional development andtraining for teachers, principals, and arts partners– Goal: Increased community partnerships for schools– Goal: Increased funding assistance and strategies to ensure artsinstruction in every school, including diversifying the types ofarts offerings in schools and increasing dedicated supplies andresources– More info on the CPS Arts Education Plan can be found HERE• CPS published the Chicago Guide for Teaching and Learningin the Arts as a resource to teachers to enhance theircurriculumNext
Art and No Child Left Behind• No Child Left Behind (NCLB) holds states accountable for English andmath. Art is listed as part of the core curriculum, but states are notrequired to report on instruction time or assessment data• In “What is Measured is Treasured: The Impact of NCLB on Non-assessedSubjects,” Patricia Pederson found a reduction in resources and time fornon-tested subject areas (like the arts)NextFrom the No ChildLeft Behind Act
Art and No Child Left Behind• In “Public School Teachers Describe a Narrowing Curriculum” theFarkasDuffett Research Group found:Next
Art and No Child Left Behind• In “Public School Teachers Describe a Narrowing Curriculum” theFarkasDuffett Research Group found:Next
How is art taught? DBAE• Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) is acomprehensive art education approach thathas four components:– Production: Creating works of art– History: Encountering the historical and culturalbackground of works of art– Aesthetics: Discovering the nature and philosophyof art– Criticism: making informed judgments about artNext• A goal of DBAE is to integrate the arts into other subjectsand to create a standardized evaluation process• DBAE attempts to develop student’s ability to understandand appreciate art using knowledge of theories and contextsof art, and to respond to and create art
How is art taught? DBAENextMrs. R at Blaine Elementary wasteaching her 6th grade classabout movement in art. Shestarts each lesson with apresentation to give students ahistorical background. TheDegas painting to the right wasused as an example ofmovement.6th grade student’s artwork.Mrs. R had students domultiple projects related tomovement, including acollage, a wire sculpture,and a sketchbook ofdrawings they did ofstudents on the playground.
How is art taught? TAB• Teaching for Artistic Behaviors (TAB) isa choice-based art education approach• Students are given a variety of materials and ample timeand space to respond to their own ideas and intereststhrough their artwork– TAB art teachers often create “Centers” in the classroom fordifferent types of art. Ex. painting, drawing, printmaking, etc.– TAB teachers usually instruct students in each of the types ofmaterials so they have basic knowledge of how to use them. InTAB, teachers act as guides to student’s education• TAB regards students as artists and encouragesindependent thinking• Students are assessed on their perseverance, planning,experimenting, studio habits, and progressNext
How is art taught? TABNextOne of three “centers” in Ms.C’s art class at South LoopElementary. Students couldchoose between painting,drawing, and weaving.A 2nd grade student’sWOW piece. Ms. C hadstudents choose twopieces per quarter thatthey were proud of. Theywere required to describetheir artwork, how theymade it , and where theygot the idea
Today, some Chicago school’s artprograms are flourishing• I visited a fine arts magnet school to compare art programs in Chicago. Althoughthis school as classified as a fine arts magnet school, the music teacher lost hisclassroom last year and teaches on a cart. This school is at 140% capacity.• Students at Blaine Elementary get two one-hour art classes per week for 3quarters.• Art teachers in Chicago administer a standardized art performance test (REACH) toevaluate student growth and teacher effectiveness. A middle school level testrequires students to “create a sketch that promotes safety with images and textand utilize 1 element and 1 principal of art.” They must also explain their idea andsketch.NextBlaine Elementary has 1 fulltime art teacher who has herown art classroom. She has aPromethean Board, a kiln,multiple drying racks, a sink,and plenty of storage space forsupplies
How are schools accommodating?• Many schools in Chicago have limitedart programs. Teachers have lostclassrooms and have been cut to part-time.• Some art teachers bring their materialsto student’s general educationclassrooms on a cart.NextSouth Loop Elementary has 1full time art teacher and 1part- time art teacher. Bothteach “Art on a Cart” andoperate out of the librarystorage room.
• A few negative aspects of “Art on a Cart” that I observed:– Students were sitting at their usual desks and were often distracted by thethings around them– Teachers must be highly organized and must prepare materials on the cartfor their classes for the entire day– General education classes often do not have sinks. One teacher avoidedusing paint and other messy art materials in her classes.– There is very little space to store art supplies when not in use– Students do not have the resources or space to work in every medium. Forexample, ceramics and types of printmakingNextHow are schools accommodating?
How are schools accommodating?NextA makeshift place forstudents to turn in theirart assignments, sincethere is no art classroomat South Loop ElementaryThe art storage room andoffice for art teachers atSouth Loop Elementary.Space for additionalsupplies is limited.
How are general education teachersaccommodating?• 8% of Chicago schools do not receive funded positionsfor music or arts teachers• General education teachers integrate art lessons intomath, science, social studies, and language arts lessons• The Kennedy Center’s “Education Through the Arts”program offers resources for general educationteachers to integrate arts education into their everydaylessons– Free lesson plans to integrate the arts into other subjectsare available on their website– Students construct and demonstrate understanding of asubject through an art formNext
Art IntegrationNextThis poster integratesthe arts into aLanguage Arts lesson.Each picturerepresents a type offigurative language.Often art teachers are expected tointegrate other subjects (math,language arts, science) into theirlessons to reinforce the core subjects.I believe that teaching other subjectsthrough the arts gets students moreexcited about learning. But, we needto be careful not to downplay theimportance of the arts in and ofthemselves.
Museums and Community Organizations• There are many museums and communityorganizations in the Chicago area that work tosupplement the lack of art education in someschools• These organizations provide resources toteachers, school, and familiesNext
Museum: Art Institute of Chicago• Student tours of the museum (Docent-ledand teacher-led)• Professional development programs forteachers– Annual Curriculum Fair– Workshops and Seminars• Online educator resources– Database of museum collection withinformation on each piece– Multimedia- Audio and video of lectures,panel discussions, behind the scenes at themuseum, etc.– Artwork resource packets, teacher manuals,and interactive websites• Hosts 2,000 school groups from Chicagoand Illinois, with ¼ from CPSNextThis teaching guide fromthe Art Instituteincludes a lesson on artvocabulary and multipleprojects for studentsthat relate to artwork inthe museum
Museum: Chicago Children’s Museum• Founded in 1982 in response to program cutbacks in CPS• Mission: to improve children’s lives by creating acommunity where play an learning connect• Field trips available for a fee• Kraft Artabounds Studio is the museum’s arts and craftsstudio that offers a variety of workshops throughout theweek for pre-K and elementary school children• Online Educator Resources:– Home and classroom activity guides– Lesson plans for educatorsNextKraft Artabounds Studio offersaround 44 workshops perweek. One example: “Examinethe many properties of naturalmaterials as you build asculpture with twigs, rocks, andshells
Museums• Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art– Artist-led workshops for teachers to help integratecontemporary art in their classrooms– Field trips: free tours for Illinois schools, grades 1-12.Hands-on art making workshops and in-gallery writing/drawing exercises are also available– Free lesson plans– Online database of museum collection• Museums across the country, and even the world, offerresources for teaching visual art on their websites. Most havedatabases of their collections and many offer free lessonplans and activities• Check out the Lourve’s educational site HERENext
Community Programs• Programs throughout Chicago offer after-school, weekend, and summerlearning opportunities in the arts. Some learning opportunities are freeand some are for a fee• CPS has partnered with over 300 arts organizations and teaching artists toenhance art education in schools• Chicago Arts Partnership in Education (CAPE)– Mission: To bring artists and educators together to provide art education in anintegrated curriculum– Provides professional development for current teachers– CAPE reaches 5,000 students K-12 in 49 Chicago Public Schools• Urban Gateways– Mission: To deliver high quality arts programs led by trained and experiencedprofessional artists. Programs include touring performances, family andcommunity workshops, and professional development for educatorsNext
Community Programs• Community Art Centers (Hyde Park, Beverley, South Chicago, etc)– The South Chicago Art Center’s mission is to provide youth with anaccessible, safe place to participate in quality visual arts programs.– Provides in-school programs for local public schools through artistresidencies– Provides after-school programs at the art center and in libraries/community centers in other under-served neighborhoods. Theseinclude both structured classes and open studio time– Provides adult workshops as a way for parents to learn visual artstechniques that can be shared with their children– Teacher Professional Development Workshops to help teachersincorporate art into their academic curriculumNext
Websites• Teaching for Artistic Behaviors Website• Discipline-Based Art Education Website• Chicago Public Schools Arts Education Plan 2012• Illinois Goals for Visual ArtsNextPublications• The Schools Chicagos Students Deserve by the Chicago Teachers Union• Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit Student Achievement by NASAA• The Chicago Guide for Teaching and Learning in the Arts• Arts Education Navigator: Facts and Figures by Americans for the Arts• National Standards for Visual Arts Education• The Arts and Achievement in At-Risk Youth by the National Endowment for theArts• Public School Teachers Describe a Narrowing Curriculum
NextCrayola. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.crayola.com/about-us/crayon-chronology.aspxEisner, E. (2002). The Arts and the Creation of Mind, In Chapter 4, What the Arts Teach and How It Shows. (pp. 70-92). Yale University Press.Goals 2000: Educate America Act.1994. P.L. 103-227. Retrieved fromhttp://www2.ed.gov/legislation/GOALS2000/TheAct/sec102.htmlGreenough, S. (2000). Modern art and america: Alfred stieglitz and his new york galleries. Washington, DC:National Gallery of Art.Heilig, J. V., Cole, H., & Angelica, A. (2010). From dewey to no child left behind: The evolution and devolution ofpublic arts education. Arts Education Policy Review, 111, 136-145.National art education association. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/about-usPederson, P. V. (2007). What is measured is treasured the impact of the no child left behind act on nonassessedsubjects. The Clearing House, 80(6), 287-291.Smith, P. (1996). The history of American art education. Westport, Connecticut : Greenwood Press.References for Timeline