Gaines midwest processors-12-3-13-final
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Presentation about pollinators in agriculture for the Midwest Food Processors Association's Annual Convention. Milwaukee, WI. December 2013

Presentation about pollinators in agriculture for the Midwest Food Processors Association's Annual Convention. Milwaukee, WI. December 2013

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Gaines midwest processors-12-3-13-final Gaines midwest processors-12-3-13-final Presentation Transcript

  • Bee Issues in Agriculture and Potential Impacts on the Processing Industry Hannah Gaines Day and Claudio Gratton Department of Entomology University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Thiamethoxam Imidacloprid Clothianidin
  • Is the US next?
  • What makes systemic pesticides different?
  • Traditional pesticides
  • Traditional pesticides
  • Traditional pesticides
  • Traditional pesticides X
  • Traditional pesticides
  • Traditional pesticides
  • Systemic pesticides
  • Systemic pesticides
  • Systemic pesticides
  • Systemic pesticides X
  • Systemic pesticides
  • Systemic pesticides
  • Systemic pesticides
  • Systemic pesticides • Benefits – Very effective – Less toxic to birds and mammals – Effective longer
  • Systemic pesticides • Benefits – Very effective – Less toxic to birds and mammals – Effective longer • Drawbacks – Present in nectar and pollen – Remain in environment longer – Toxic to bees
  • How important are bees? • 85% of all flowering plants (Ollerton et al. 2011) • 35% of global crop production (Klein et al. 2007) R. Winfree
  • One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination. DIRECTLY
  • One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination. INDIRECTLY
  • With bees
  • Without bees
  • Pollinators • Birds, bats, bees, moths, butterflies • Bees are the MOST IMPORTANT pollinators – Actively collect pollen – Floral constancy – Branched hairs
  • Result of poor pollination
  • Bees and Midwest agriculture
  • Crop pollination by honey bees Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer
  • www.gallery.photo.net
  • Native bees are also great crop pollinators • Active earlier in season and day • Collect both pollen and nectar • Buzz pollination • No rental fees • Keep honey bees moving • Not susceptible to honey bee diseases
  • Solitary bee life cycle Spring Winter Fall Summer (Photos: Dennis Briggs)
  • Bee diversity in Wisconsin • Cranberry ~180 species (H. Gaines Day, unpubl.) • Pickling cucumber ~60 species (Lowenstein et al. 2012) • Apple ~70 species (R. Mallinger, unpubl.)
  • Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext
  • Native bees and crop pollination Winfree, R. et al.. 2008. Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of crop visitation across land-use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:793-802. Photo: Rachael Winfree
  • Fruit set increases with bee diversity Klein et al. 2003
  • Bees are in decline worldwide © Peter Schroeder © Jodi DeLong © Derrick Ditchburn © Johanna James-Heinz
  • Causes of bee decline • Mites, disease, pesticide exposure Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer
  • vanEngelsdorp et al. (in prep)
  • Honey bee rental rates (CA) 1995-2005
  • 2008 Honey bee rental rates (CA) 2006 1995-2005, plus almonds, 2006-2008 2007
  • Colony Collapse Disorder • • • • • Disease/pathogen? Viruses? Pests? Stress? Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Poor diet? • Insecticide exposure?
  • Colony Collapse Disorder • • • • • Disease/pathogen? Viruses? Pests? Stress? Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Poor diet? • Insecticide exposure?
  • Honey bee decline and diet (Alaux et al. 2010) =
  • Honey bee decline and diet (Alaux et al. 2010) • Bees diet is made of pollen and nectar • Diverse diet = healthier bees, stronger immune system
  • Honey bee decline and diet (Alaux et al. 2010) =
  • Modern agricultural landscapes are food deserts for bees.
  • Even small flower patches can provide vital floral resources for bees
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides • 118 different pesticides found in honey bee hives (Mullin et al. 2010)
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides Risk = toxicity x exposure
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides Risk = toxicity x exposure
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides • Lethal effects • Sub-lethal effects
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides • Synergism between chemicals – Combinations of pesticides more toxic
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides • Synergism between chemicals – Combinations of pesticides more toxic • Unexpected effects of “safe” chemicals – Inerts, Fungicides, Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs)
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides Risk = toxicity x exposure
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides • Multiple routes of exposure (Krupke et al. 2012) – Planter dust, contaminated soil
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides • Multiple routes of exposure (Krupke et al. 2012) – Planter dust, contaminated soil – Weedy flowers near treated fields
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides • Multiple routes of exposure (Krupke et al. 2012) – Planter dust, contaminated soil – Weedy flowers near treated fields – Contaminated pollen and nectar Purdue extension Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext
  • Honey bee decline and pesticides • Multiple routes of exposure (Krupke et al. 2012) – Planter dust, contaminated soil – Weedy flowers near treated fields – Contaminated pollen and nectar – Contaminated water
  • How are we addressing these issues? • Research • New EPA labeling • Corn Dust Research Consortium – Industry, government, university, non-profit – Develop new lubricants and polymers to reduce dust and contamination in dust
  • Why do these issues matter to you? • Pollinator-dependent crops • Your actions have broader effects than the field boundaries • Everyone needs to eat Purdue extension
  • What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve native bees and bee habitat already present on your farm. © NRCS Lynn Betts
  • What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve native bees and bee habitat already present on your farm. • Provide flowers and nesting resources. K. Ullmann Photo: Bob Hammond, CO Coop Ext
  • What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve native bees and bee habitat already present on your farm. • Provide flowers and nesting resources. • Adjust current practices to protect bees. – Spray timing, drift, chemistries
  • Small actions by many people can make a big change.
  • Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org)
  • Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org)
  • Further resources Gratton Lab at UW-Madison http://gratton.entomology.wisc.edu/ My contact information: Email: hgaines@gmail.com Cell: 774-392-0498