HZGD#23 Lara Esser - Small Hydro Power & Sustainability Goals v1c


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HZGD#23 - Wed, 5 Mar 2014 @Vineyard Cafe/Bar (味雅咖啡), Hangzhou, China

Topic details: Lara would like to present some of the results of the first World Small Hydropower Development Report (2013) in the context of international sustainable energy goals.

Speaker background: Lara Esser is Senior Programme Officer at the International Center on Small Hydro Power (IC-SHP) under auspices of UNIDO here in Hangzhou. She has been coordinating the first World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013, which is now available from ‘Small Hydropower World” knowledge platform (www.smallhydroworld.org).

Lara comes from Germany, but has studied and lived in the UK, the Netherlands, France, Austria, Hong Kong, the United States, Thailand and China. Her background is in the field of marine and freshwater biology, species conservation and assessment, ecological management, climate resilience and rural sustainable development. She has a recent Master’s in Environmental Technology from the Centre of Environmental Policy at Imperial College London.

If you wish to contact Lara, then please send an email to: HangzhouGreenDrinks [AT] gmail [DOT] com

If you want to read about the report related to Lara's presentation you can find it here: http://www.smallhydroworld.org/

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  • Dam without planned power generation. SHP plant at outlet! Dam for irrigation, flood control, drinking water.
  • http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/mdg/the-millennium-development-goals-report-2013/
  • Here we can see all twenty regions of the world (based on the UN regional list) according to their installed capacity. Each region is different according to geographical size, number of countries and climate, however, you will also find surprising commonalities with regard to small hydropower development.
    So what kind of story is behind the numbers and what can we take away from them with respect to cooperation on technology transfer and capacity building. How we can get closer to achieving universal energy and electricity access with the help of cooperation among countries using small hydropower.
  • The regions with a low amount of installed capacity of below 150 MW are within Southern, Middle, Western and Northern Africa and 2 island regions (PICTs and Caribbean).
    [so Africa without Eastern Africa – it is borderline and was excluded in the medium group because it has much higher known potential]
    [Central Asia also has low installed capacity but higher known potential and is therefore included in the medium category]
    These regions have in common the very low installed capacity and less known or low potential. Apart from Western Africa, i.e. 400 MW, except for Western Africa.
    Southern Africa has the least amount of countries.
    In general these regions suffer from low electricity access.
    Notable is that while the installed capacity is low, that the potential was estimated much higher in Western Africa in comparison to the other regions, why? It could be due to
    the Economic Community of Western African States – ECOWAS Center Ecowas Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Cape Verde, also called ECREEE. It is supported by UNIDO. In April 2012 they had a workshop where representatives from each country of the region with SHP or potential came and shared existing knowledge on the situation. ECREEE is working together with all countries through a network of focal points located in the Ministry of Energy in each country. This was very useful also for ICSHP, as ECREEE shared these contacts with us and most of these focal points were able to help us as well through at least answering a survey and sometimes providing even more information.
    Now in hindsight, I can say that the network of focal points did not guarantee access to information, but that it made it much easier. Also located in Western Africa is the UNIDO regional center for small hydropower in Nigeria, which similarly recommended contacts in all regions of Africa.
    I would also like to highlight that South Africa has been active in the SHP sector and successfully had SHP CDM project funding, that Angola has a SHP programme (the chief of the SHP division is very busy also going into the field, I really hope that we will hear the successful ending to this project!). This reflects another underlying problem, there are programmes which have started, but I was unable to verify the process. In the case of DR Congo, it was implied by someone from a utility that the government received the money, but the implementing agency has not seen any of it and is thus unable to properly electrify 80 000 villages [Lara doublecheck figure].
    Focussing on the other two regions, the island regions, their characteristics include small areal size suitable for decentralized electrification efforts. While their total installed capacity might be small in comparison to other regions, actually SHP experience exists and SHP development is active in the Caribbean especially in Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica and in the PICTs in the Solomon Islands, Fiji and Papua New Guinea [LARA check other countries worth mentioning]
    Factors that prove to be disadvantages to SHP:
    unsuitable climate (Western Africa, Northern Africa) and limited water availability on islands
    high solar potential and high electrification rate (i.e. Northern Africa)
    natural calamities (Caribbean, e.g. Haiti recurring natural disasters) and civil war (Sudan, South Sudan, Angola, DR Congo)
    Factors that prove to be advantageous to SHP:
    need for rural electrification
    remote areas that need decentralized sources of energy and not just grid extension
    depdendency on imported fossil fuel sources and the wish to have energy security and clean energy based on renewable energy sources, also to mitigate climate change impacts
  • HZGD#23 Lara Esser - Small Hydro Power & Sustainability Goals v1c

    1. 1. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 & International Goals Presented by Lara Esser International Center on Small Hydro Power under auspices of UNIDO 5 March 2014@Green Drinks Hz
    2. 2. Overview • Background – What is small hydropower? – ICSHP and UNIDO – Millennium Development Goals – Energy access and rural electrification • Report and Knowledge Platform – Example Eastern Asia / China – Results – Recommendations
    3. 3. What is Small Hydropower? • Small-scale renewable technology • Rural electrification, remote areas • On-grid or off-grid • Run-of river type or reservoir-type • Power = Head x Flow x Gravity Source: Kangmei ICSHP
    4. 4. Small Hydropower Turbine Types Pelton Banki Francis Crosssflow • Net Power = Gross Power x Efficiency • Generation of electricity is the conversion of one form of power to another • Water power – rotational power – electrical power Source: Wikimedia Commons
    5. 5. ZAMBIA, 1 MW, 2012 commissioned, mini-grid DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, community contribution SHP definition of up to 10 MW installed capacity or country definition. It’s not only about technology…
    6. 6. Source: http://www.iitr.ac.in/departments/AH/pages/Publications_Downloads+Standard_and_Guidelines.html
    8. 8. Source: http://www.iitr.ac.in/departments/AH/pages/Publications_Downloads+Standard_and_Guidelines.html
    9. 9. Source: http://www.iitr.ac.in/departments/AH/pages/Publications_Downloads+Standard_and_Guidelines.html
    10. 10. International Center on Small Hydro Power (ICSHP) • International technology center under auspices of UNIDO, based in Hangzhou • Proposal to establish international network (INSHP) - 1992 • Granted consultative status with UNIDO - 1998 • First ever international institution established in China
    11. 11. Promote SHP Development Worldwide • Demonstration bases in Gansu, Zhejiang, 2x Hunan • Regional centers in Nigeria and India • Lighting up Rural Africa (e.g. Zambia) ZAMBIA, SHIWANGANDU
    12. 12. Promote SHP Development Worldwide • Refurbishment projects in Federated States of Micronesia and DPR Korea DPR KOREA
    13. 13. UNIDO • Partner for prosperity • Poverty reduction through productive activities • Trade capacity building • Inclusive and sustainable industrial development (green economy/green industry) • Renewable energy and energy efficiency are needed to improve energy security Director General LI Yong
    14. 14. Millennium Development Goals http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview.html http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
    15. 15. 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty & Hunger Proportion of people living on less than $1.25 a day, 1990 & 2010 (Percentage) The MDG target has been met, poverty rates have been halved between 1990 and 2010, but 1.2 billion people still live in extreme poverty. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2013
    16. 16. 7 Ensure Environmental Sustainability • Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased by more than 46% since 1990. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), 1990 and 2010 (Billions of metric tonnes) More than 2.1 billion people and almost 1.9 billon people, respectively, have gained access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities since 1990.
    17. 17. Energy Access • 2.7 billion must rely solely on traditional biomass to meet their energy needs (IEA, 2011) • 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity (IEA, 2011) • UN estimates that of those with access to electricity, 1 billion have poor quality electricity or can only obtain it intermittently from unreliable grid networks (AGECC, 2010)
    18. 18. The Future We Want – Rio+20 2012 – Int’l Year of Sustainable Energy 4 All • Ensure universal access to modern energy services by 2030. • Double share of RE in the world’s energy mix by 2030. Our common future • Heads of State and Gov with ‘full participation’ of civil society • Eradicate poverty • Mainstream sustainable development* • Energy plays critical role in dev – Energy key input into production • Address access to sustainable modern energy services – in particular for the poor – make financial resources available • Use appropriate policies & strategies – Use appropriate energy mix * Promote economic, social & env aspects & recognize interlinkages
    19. 19. • Microgrids can result in unit prices under USD1/month • Nepal: 1,500 households, 54% decrease in kerosene use after connection to a micro- hydro powered grid, household income increased by 52% from 1996 to 2005. Significant reduction in mortality rate of children under 5 and maternal mortality rates. Haiti: rural households av 10USD on kerosene +candles, 4 USD/month on cell-phone battery charging Bangladesh: 1/2 liter kerosene every night,11USD/month 20-45 USD/kWh for kerosene lighting if CFL or LED equivalent 60-115 USD/kWh for cell-phone charging (depends on size of battery)
    20. 20. Other Global Reports
    21. 21. WSHPDR 2013 • First global assessment on small hydropower usage and potential for policymakers, SHP stakeholders, investors • Joint undertaking of ICSHP and UNIDO • Covering 20 regions 152 countries/ territories • >60 contributing organizations and experts • Main findings (SHP definition: up to 10 MW) – 148 countries/territories use SHP – 4 have potential but no installed capacity yet – Installed SHP capacity (2011/2012): >75 GW – Global SHP potential: 173 GW • Knowledge plaform live since 12 February 2014
    22. 22. SMALL HYDROPOWER WORLD www.smallhydroworld.org
    23. 23. • Installed electrical capacity • Next 20-30 years energy mix 1st coal, 2nd hydro • Hydro 220 GW – 400 GW by 2030 – 450-500 GW by 2050 • Rural electrification increased – from 61% at village level in 1978 to 99.74% in 2008
    24. 24. China has benefitted from SHP • More than 300 million people in 1/3 of all counties, and covering half of all the territories in China, have access to electric power due to SHP • Based on 50 MW definition, largest SHP potential in the world is in China • By 2012, approximately 45,799 SHP stations with a total installed capacity of about 65.68 GW and an annual output of over 217,300 GWh.
    25. 25. • Pre-1990: plants mainly funded by the central and local governments • After late 1990s: gradual transition away from govts and towards corporate enterprises and private ownership – Chinese investment system started to be reformed through a combination of govt guidance and market mechanisms – Rapid development of the economy, caused power supply shortages SHP Ownership
    26. 26. • Since early 1970s: ‘Self-construction, self-management and self- consumption’ policy • Value added tax (VAT) for SHP has, since 1994, stood at 6% (vs 17% tax for large hp stations) • 12th FYP (2011-2015) and its objectives 1. Fully complete the National Planning of New Rural Electrification i.e. to invest 43.52 billion Yuan (about US$7 billion) to build SHP plants in 300 new rural electrification counties, with a planned new installed capacity of 5,156 MW (output of 19.16 TWh). 2. Implement tasks covered by Hydropower for Fossil Fuel Power Plan (2009–2015) which aims to solve, through firewood substitution, the fuel concerns of 6.78 million rural residents and to protect a forest area of 1,593,333 hectares, by constructing 1,022 SHP stations with an installed capacity of 1,705.6 MW. 3. Carry out small (rural) hydropower efficiency and capacity expansion projects. A total investment of 3.75 billion yuan (about US$600 million) has been planned for the refurbishment of 620 rural hydropower stations with a total capacity of 880 MW (2011-2012), i.e. recover and renew some 1.1 GW capacity. SHP Policy (and Barriers)
    27. 27. The story behind the numbers InstalledcapacityinMegawatt 20 UN regions Low installed capacity High installed capacity Medium installed capacity
    28. 28. CapacityinMegawatt Low installed capacity ≤150 MW
    29. 29. Low installed capacity
    30. 30. • Potential <800 MW • Electricity access • SHP relatively new concept • Hydrological data collection • Climate change impacts • Network with focal points (ECREEE) • Island regions - energy security Low installed capacity ≤150 MW NIGERIA, WAYA DAM
    31. 31. CapacityinMegawatt Medium installed capacity 150 MW - 3,000 MW 800
    32. 32. Medium installed capacity
    33. 33. Medium installed capacity 150 MW - 3,000 MW • Potential <9,000 MW • Electricity access • Linguistic barrier - Central Asia • Gross potential - Eastern Africa • SHP supported in 1970s-80s • Technical capacity varies • Micro-/pico-hydropower BOLIVIA
    34. 34. CapacityinMegawatt 800 High installed capacity >3,500 MW
    35. 35. High installed capacity
    36. 36. High installed capacity >3,500 MW • Potential 300 MW to 20,000 MW • Old plants need refurbishment • Environmental mitigation • Innovative SHP solutions • RE targets and planned capacity additions • Limited potential • Complex administrative procedures • Government support of SHP
    37. 37. Southern Africa Middle Africa Western Africa Northern Africa Caribbean PICTs 1. Improved hydrological data collection 2. Update SHP assessments 3. Increase local capacity to conduct feasibility studies, construction, operation and maintenance 4. Create network of regional focal points Take-away messages
    38. 38. Southern Africa Middle Africa Western Africa Northern Africa Caribbean PICTs Central Asia Western Asia Eastern EuropeAustralia & NZ South-Eastern Asia Central America South America 5. Regional network of professional mechanical workshops for local equipment demand and maintenance 6. Screen SHP plants that need upgrade, identify dams for multipurpose 7. Implement regulations on waterways to avoid conflict between agriculture, fishery, electricity production and biodiversity
    39. 39. Southern Africa Middle Africa Western Africa Northern Africa Caribbean PICTs Eastern Asia Southern Asia Northern Europe Western Europe Southern Europe Northern America Central Asia Western Asia Eastern EuropeAustralia & NZ South-Eastern Asia Central America South America 8. Improve collaboration among agencies responsible for water resources, environment and electricity 9. Identify non-conventional sites based on technical innovation 10.Simplify administrative procedures for SHP on existing infrastructure
    40. 40. 11. Continue and expand coordination, collaboration and knowledge sharing among regional and international organizations 12. Facilitate transition from pilot projects to programs through South-South and triangular cooperation among developing countries, developed countries and international organizations for technology transfer, capacity building and financing
    41. 41. Acknowledgement Editorial Board ICSHP Secretariat UNIDO Secretariat Country and Regional Authors Contributors Peer Reviewers
    42. 42. Questions? International Center on Small Hydro Power (ICSHP) Hangzhou, China www.smallhydroworld.org
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