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HZGD#18-A - Hangzhou's climate change politics, climate governance and green city making
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HZGD#18-A - Hangzhou's climate change politics, climate governance and green city making

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Hangzhou Green Drinks …

Hangzhou Green Drinks
HZGD#18-A Presentation Event 22Apr2013
Hangzhou's climate change politics, climate governance and green city making
by Prof. Jørgen Delman from the University of Copenhagen

Published in Technology , News & Politics
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  • We very much appreciate Professor Delman for taking the time to give us a very informative presentation about the way Hangzhou's Govt is, and is not, making progress towards building a greener city.

    He was the first of 2 speakers at our HZGD#18 event.

    The other speaker was Guan Ting. She spoke on the topic of 'China's Uneven Environmental Policy Implementation - Hangzhou and Guiyang in comparative perspective'. Her presentation will be uploaded here at a later date.
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  • 1. Hangzhou’s climate change politics, climategovernance and green city makingHangzhou Green Drinks, Earth Day, 22.04.2013Jørgen Delman, ProfessorChina Studies, Department for Cross-cultural and Regional Stiudies (ToRS)University of Copenhagen
  • 2.  GHG emissions and China’s environmental crisis China’s climate change politics Cities and climate change Hangzhou as a case – contextualising Hangzhou My propositions What Hangzhou does do to deal with climate change Hangzhou’s green city making Strenghts and possible weaknesses of Hangzhou’s approach (Speculative) conclusionAim hereDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 3. Background – Factors affecting China’s GHG emissionsDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 4. China’s ecological footprint > China’s biocapacityWWF (2010 ). China Ecological Footprint Report.Biocapacity, Cities and Development
  • 5. Continued growth and China’s share in incremental energydemand, imports and energy-related CO2 emissions: 2000-2010and 2008-2035Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%Vedvarende energiNaturgasBNPEnergiEl kapacitetCO2 emissionKulOlieA-kraft1990-20102010-2035NuclearOilCoalCO2emissionsEl. capacityEnergyGDPNaturalgasRenewableenergyFrom Odgaard & Delman 2013. Kilder: Egne beregninger med data fra International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012,og International Energy Agency, CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion – Highligths 2012.
  • 6. China needs energy, not least coal for future growthDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies© 2012 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliatedcompanies. All rights reserved.http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/nov/20/coal-plants-world-resources-institute
  • 7. Do we know the full extent of China’s climatecrisis?Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 8. Pollution levels much worse than government admits?Guan, Dabo, Zhu Liu , Yong Geng, Sören Lindner, & Klaus HubacekNature Climate Change, (2012) | doi:10.1038/nclimate1560.?
  • 9.  The cost of the ”China model”: Climate change is coming toChina with a vengeance Climate change is integrally linked with envionment and energysecurity in the national discourse Cities are seens as key emitters of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) But also as primary actors in finding solutions …… Climatechange policies are being rolled out to city levels these yearsChina’s climate change politicsDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies3600CCpolicies
  • 10. New ”green” development ”buzzwords” in 12 FYP Sustainable development Circular economy Green transformation Green development Low carbon developmentWhat China’s leadership says to deal with the environmentalchallengeDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesTowards a new development paradigm?
  • 11. 11th FYPTarget(2010)11th FYPActualresult (2010)12th FYPTarget(2015)Goal2020Share of non-fossil energy in primaryenergy (hydro, new renewables,nuclear)10%(for RE only)8.3% 11.4% 15%Energy consumption per GDP unit(=energy intensity)-20% -19.1% -16% -CO2 emission per GDP unit(=carbon intensity)- - -17% -40% to -45%Share of non-fossil fuel sources (excl.hydro power and nuclear) in totalelectricity consumption1% 1.2% - 3%Forest coverage 20% 20.4% 21.7% 23%Green tech’s contribution to GDP(incl. biotechnology and IT)- 5% 8% 15%Selected climate change and RE targets in the Five YearPlans and accompanying Long- and Medium Term PlansDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesTable 1 - Selected targets in the Five Year Plans and accompanying Long- and Medium Term PlansOdgaard & Delman 2012Note: By ‘energy consumption’ is meant gross energy consumption. The only exception is the 2020 target on 15% non-fossil energy, which isdefined according to final energy consumption. The share of non-fossil fuels in electricity consumption is only for large utilities with a capacityabove 5,000 MW – and this target is indicative, not binding. Sources: NDRC 2007; State Council 2011; APCO 2011; RED 2011; Hu 2009
  • 12. Cities and climate changeDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 13. Cities responsible for70-80 %of global GHG emissionsThe conventional wisdomDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 14. Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesOECD 2009
  • 15. Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesWhat do we measure?Doodman, D. (2009).Blaming cities for climatechange? An analysis ofurban greenhouse gasenmissions inventories.Environment andUrbanization. 21-1 185-201
  • 16. Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesWB 2012
  • 17.  Measure city aggregates or average per capita? Many cities have lower per capita emissions than residents inother places of that particular country Boundary problems Now, production rather than consumption based measurements,e.g. aviation and shipping not included Polluting production easily shifted to other places (outside thecities or to other countries) However: cities are effective units of implementation and host themajority of the world populationCities are problematic units to measure butnecessary for effective policy implementationDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 18. Hangzhou as a case – contextualising HangzhouDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 19. Zhejiang in comparisonDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesHSBC 2010
  • 20. Hangzhou in comparative perspective - 1Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesHSBC 2010
  • 21. Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesHangzhou in comparative perspective - 2HSBC 2010
  • 22. Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesHSBC 201023 of China’s top500 companies/Forbers
  • 23. Predictions of CO2 emissions per household in 2026Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesZheng, Siqi et al. (2009)- TheGreenness of China : HouseholdCarbon Dioxide Emissions andUrban Development. NationalBureau of Economic ResearchWorking Paper 15621
  • 24. My propositionsDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 25. Governance theory applied to China Government cannot do everything Governance seen as a response to the accelerated fragmenting ofthe party-state system Neo-liberal approach to execution of government: small state, PPP,outsourcing State, business, and society are not apart, mutually embedded New flexible and adaptive party-state approach - new mode ofgovernment through governance innovations with new tools tomake the policy cycle more effective: Inclusion, participation of business and [civil] society Outsourcing Public-private partnerships Other hybrid regimesClimate politics: new modes of government?Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 26. Proposition Climate change politics as a potential game changertowards more inclusive and participatorypolitics/governance innovationsDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 27. http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?hl=da&newwindow=1&tbo=d&rlz=1T4ADFA_daCN487CN487&biw=1600&bih=607&tbm=isch&tbnid=Hw0t6wy7pG2bMM:&imgrefurl=http://www.ecofriend.com/shenzhen-s-sbf-tower-bespeaks-green-lifestyle-and-sustainablity.html&docid=y7yGg-2by2ZqwM&imgurl=http://ecofriend.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/sbf-tower-by-hans-hollein-1_N89uf_18770.jpg&w=550&h=550&ei=jqW9UI_4KuX44QSfqYC4BQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=720&vpy=105&dur=2123&hovh=224&hovw=224&tx=141&ty=134&sig=114113794870874226293&page=1&tbnh=129&tbnw=129&start=0&ndsp=30&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:97A huge bundle of comprehensive policies…..Eco-civilizationLow-carbon development Developing low-carbon urban planning, incorporatingeconomic structural changes Low-carbon policies for energy conservation andrenewable energy = low carbon energy mix Low carbon sector plans, programs, projects Stimulate R&D and innovation in low-carbon industries Low carbon consumption: Green lifestyle and greenmanagement systems Establish GHG emission database, management, andmonitoring systems International experiences and collaborationWhat Hangzhou does to deal with climate changeDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesPeople’s Daily online 19.8.2010;http://www.ndrc.gov.cn/zcfb/zcfbtz/2010tz/t20100810_365264.htm3600CCpolicies
  • 28. Category 2005 2010 2015 20201Reduction of CO2/GDP per unitand district (t./10.000 CNY)*--- ---- [-40%] [-50%]2 Third sector share(%) 44.1 48.7 54 603Energy use/GDP per unit anddistrict (t./10.000 CNY)*0.87 0.68 0.55 -4Low carbon R&D cost aspercentage of total R&D cost (%)2.5 4 5.5 75Share of non-fossil fuel in totalprimary energy consumption (%)3.75.8(2009)10 156Share of cars using new energyor saving energy (%)5 9 15 207Share of existing buildings thathave undertaken energy savingsmeasures (%)3 23 50 758Share of built up area usingrenewable energy in newlyconstructed buildings (%)5 19 40 609 Forest mass (10.000 m3) 4,000 4,224 4,650 5,00010Share of green areas in urbanbuilt up areas (%)37.31 40.0 42 4511 Share of green travel (%) 26 31 35 4012 Sorting of garbage (%) 0 18 50 80Hangzhou - key low carbon development targets, 2005-2020Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 29. ‘Traditional’ implemenation mechanisms Authoritarian: top-down command-type approaches Fragmented: Competitive approaches between different vertical bureacraticagencies (ministries in Beijing) Integrative mechanisms: Party in charge: CC leading group (headed by city party secretary) CC targets part of local leaders’ KPIsGovernance innovations New paradigmatic thinking? Involvement of third parties: Mobilization of and support to intermediaries Mobilize enterprises and business groups Community and citizen participation/involvement KPIs for climate change and social participationClimate governance in HangzhouDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 30.  Strong in competition for attention and resources: Hangzhou as a first mover in national competition: strong self-assertiveness Harmonization of city brand: ”City of quality life! Governance approach to branding community But ”green” elements not fully integrated in city brand (maybewisely?)Hangzhou’s green city making – game changing tool?Department for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies
  • 31. Strengths Started early, considerableexperience Aligned with national policiesand approach Strong conceptual approach Strong self-assertiveness Party Secretary in charge Recognition of need for newtypes of state-societyinteractionStrenghts and possible weaknesses of Hangzhou’s approachDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China StudiesPossible weaknesses Policy overload Lack of recognition of theimportance of climate changepolitics at local level; KPIsnot taken seriously Lack of sustained leadership(tenure rush 赶任期) Selective policyimplementation Real willingnes to empowerbusinesses and societalstakeholders? ”Green” brand unrealistic:lack of public awareness
  • 32.  Party-state’s response is constructive: New paradigmatic thinking? Climate politics as game changer? Climate governance: From environmental authoritarianism to more”democratic” environmentalism (cf. Gilley 2012), i.e. pluralism (more voicesare heard, more actors involved)(Speculative) conclusionDepartment for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies/China Studies