Compound Fracture, Impacted Fracture, Greenstick Fracture


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Types of bone fractures - compound, impacted, greenstick

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Thanks for the descriptions. I have been having a little bit of a problem trying to figure out what each of the different fractures are like and what they look like. This really helped a lot. Thanks for sharing!
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  • clear explanations in simple terms. good for students struggling to understand differences.
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Compound Fracture, Impacted Fracture, Greenstick Fracture

  1. 1. Compound Fracture Impacted Fracture Greenstick Fracture By Hana Jakubickova
  2. 2. Introduction – Bones <ul><li>Form the framework of the body – skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Protect organs </li></ul><ul><li>Store minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow is </li></ul><ul><li>the site of blood </li></ul><ul><li>cell production </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fractures <ul><li>Bone is the hardest tissue in the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>However, when bones are subjected to forces that exceed their strength, they may break. </li></ul><ul><li>The terms break, fracture, and crack mean the same thing. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Causes of Fractures <ul><li>Physical trauma – falls, direct blows, twisting injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis – thinning of the bones with reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein (porous bones) </li></ul><ul><li>Other diseases – Crohn’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome, Paget’s disease etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Fractures Are Based On: <ul><li>Where in the bone the break has occurred </li></ul><ul><li>How the bone fragments are aligned </li></ul><ul><li>Whether any complications exists </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Bone Fractures
  7. 7. Types of Bone Fractures (cont.)
  8. 8. Compound Fracture <ul><li>A fracture in which </li></ul><ul><li>broken bone fragments </li></ul><ul><li>lacerate (rip, cut, tear) </li></ul><ul><li>soft tissue and protrude </li></ul><ul><li>through an open wound </li></ul><ul><li>in the skin </li></ul>
  9. 9. Compound Fracture (cont.) <ul><li>Need immediate treatment (because skin is broken) </li></ul><ul><li>High risk of infection </li></ul><ul><li>An operation is often required to clean the area of the fracture and realign the bone </li></ul><ul><li>Compound fractures are typically caused by high energy injuries such as car crashes, falls, or sport injuries. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Compound Fracture (cont.)
  11. 11. Compound Fracture (cont.) Treatment <ul><li>realignment of the ends of the fractured bones </li></ul><ul><li>Immobilization of the fracture either by fixing the bone internally or by using splints </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic treatment for a prolong period </li></ul>
  12. 12. Compound Fracture (cont.) Prognosis <ul><li>Compound fractures take much longer to heal, due to the amount of injury that the bone and surrounding tissue sustains, and also because of the higher rate of complications caused by nonunion of the joints and infections </li></ul>
  13. 13. Impacted Fracture <ul><li>A fracture in which </li></ul><ul><li>one broken end is </li></ul><ul><li>wedged into the </li></ul><ul><li>other broken end </li></ul>
  14. 14. Impacted Fracture (cont.) <ul><li>Is an example of a stable fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Is a result of compressive forces </li></ul><ul><li>Most frequently occur in aging individuals with osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Many impacted fractures can be treated nonsurgically (when articular depression is smaller than 5mm) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Impacted Fracture (cont.) Prognosis <ul><li>Is generally good unless the fracture extends into the joint and causes articular irregularities </li></ul><ul><li>The cancellous (spongelike) bone surfaces in impacted fractures heal very rapidly </li></ul>
  16. 16. Greenstick Fracture <ul><li>is a fracture in </li></ul><ul><li>a young, soft </li></ul><ul><li>bone in which </li></ul><ul><li>the bone bends </li></ul><ul><li>and partially </li></ul><ul><li>breaks (cracks) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Greenstick Fracture (cont.) <ul><li>Is a type of an incomplete fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t displace the bone </li></ul><ul><li>Often occurs during infancy and childhood when the bones are soft </li></ul><ul><li>Is a result of bending forces (falls) </li></ul><ul><li>Could be result of non-accidental injury (blow on the forearm or shin) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Greenstick Fracture (cont.) Diagnosis <ul><li>Is difficult to diagnose because it may not cause all the classic signs and symptoms of a broken bone (pain, swelling, deformity) </li></ul><ul><li>X-rays can reveal most greenstick fractures </li></ul>
  19. 19. Greenstick Fracture Diagnosis (cont.) <ul><li>Some green stick fractures may not show up well on X-rays </li></ul><ul><li>because of a child’s soft </li></ul><ul><li>bones. Use of ultrasound </li></ul><ul><li>or computerized </li></ul><ul><li>tomography (CT) would </li></ul><ul><li>provide better images. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Greenstick Fracture (cont.) Treatment <ul><li>Immobilization – cast application or removable splint </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation the extremity above the heart level (to reduce swelling) </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise of the joints </li></ul><ul><li>(to maintain flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>and muscle strength) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Questions?
  22. 22. <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li> Fractures. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> (Last revision: May 27, 2003) Misdiagnosis of Underlying Causes of Fractures. Retrieved June 21,2009, from </li></ul><ul><li> Compound Fracture. Retrieved June 21, 2009, </li></ul><ul><li>from </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Last modified on June 21, 2009). Greenstick fracture. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Sources (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>Google books. Starkey, Glen Johnson, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Athletic Training And Sports Medicine , page 41. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from </li></ul>