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    Gaines day stevenspoint-bee-talk-5-21-14-final Gaines day stevenspoint-bee-talk-5-21-14-final Presentation Transcript

    • The Buzz on Bees Hannah Gaines Day Department of Entomology University of Wisconsin, Madison H. Gaines Day H. Gaines DayR. Mallinger
    • Protecting wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat since 1971. Major Programs: •Pollinator conservation •Endangered species • Aquatic invertebrates www.funet.fi Advocacy, Education, Restoration, and Applied Research
    • Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees • Threats to native bees • Native bee conservation strategies • Further resources
    • Pollination • Transfer of pollen from anthers to stigma • Wind, gravity, or animal mediated © Bruce Newhouse
    • Pollinators • Birds, bats, bees, moths, butterflies
    • Pollinators • Birds, bats, bees, moths, butterflies • Bees are the MOST IMPORTANT pollinators – Actively collect pollen – Floral constancy – Branched hairs
    • • 85% of all flowering plants • 35% of global crop production R. Winfree How important are bees?
    • Poor fruit set resulting from poor pollinationPoor pollination
    • One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination.
    • One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination.
    • One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination.
    • With bees
    • Without bees
    • Bees and Wisconsin agriculture
    • Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees
    • What is a bee? • Hymenoptera – Ants, bees, wasps •6 legs, 4 wings • Vegetarian – Provision nests with pollen • Great pollinators! – Pollen sticks to feather- like hairs
    • Bees versus wasps • Carnivorous • Simple hairs • More aggressive • Examples: yellow jackets, hornets, paper wasps
    • Bees versus flies • Feed on decaying matter, feces, and blood • Also feed on nectar • 2 wings, short stubby antennae • Prominent eyes • Examples: house flies, hover flies
    • Native bees versus honey bees • Single, non-native species • Perennial colony with queen • Wax hives • Produce honey
    • Honey bees are not native, but • Generalist pollinators • “Easy” to manage • Work well with modern agricultural system
    • Social behavior of bees • Solitary (majority of species) • Social (only 10%) – Honey bees (NOT native) – Bumble bees
    • Solitary bee life cycle Spring Summer Fall Winter (Photos: Dennis Briggs)
    • Social bee life cycle (bumble bee) Spring Summer Fall Winter
    • Nesting behavior of bees Ground Stem S. Camarzine Cavity
    • Ground nesting (~70% of bees)
    • P.Westrich Ground nesting (~70% of bees) K. Ullmann
    • © Edward Ross Stem nesting (~30% of bees) K. Ullmann
    • Silk cocoons with dormant bees inside Mud cap closure Larva Pupa Adult Pollen mass Egg Mud wall Cross-section of silk cocoons Stem nesting
    • Stem nesting bees www.pestweb.com www.warrenphotographic.co.uk • Leaf-cutter bees (Megachile sp.)
    • Stem nesting bees • Leaf-cutter bees (Megachile addenda)
    • Stem nesting bees www.agf.gov.bc.ca T. Stoehr • Mason bees (Osmia sp.)
    • Stem nesting bees • Mason bees (Osmia avosetta) J. Rozen, AMNH
    • Stem nesting bees • Mason bees (Osmia avosetta) J. Rozen, AMNH
    • Stem nesting bees • Mason bees (Osmia avosetta) J.Rozen,AMNH
    • Stem nesting bees • Mason bees (Osmia avosetta) J. Rozen, AMNH
    • S. Camarzine Cavity nesting (bumble bees) K. Ullmann
    • Cavity nesting (bumble bees) • 45 species in North America • Annual colony with 100-300 workers • Specialist pollinators of red clover, blueberry, cranberry, eggplant, tomato Photos:Eric Mader, Elaine Evans
    • How many bees are there? • ~20,000 species worldwide • ~4000 species native to North America • ~500 species native to Wisconsin
    • Photos: James Cane; Steve Javorek (Ag Canada); Edward S. Ross Honey bee (Apis mellifera) Bumble bee (Bombus edwardsii) Leafcutter bee (Megachile sp.) Polyester bee (Colletes sp)
    • Photos: Bruce Newhouse; Edward S. Ross; Mace Vaughan; USDA-ARS/Jack Dykinga Metallic sweat bee (Agapostemon sp.) Yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus sp.) Mason bee (Osmia sp.) Sweat bee (Halictus sp.)
    • Metallic sweat bee (Agapostemon sp.) Mason bee (Osmia sp.) Sunflower bee (Svastra sp.) Long-horned bee (Mellisodes sp.) Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext Carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) Photo: Gene Barickman, IL NRCS
    • Photo: Stephen L. Buchmann
    • Bee diversity in Wisconsin • Cranberry ~180 species (H. Gaines Day, unpubl.) • Pickling cucumber ~60 species (Lowenstein et al. 2012) • Apple ~70 species (R. Mallinger, unpubl.)
    • Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees
    • Resource requirements • Flower availability – Early spring through fall • Nesting resources – Undisturbed soil, woody habitat, or nest boxes
    • Landscapes • Some landscapes already provide adequate resources. A. Bennett
    • Landscapes • Some do not. A. Bennett
    • Why is the landscape important? • Central place foragers • Flight distance proportional to size of bee Photo: Stephen L. Buchmann
    • Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees
    • Crop pollination by bees • One in every three bites…
    • Crop pollination by bees Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer
    • H. Rosner Scientific American 2013
    • US Agriculture – vast monocultures www.gallery.photo.net
    • Modern agricultural landscapes are food deserts for bees.
    • Honey bee decline • Mites, disease, Colony Collapse Disorder Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Varroa mite
    • Acceptable range
    • Honey bee rental rates (almond) BEFORE CCD
    • Honey bee rental rates (almond) AFTER CCD
    • Colony Collapse Disorder • Disease/pathogen? • Viruses? • Pests? • Stress? • Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Insecticide exposure? – Neonicotinoids? • Poor diet?
    • Colony Collapse Disorder • Disease/pathogen? • Viruses? • Pests? • Stress? • Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Insecticide exposure? – Neonicotinoids? • Poor diet?
    • Systemic pesticides (e.g. neonicotinoids) • Benefits – Very effective – Less toxic to birds and mammals – Effective longer
    • Systemic pesticides (e.g. neonicotinoids) • Benefits – Very effective – Less toxic to birds and mammals – Effective longer • Drawbacks – Present in nectar and pollen – Remain in environment longer – Toxic to bees
    • What makes systemic pesticides different?
    • Traditional pesticides
    • Traditional pesticides
    • Traditional pesticides
    • Traditional pesticides X
    • Traditional pesticides
    • Traditional pesticides
    • Systemic pesticides
    • Systemic pesticides
    • Systemic pesticides
    • Systemic pesticides X
    • Systemic pesticides
    • Systemic pesticides
    • Systemic pesticides
    • Systemic pesticides (e.g., neonicotinoids) • Commonly used in commercial nurseries – ASK BEFORE BUYING PLANTS WHETHER THEY HAVE BEEN TREATED
    • Systemic pesticides (e.g., neonicotinoids) • Active ingredients to avoid: – Imidachloprid – Clothianidin – Thiamethoxam
    • Colony Collapse Disorder • Disease/pathogen? • Viruses? • Pests? • Stress? • Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Insecticide exposure? • Poor diet?
    • Honey bee decline and diet =
    • Honey bee decline and diet • Bees diet is made of pollen and nectar • Diverse diet = healthier bees, stronger immune system
    • Honey bee decline and diet =
    • Native bees and crop pollination - Native bees provide insurance against honey bee decline - Efficient crop pollinators R. Winfree
    • Native bees and crop pollination • Active earlier in season and day • Collect both pollen and nectar • Buzz pollination • No rental fees • Keep honey bees moving
    • Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext
    • Photo: Rachael Winfree Winfree, R. et al.. 2008. Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of crop visitation across land-use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:793-802. Watermelon in New Jersey
    • Photo: Mace Vaughan Kremen, C. et al. 2004. The area requirements of an ecosystem service: crop pollination by native bee communities in California. Ecology Letters 7:1109-1119. Watermelon in California
    • Fruit set increases with bee diversity Klein et al. 2003
    • Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees • Threats to native bees
    • Native bees also in decline © Derrick Ditchburn © Johanna James-Heinz © Jodi DeLong © Peter Schroeder Yellow-banded Franklin’s Rusty-patch Western
    • Images: The Xerces Society Native bees also in decline - Yellow Banded Bumble Bee (Bombus terricolla) once very common, now gone
    • Native bee decline Pesticide exposure Loss of habitat Disease and pathogens
    • Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees • Threats to native bees • Native bee conservation strategies
    • Pollinators need habitat Photo: Rollin Coville • Nesting • Foraging
    • What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve bee habitat already present in your area. © NRCS Lynn Betts
    • What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve bee habitat already present in your area. • Provide flowers and nesting resources. K. Ullmann Photo: Bob Hammond, CO Coop Ext
    • Floral resources - diversity
    • Floral resources - timing TAXA APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT Colletes (inaequalis, validis) Andrena Augochlora pura Augochlorella striata Halictus (females) Lasioglossum (females) Osmia Bombus © Data from Steve Javorek, Agriculture Canada • Bee flight periods in Nova Scotia
    • Floral resources • How to select good bee plants – Locally native plants are better for native bees – Minimum of 3 blooming plants at all times throughout the season (spring, summer, fall) – PLANT IN CLUMPS FOR BEST RESULT!
    • Protecting the bees • Restrict insecticide use •Use active ingredients with least impact on bees •Spray at night •Consider alternatives •Restrict herbicide use K. Ullmann
    • Small actions by many people can make a big difference.
    • Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org)
    • Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org) – Pollinator Conservation Resource Center •Plant lists •Conservation guidelines •Pesticide guidelines
    • Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org) – Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies •Natural history •Creating habitat •Bee identification •Plant lists
    • Further resources Honey bee health •Bee Informed Partnership (www.beeinformed.org) •Project Apis m (www.projectapism.org)
    • Further resources Insect identification • Bug Guide (www.bugguide.net) • Discover Life (www.discoverlife.org)
    • Get involved! The Great Sunflower Project (www.greatsunflower.org)
    • Get involved! Bee Spotter (http://beespotter.mste.uiuc.edu/)
    • Gratton Lab at UW-Madison gratton.entomology.wisc.edu My contact information: Email: hgaines@gmail.com Cell: 774-392-0498