Aperture (AV mode)
Aperture is a part of the camera that is responsible for letting in light and
controlling the amount of light that the camera captures in the final image.
This also controls the depth of field in a photo, the depth of field is the
amount of detail that is let in a image, so the bigger the aperture the more
light in a photo the narrower the depth of field and the smaller the aperture
the less light which means a wider depth of field. Also it can be counted in
F stops so the bigger the F stop the smaller the aperture and the wider the
depth of field and visa versa.
On this diagram
you can see the
narrower depth of
field makes the
background of the
photo out of focus.
On this diagram you
can see the f stop is
larger, so the aperture
is smaller and the
depth of field is wider.
On this photo the camera setting had a
small aperture so this meant it had a
large depth of field so most of the photo
would be in focus. You can see this by
most of the photo being in focus like the
books being in sharp focus.
This time the aperture is midway, so the
depth of field will also be midway, but
now you can see on the photo that the
books have come out of the field of focus
and are slightly out of focus.
This time the aperture is at its largest, so
now all the background and foreground
is out of focus and just the camera case
is in focus.
Shutter Speed (Tv mode)
Shutter speed can create effects that can give a photo some movement
and stillness, depending on the speed of the shutter and how fast it closes.
Shutter speed is counted in fractions of seconds. A fast shutter speed
would be in the 1000s, for example 1/3000.
The smaller the fraction the faster the shutter speed, the faster the shutter
speed the more detail that will be captured. The slower the shutter speed
the bigger the fraction. The longer the shutter is open the more blur and
movement the picture will include.
Fast shutter speed Medium shutter speed
Slow shutter speed
This photo has been taken with a fast
shutter speed, so the movement is
captured so all the detail is kept and
there is no blurring.
This time the shutter speed was at a
medium speed, this did capture some
movement and blurring but not enough
to create a movement in the photo.
On this photo the shutter speed is slow
and it captures the movement in the
photo. Because the shutter was open for
longer this meant more light got into the
picture making it a bit over exposed.
The ISO settings is to do with the sensitivity of the camera, the
amount of sensitivity the camera reacts to depending on the
lighting situations. The higher the ISO number the more sensitive
the sensor is to light the sensor records the light in the final image
then this also determines the amount of noise that ends up on the
final image. The higher the ISO the more noise that ends up on
the final image and the lower the ISO the better quality the photo
The noise is clusters and grains of light that heat up and become
more visible the higher the ISO.
On this photo I put the ISO settings on to
the highest setting, this has made the
picture lighter and the camera is most
sensitive to the light. But if you cropped
into this or zoomed the noise in this
photo would be visible.
In this photo the ISO it about medium
sensitivity so the light hasn’t been picked
up as much as the previous photo. But
the noise would be a lot less visible if
you zoomed into the photo.
In this photo the ISO is at its least so the
light sensitivity is not high and the photo
is dark. The noise on this is the least and
may not be very visible when you crop or
zoom into the photo.
This is changing the white colour in the photo. The white
balance menu lets you choose to take an image for each
setting. Some settings will give more dramatic or subtle
results, the balance will make the photo more yellow or blue .
In this selection of photos it shows
how different the different white
balances can make the same photo
Using different white balances on the same photos each
give the same photos a very different feel. The top 2 photos
look a lot warmer and yellower, where as the bottom two
look colder and bluer. The white balance can change the
whole story of the photo and make them look like a very