Gaines midwest processors-12-3-13-final

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Presentation about pollinators in agriculture for the Midwest Food Processors Association's Annual Convention. Milwaukee, WI. December 2013

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Gaines midwest processors-12-3-13-final

  1. 1. Bee Issues in Agriculture and Potential Impacts on the Processing Industry Hannah Gaines Day and Claudio Gratton Department of Entomology University of Wisconsin-Madison
  2. 2. Thiamethoxam Imidacloprid Clothianidin
  3. 3. Is the US next?
  4. 4. What makes systemic pesticides different?
  5. 5. Traditional pesticides
  6. 6. Traditional pesticides
  7. 7. Traditional pesticides
  8. 8. Traditional pesticides X
  9. 9. Traditional pesticides
  10. 10. Traditional pesticides
  11. 11. Systemic pesticides
  12. 12. Systemic pesticides
  13. 13. Systemic pesticides
  14. 14. Systemic pesticides X
  15. 15. Systemic pesticides
  16. 16. Systemic pesticides
  17. 17. Systemic pesticides
  18. 18. Systemic pesticides • Benefits – Very effective – Less toxic to birds and mammals – Effective longer
  19. 19. Systemic pesticides • Benefits – Very effective – Less toxic to birds and mammals – Effective longer • Drawbacks – Present in nectar and pollen – Remain in environment longer – Toxic to bees
  20. 20. How important are bees? • 85% of all flowering plants (Ollerton et al. 2011) • 35% of global crop production (Klein et al. 2007) R. Winfree
  21. 21. One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination. DIRECTLY
  22. 22. One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination. INDIRECTLY
  23. 23. With bees
  24. 24. Without bees
  25. 25. Pollinators • Birds, bats, bees, moths, butterflies • Bees are the MOST IMPORTANT pollinators – Actively collect pollen – Floral constancy – Branched hairs
  26. 26. Result of poor pollination
  27. 27. Bees and Midwest agriculture
  28. 28. Crop pollination by honey bees Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer
  29. 29. www.gallery.photo.net
  30. 30. Native bees are also great crop pollinators • Active earlier in season and day • Collect both pollen and nectar • Buzz pollination • No rental fees • Keep honey bees moving • Not susceptible to honey bee diseases
  31. 31. Solitary bee life cycle Spring Winter Fall Summer (Photos: Dennis Briggs)
  32. 32. Bee diversity in Wisconsin • Cranberry ~180 species (H. Gaines Day, unpubl.) • Pickling cucumber ~60 species (Lowenstein et al. 2012) • Apple ~70 species (R. Mallinger, unpubl.)
  33. 33. Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext
  34. 34. Native bees and crop pollination Winfree, R. et al.. 2008. Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of crop visitation across land-use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:793-802. Photo: Rachael Winfree
  35. 35. Fruit set increases with bee diversity Klein et al. 2003
  36. 36. Bees are in decline worldwide © Peter Schroeder © Jodi DeLong © Derrick Ditchburn © Johanna James-Heinz
  37. 37. Causes of bee decline • Mites, disease, pesticide exposure Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer
  38. 38. vanEngelsdorp et al. (in prep)
  39. 39. Honey bee rental rates (CA) 1995-2005
  40. 40. 2008 Honey bee rental rates (CA) 2006 1995-2005, plus almonds, 2006-2008 2007
  41. 41. Colony Collapse Disorder • • • • • Disease/pathogen? Viruses? Pests? Stress? Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Poor diet? • Insecticide exposure?
  42. 42. Colony Collapse Disorder • • • • • Disease/pathogen? Viruses? Pests? Stress? Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Poor diet? • Insecticide exposure?
  43. 43. Honey bee decline and diet (Alaux et al. 2010) =
  44. 44. Honey bee decline and diet (Alaux et al. 2010) • Bees diet is made of pollen and nectar • Diverse diet = healthier bees, stronger immune system
  45. 45. Honey bee decline and diet (Alaux et al. 2010) =
  46. 46. Modern agricultural landscapes are food deserts for bees.
  47. 47. Even small flower patches can provide vital floral resources for bees
  48. 48. Honey bee decline and pesticides • 118 different pesticides found in honey bee hives (Mullin et al. 2010)
  49. 49. Honey bee decline and pesticides Risk = toxicity x exposure
  50. 50. Honey bee decline and pesticides Risk = toxicity x exposure
  51. 51. Honey bee decline and pesticides • Lethal effects • Sub-lethal effects
  52. 52. Honey bee decline and pesticides • Synergism between chemicals – Combinations of pesticides more toxic
  53. 53. Honey bee decline and pesticides • Synergism between chemicals – Combinations of pesticides more toxic • Unexpected effects of “safe” chemicals – Inerts, Fungicides, Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs)
  54. 54. Honey bee decline and pesticides Risk = toxicity x exposure
  55. 55. Honey bee decline and pesticides • Multiple routes of exposure (Krupke et al. 2012) – Planter dust, contaminated soil
  56. 56. Honey bee decline and pesticides • Multiple routes of exposure (Krupke et al. 2012) – Planter dust, contaminated soil – Weedy flowers near treated fields
  57. 57. Honey bee decline and pesticides • Multiple routes of exposure (Krupke et al. 2012) – Planter dust, contaminated soil – Weedy flowers near treated fields – Contaminated pollen and nectar Purdue extension Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext
  58. 58. Honey bee decline and pesticides • Multiple routes of exposure (Krupke et al. 2012) – Planter dust, contaminated soil – Weedy flowers near treated fields – Contaminated pollen and nectar – Contaminated water
  59. 59. How are we addressing these issues? • Research • New EPA labeling • Corn Dust Research Consortium – Industry, government, university, non-profit – Develop new lubricants and polymers to reduce dust and contamination in dust
  60. 60. Why do these issues matter to you? • Pollinator-dependent crops • Your actions have broader effects than the field boundaries • Everyone needs to eat Purdue extension
  61. 61. What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve native bees and bee habitat already present on your farm. © NRCS Lynn Betts
  62. 62. What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve native bees and bee habitat already present on your farm. • Provide flowers and nesting resources. K. Ullmann Photo: Bob Hammond, CO Coop Ext
  63. 63. What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve native bees and bee habitat already present on your farm. • Provide flowers and nesting resources. • Adjust current practices to protect bees. – Spray timing, drift, chemistries
  64. 64. Small actions by many people can make a big change.
  65. 65. Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org)
  66. 66. Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org)
  67. 67. Further resources Gratton Lab at UW-Madison http://gratton.entomology.wisc.edu/ My contact information: Email: hgaines@gmail.com Cell: 774-392-0498
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