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    • Performane Analysis Of The CONFIDANTProtocol (Cooperation Of Nodes :Fairness InDynamic Ad-hoc Networks)Hamza Hammami12 décembre 2012Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • IntroductionThe Condant protocol works as an extension to a reactivesource routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks.CONFIDANT aims at making misbehavior in mobile ad hocnetworks unattractive. It is based on selective altruism andutilitarianism.We present a performance analysis of DSR fortied byCONFIDANT and compare it to regular defenseless DSR.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • The DSR ProtocolThe DSR Protocol it is a protocol developed for routing in amobile ad-hoc networks.After receiving routes, the source node selects the best, storesit and sends messages along that path.A link failure is detected by a node that cannot forward thepacket to the next node in the source route. It then sends aROUTE ERROR message to the source.Packets are then forwarded along an alternate route that doesnot contain the bad link.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Attacks against routingThe lack of infrastructure of mobile ad-hoc networks oer specialchance to attacks.We should provide a proper security to protectagainst the following attacks :No Forwarding(of control message of data).Trac deviation(advertises manu excellent routes or advertisesroutes very rapidly so they are deemend good routes).Route salvaging.Lack of error messages.Unusually frequent route updates.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Thwarting AttackThe aim is prevention ,We should provide perfect mechanism.Mostattacks have been the result of by passing prevention mechanisms.We propose a method based on detection of misbehavior,Weneed a reasonable power consumption.We propose that packets of malicious nodes should not beforworded by normally behaving nodes.it is disavantageous fornodes to behave malicioulyHamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Selsh GeneThe selsh gene Richard explains , there is an intrinsic motivationfor cooperation because of instatnt gratication.The benet ofbehaving well is not abvious when there is delay between granting afavor and the repayment.According to dowkins , simulation has shown when startingwith a majority population of cheats and marginal group ofboth suckers and grudgers , the grudgers win overtime.Once the suckers are extinct,the grudgers grow rapidly at theexpense of the cheats , because they do not help a cheat twice.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Selsh GeneIn a very large ad-hoc network , convergence can be very showand keeping a history of all bad experiences with othernodes,therefore we propose the following ideas :Learn from observed behaviour :employ neighborhoodwatchto be warned by observing what happens to other nodesin the neighborhood,before having to make a bad experienceoneself.Learn from reported behaviour :share information ofexperienced malicious behavior with friends and also learn fromthem.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • CONFIDANT COMPONENTSWe now describe the components of CONFIDANT, assumed to bepresent in every node :The MonitorThe Reputation SystemThe Path ManagerThe Trust ManagerHamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • CONFIDANT COMPONENTSThe Monitor :One approach to protocol enforcement and detection ofdamaging behaviour suggested here is equivalent of aneighborhood watch,where nodes locally look for deviatingnodes.The Monitor registers these deviations from normalbehaviour.As soon as a given bad behaviour occurs , thereputation system is called.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • CONFIDANT COMPONENTSThe Trust Manager :this component deals with incoming andoutgo- ing ALARM messages.ALARM messages are sebt by the trust manager of a node towarn others of malicious nodes .Outgoing alarms are sent by a node to its friends after havingexperienced, observed or received a report of maliciousbehavior.Incoming alarms originate from either outside friends or othernodes, so the source of an alarm has to be checked fortrustworthiness before triggering a reaction.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • CONFIDANT COMPONENTSA mechanism similar to the trust management in PGP is usedhere for determining if there is enough trusted evidence for themisbehavior of a node.The Trust Manager consists of the following components :An alarm table containing information about received alarms.A trust table managing trust levels for nodes to determine thetrustworthiness of an alarm.A friends list containing all friends a node potentially sendsalarms to.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • CONFIDANT COMPONENTSThe Reputation system in this protocol manages a tableconsisting of entries for nodes and their rating.The rating is thenchanged according to a rate function that assigns dierent weightsto the type of behavior detection , namely the greatest weight forown experience . Once the weight has been determined the entry ofthe node that misbehaved is changed accordingly.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • CONFIDANT COMPONENTSThe Path Manager performs the following :Path re-ranking according to security metric,such as reputationof nodes in the path.Deletion of oaths containing malicious nodes.Action on receiving a request for a route from a maliciousnode .Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • CONFIDANT COMPONENTSProtocol Description : what constitutes the signicant rating canbe dened for dierent types of nodes according to their securityrequirements.If the occurence theshold is exeeded ,The ReputationSystem Updates the rating of the node that caused the event .Inorder to convey warming information,an ALARM message is sent bythe Trust Manager.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • How the components functionsThe Monitor of each node evaluates, on the basis of itsobservations, the behavior nodes in respect of the routing function.Once the monitor detects a suspicious event, it sends informationto the system reputation.The latter update maintains reputation values ratings of each nodeobserved. To remedy the imprecision of detection mechanisms anda system that converges faster, Condant uses the principle ofmutual recommendations between network nodes.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • How the components functionsThis role is played by the trust manager who takes care of a part,the decision to make regarding the sharing of reputation values andsecondly, the how to aggregate all the recommendations received.Condant considers only negative recommendations.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • How the components functionsFinally, the path manager is used in the order to select the optimalpath in terms of reliability of the nodes that compose and maydecide not to route packets nodes with notes reputation globalbelow the tolerated by the system.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Performance AnalysisWe present a performance analysis of( DSR )fortied byCONFIDANT ,The aim of this performance analysis is to determinethe impact of the CONFIDANT routing protocol extensions onmetrics.The regular DSR protocol is used as a reference .Our goal is also to learn how protocol parameters such asthresholds should be set.The Metrics used are Goodput, Overhead and Utility.Goodput(G) = Total packets received/ Total packetsoriginatedHamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Performance Analysisfor the performance analysis ,the metrics are observed in variousnetwork .The rst network we analyse is a reguler well behavedDSR network which is used as a refernce.The second enhancementis to include the case when the neighbor node fails to forward apacket for some other node and it is detected.In the simulation,every benign node is a friend of the source andinforms the source when packets are maliciously dropped by thenext hope.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Performance AnalysisSimulation Results :in the defenseless network ,the number ofpackets dropped intentionally is up to two orders of magnitudegreater than in the network fortied by condant.When looking atthe number dropped from a network size perspective ,it can be seenfrom gure 3 that the dierence in performance increases with thetotal number of nodes in the network.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Performance AnalysisEstimation of factor Relevance :the choice for the number ofnodes was made with the intention to show both a very smallnetwork that still allows for multiple paths and reasonable networkconnectivity given the area and a larger network to get insights onscalability.The extreme levels for the percentage of malicious nodes in thenetwork population are motivated by the desire to show thebehavior of a network.This can be explained by the fact that the number of packetsdropped in a fortied network in the presence of one third malicious.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • Future WorkThe threshold value used to change a nodes rating.Methods to eciently distribute reputation information toavoid malicious nodes as early as possible.CONFIDANT assumes that nodes are authenticated and thatno node can pretend to beanother.If a node is compromisedthen it could send ALARMs about a benign node to itsneighbors and propagate this by pretending to be anothernode.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol
    • ConclusionMobile ad-hoc networks shows new vulnerabilities to maliciousattacks .So special care has to be taken to include fairnessmechanisms.Obserable attacks on forwarding and routing in mobilead-hoc networks can be thwarted by the suggested CONFIDANTscheme of detection.The CONFIDANT Protocol is scalable in terms of total number ofnodes in a network and performs well event with a fraction ofmalicious nodes.Hamza HammamiPerformane Analysis Of The CONFIDANT Protocol