HZGD#19 with Steven Zhang (USA) - Zhejiang factory managers environmental ideas, policies and actions
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HZGD#19 with Steven Zhang (USA) - Zhejiang factory managers environmental ideas, policies and actions

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Steven Zhang is a US Fulbright Fellow doing research with the College of Environmental and Resource Sciences at Zhejiang University. He recently graduated in the seventh class of Franklin W. Olin......

Steven Zhang is a US Fulbright Fellow doing research with the College of Environmental and Resource Sciences at Zhejiang University. He recently graduated in the seventh class of Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering in Boston.

Steven previously spoke at our HZGD#16 event last year in October (See details and his PPT here: http://www.greendrinks.org/Hangzhou).

Since then, he has been continuing his research and field studies and he will be giving us some of his findings. Steven has been visiting factories and interviewing factory managers in Zhejiang to document environmental protection actions and attitudes.

In this presentation he will present some findings on:

1. Innovative environmental protection and waste reuse practices, including Circular Economy practices.
2. How do factory managers in Zhejiang province view environmental protection?
3. How these findings could affect public policy.

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  • 1. 1   All you ever wanted to know about Zhejiang factories A$tudes  and  prac/ces  of  waste  reuse,  recycling,  and  environmental   protec/on  of  Zhejiang  manufacturers   Steven  Zhang   Hangzhou  Green  Drinks   June  6,  2013  
  • 2. About me 2  
  • 3. 3   Research locations
  • 4. Factory demographics 17  factories  total   4  
  • 5. Smallest factory 10 workers 100 square meters 5  
  • 6. Biggest  factory     10,000  workers     Several  square  KM  
  • 7. Factory demographics 11  in  Zhejiang   7  
  • 8. Factory demographics Half  business  to  business   8  
  • 9. Factory demographics 6  were  foreign  invested,     2  foreign  subsidiaries   9  
  • 10. Interviewees
  • 11. Demographics   • All  male  except  one  female   • Average  age:  40   • 1/3  CEO,  1/3  VP,  1/3  other  white  collar   • All  except  one  went  to  higher  educa/on   • 2/3  went  to  university  
  • 12. Qualita/ve  research     ≠     sta/s/cs   12  
  • 13. Theme 1. Environmental consciousness exists, is improving, but has a long way to go • 环保 huánbǎo  :   • Environmental  protec/on  (noun)   • Environmentally  friendly  (adjec/ve)   • 意识 yìshí  :   • consciousness,  awareness   • 文明 wénmíng  :   • civilized,  cultured     13  
  • 14. Theme 1 Quotes •  Mr.  Xu,  VP  of  large  chemical  company   •  “You  know,  these  few  years,  huanbao  goden  more  and  more  important。   Before,  who  would  have  thought  about  huanbao  or  not?  No  one.  When  I  was   growing  up  this  sort  of  yishi  just  wasn’t  there  at  all.”   •  Mr.  Tao,  VP  of  electronics  company.  Worked  abroad  at  MNC  for  20   years   •  “North  America  and  Europe  is  rather  strict  about  environmental  protec/on.   Things  are  ge$ng  beder,  but  here  in  China,  the  awareness  is  just  some/mes   not  there.  For  example,  heavy  metals.  We  do  predy  well  on  this  area.  But   smaller  companies  have  totally  no  idea  about  heavy  metals  and  their   environmental/health  impacts,  and  don’t  do  anything  about  it.   •  Mr.  Tai,  manager  at  recycling  company   •  “So  my  boss,  the  CEO  of  this  company,  he’s  worked  his  way  to  the  top.  But   he  is  uncultured  (没有文化).  That  is  part  of  the  reason  we  don’t  do  so  well   on  environmental  protec/on.”   14  
  • 15. Theme 2. Perceived relationship between China’s economic development and environmental protection 15   China  before  1970   China  now   Western  Europe,     North  America  now;   China  in  30  years   Economic  development   Environmental  protec/on  
  • 16. Stage 1. “Not enough to eat” 16   China  before  1970   China  now   Western  Europe,     North  America  now   Economic  development   Environmental  protec/on   Mr.  Liang:  CEO  of  electronics  company:   “Back  20  years  ago,  when  I  was  growing  up,   there  was  no  such  thing  as  huanbao   (environmentally  protec/on)  or  not…     “Everything  was  huanbao…  we  never  used   pes/cides  on  the  farm.  All  those  plants  were   safe  to  eat…     “…I  remember  when  I  was  a  child,  I  ate  just   rice  and  vegetables  all  the  8me.  Meat  was  a   luxury.  Everyone  was  always  in  some  semi-­‐ hungry  state.  Not  starving  like  China  in  the   50s  or  60s.  But  not  full  either.  We  didn’t   have  enough  to  eat.  
  • 17. Stage 1. “Not enough to eat” 17   China  before  1970   China  now   Western  Europe,     North  America  now   Economic  development   Environmental  protec/on   Mr.  Fu,  VP  of  a  toy  company:   “The  rela/onship  between  ED  and  EP   are  actually  very  close.  China,  the  US,   every  country  at  the  beginning  of   their  development  stages  didn’t  have   enough  to  eat.     When  I  was  young,  we  didn’t  have   this  problem  of  environmental   destruc/on  or  what  not,  or  at  least   we  didn’t  think  about  it”        
  • 18. Stage 1. “Not enough to eat” 18   China  before  1970   China  now   Western  Europe,     North  America  now   Economic  development   Environmental  protec/on   Mr.  Liang:  CEO  of  electronics  company:   “Back  20  years  ago,  when  I  was  growing  up,   there  was  no  such  thing  as  huanbao   (environmentally  protec/on)  or  not…     “Everything  was  huanbao…  we  never  used   pes8cides  on  the  farm.  All  those  plants  were   safe  to  eat…     “…I  remember  when  I  was  a  child,  I  ate  just   rice  and  vegetables  all  the  /me.  Meat  was  a   luxury.  Everyone  was  always  in  some  semi-­‐ hungry  state.  Not  starving  like  China  in  the   50s  or  60s.  But  not  full  either.  We  didn’t  have   enough  to  eat.  
  • 19. China  before  1970   China  now   Western  Europe,     North  America  now;   China  in  30  years   Economic  development   Environmental  protec/on       “Before  everyone  not   very  good  with   environmental   consciousness  but  now   with  social  media  and   other  things…     Chinese  manufacturing  is   ge$ng  more  and  more   into  huanbao  环保”         “Chinese  people  may   not  have  the  yishi  意识   (consciousness)  as   Western  countries,  but   now  we‘re  ge$ng   beder  at  it.  China’s   headed  in  a  good   direc/on  I  think”       Stage 2. Rising environmental consciousness… 19  
  • 20. China  before  1970   China  now   Western  Europe,     North  America  now;   China  in  30  years   Economic  development   Environmental  protec/on   Mr.  Tai,  manager  at  Ire   company:   “Our  level  of  culture-­‐ ness  (人口素质)    is  not   there  yet     Government  subsidies,   regula/ons,  the  only   ways  that  we  can  get   people  to  care  about   being  sustainable”                                       Stage 2 …and stricter laws 20  
  • 21. Stage 3. Be like Western Europe and North America 21   China  before  1970   China  now   Western  Europe,     North  America  now;   China  in  30  years   Economic  development   Environmental  protec/on     Mr.  Deng,  Division  Head  at  very  large,   foreign-­‐owned,  electronics  company     “Everyone  knows:  the  water  in  America.   It’s  so  clear…     But  look  at  the  Taihu  [Lake  Tai].  You   can't  even  see  the  water  in  it!       That’s  because  factories  have  been  just   dumping  chemicals  directly  into  it!”    
  • 22. Theme 3. Bad environment = immediate impact on personal health 22   “Being  huanbao    is  good  for  personal  health”     “20  years  ago,  when  I  was  growing  up,   everything  was  huanbao…  we  never  used   pes/cides  on  the  farm.  All  those  plants  were  safe   to  eat…”  
  • 23. Theme 3. Bad environment = immediate impact on personal health “Its  clear  the  problems  not  doing  huanbao  has  had   on  the  environment.  People  are  ge9ng  sick.  Too   much  pollu<on…  the  air  really  is  just  too  bad.   People  are  geEng  sick.  People  all  around  us,  are   geEng  cancer…     In  the  future,  when  we  all  have  money,  but  the   food,  water,  none  of  it  safe,  then  what's  the  point!   Then  I'd  rather  increase  regula<ons  to  factories,   have  them  spend  a  liCle  more  money”   23  
  • 24. 24   How  does  this  apply?   Theme 1. Environmental consciousness exists, is improving, but has a long ways to go Theme 3. Bad environment = immediate impact on personal health Theme 2. Perceived relationship between China’s economic development and environmental protection
  • 25. 25   •  Mr.  Deng,  electronics  factory:   “Our  factory  doesn’t  have  any   environmental  impact,  everything   is  huanbao.  We  only  use   electricity  here,  and  we  don’t   pollute  or  waste  at  all.  There’s  no   water  pollu/on.  We  don’t  have   any  air  pollu/on.  Everything  is   huanbao.”     Theme 4. Factory is huanbao as long as it doesn’t pollute directly
  • 26. Theme 4. Factory is huanbao as long as it doesn’t pollute directly Mr.  Yu,  cable  manufacturing:  “I   mean,  our  products  meet  RoHS   and  other  cer/fica/ons  so  they   are  huanbao….   …We  have  no  real  waste…   lezover  plas/c  from  injec/on   molding  is  reused  anyways.     …and  all  of  packaging  and  other   waste  are  taken  by  recyclers   anyways…     …so  I  don’t  think  huanbao    really  a   problem  for  us…”   26  
  • 27. Theme 5. “let the recyclers take care of it” Mr.  Yu,  cable  manufacturing:  “I   mean,  our  products  meet  RoHS   and  other  cer/fica/ons  so  they   are  huanbao….   …We  have  no  real  waste…   lezover  PVC/PE  from  injec/on   molding  is  reused  anyways.     …and  all  of  packaging  and  other   waste  are  taken  by  recyclers   anyways…     …so  I  don’t  think  huanbao    really  a   problem  for  us…”   27  
  • 28. 28   Theme 5. secondary waste market as way to off-load burden
  • 29. 29   Theme 5. secondary trash market as way to off-load burden Me:  “What  do  you  do  with  this?   Do  you  sort  it?”     Mr.  Feng,  Heavy  equipment   manufacturer:  “How  can  we?   We  don’t  have  the  equipment   for  this.  We  just  sell  it  to  the   recyclers.  They  do  what  they   want  with  it.  They  sort  it     …  we  just  pack  it  up  in  bags  and   let  them  go  with  it.  
  • 30. Theme 6. Environmentally-beneficial innovations from various incentives 30   ¥   Environmental   benefit  to   society   Image   incenIve   Price  incenIve   Gov’t  incenIve  
  • 31. Theme 6: image incentive example   IncenIve  for  company   •  Market  “green”  product  to   interna/onal  customers  to  increase   global  profile  of  company   •  Compete  on  something  other  than   price   Environmental  benefit  to  society   •  Raises  environmental  awareness  and   consciousness  of  Chinese  public  as  by   product   •  Actual  tangible  environmental  benefit   of  program  ques/onable   31  
  • 32. Theme 6. Price incentive example 32   IncenIve  for  company:   •  Recycling  used  /res  and  selling  the   rubber  to  other  companies  is  profitable     Environmental  benefit  to  society   •  Provides  valuable  waste  disposal   service  for  /res   •  Recovers  valuable  metal,  rubber  that   otherwise  would’ve  been  burnt  
  • 33. Theme 6: government incentive example: material-energy exchange 33   Wood chips/dust Heat
  • 34. 34   IncenIve  for  company:   •  Government  subsidy  makes   payback  period  for  equipment   short  enough  to  be  worth  buying     Environmental  benefit  to  society   •  Woodchips  are  incinerated  in   less  pollu/ng  way   •  Less  electricity  is  used  for   hea/ng  energy   Theme  6.  Government  incenIve   example  
  • 35. 6 things to think about… AWtudes  of  factory  managers:   • Consciousness   • Economic  development   • Personal  health   PracIces  in  factories   • Direct  pollu/on   • Secondary  waste   • Image,  price,  government  incen/ves   35  
  • 36. Contact Info 36