Production Systems


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Production Systems

  1. 1. MGMT 5240 Process Design Product-Process Strategy Product-Process Matrix Product Life Cycle stages y g Process Life Cycle stages Product Flow Characteristics Cross Functional Decision Making PRODUCT-PROCESS MATRIX PRODUCT STRUCTURE (Product Life Cycle) I III II III Low volume-low High volume-high Multiple products, Few major products standardization, one of standardization, low volume higher volume a kind commodity productsPROCESS STRUCTURE (Process Life Cycle) I Commercial Jumbled flow (job shop) printer NONE II Disconnected Heavy line flow Equipment (batch) III Connected line flow Automobile (assembly assembly line) IV Continuous Sugar flow NONE Refinery 1
  2. 2. Product Life Cycle Stages Low volume-low standardization, one of a kind Multiple p p products, low volume , Few major products, higher volume High volume-high standardization, commodity product Process Life Cycle Stages Project Job Shop Batch Mass production Continuous production Process Characteristics Project Batch Mass ContinuousProduct Unique Made to order Made to stock CommodityVariety Infinite Many, high Low Very lowCustomer Singly Few individuals Mass market Mass marketDemand Infrequent Fluctuates Stable Very stableVolume Very low Low to med High Very highSystem Long-term Intermittent Flow lines Process industryEquipment Varied General-purp. Special-purp. Highly automatedType of work Contracts Fabrication Assembly Mix, treat, refineSkills Experts Wide range Limited range Equipment craftspeople monitorsAdvantages Custom work Flexibility Efficiency Highly efficient quality speed, low cost large capacityDisadv. Nonrepeating Costly, slow Capital invest. Difficult to changeExample Construction Printing, bakery Autos, TV’s Paint, oil, food 2
  3. 3. Product-Flow Characteristics Types of Product Flow ° Project Flow ° Batch Flow ° Line Flow Characteristics of Flows Project Flow Task 2 Task 4Start End Task 1 Task 3 Task Task or activity Precedence relationship Batch Flow WS 2 WS 4 WS 1 WS 3 WS 5 WS Task or work station Product flows 3
  4. 4. Line Flow WS 1 WS 2 WS 3 WS Task or work station Product flow Product-Flow Characteristics Project Batch Line ProductOrder Type Single Unit Batch Continuous or Large BatchVariety Very High High LowVolume Single Unit Medium HighVariety Infinite Many, high Low LaborSkills - - - - - - High - - - - - - g LowTask Type - - - - Nonroutine - - - - RoutinePay - - - - - - High - - - - - - Low CapitalInvestment Low Medium HighEquipment - - - General Purpose - - - Special Purpose ObjectivesFlexibility High Medium LowCost High Medium Low Control & PlanningProductionControl - - - - - Difficult - - - - - - Easy Process Planning Make-or-buy decisions Process strategy & selection decisions Process plans Process analysis Specific equipment selection 4
  5. 5. Process Plans Blueprints Bill of material Assembly diagram y g Assembly chart / product structure diagram Operations process chart / route sheet Process flow chart Bill Of Material (unstructured)No. Part No. Part name1 51292 Outlet end2 51284 Handle3 52043 Switch4 51576 Electric cord5 51265 Rear housing6 51268 Motor mounting plate Product Structure Diagram Packaged Hand-vacUpholstery Crevice Dusting Hand-vac Package tool tool tool Forward Screw & Rear housing lock washer housing assembly assembly assembly 5
  6. 6. Operations Process ChartPart name Table legPart no. 2410Usage TableAssembly No. 437Oper No. No Description Dept. Dept Machine Time Tools 10 Saw to rough length 041 20 Plane to size 043 30 Saw to finished length 041 40 Measure dimensions 051 50 Sand 052 Process Flowchart Date: 9-30-95 Location: Graves Mountain Analyst: TLR Process: Apple Sauce Operation Transport Description Storage (feet) Dista Inspect (min) Time Delay Step of process 1 Unload apples from truck 20 2 Move to inspection station 100 ft 3 Weigh, inspect, sort 30 4 Move to storage 50 ft 5 Wait until needed 360 6 Move to peeler 20 ft 7 Apples peeled and cored 15 8 Soak in water until needed 20 9 Place in conveyor 5 10 Move to mixing area 20 ft 11 Weigh, inspect, sort 30 Total 480 190 ft Specific Equipment Selection Purchase cost Operating cost Annual savings Revenue enhancement Replacement analysis Risk and uncertainty Piecemeal analysis 6
  7. 7. Manufacturing Technology Numerically controlled (NC) machines °controlled by punched tape Computer numerical controlled (CNC) °controlled by attached computer Direct numerical control (DNC) ( ) °several NC machines controlled by single computer Robotics °programmable manipulators °consistency °hostile environment °long hours TechnologyCAM – Computer-aided manufacturingFMS – Flexible manufacturing systemsCIM – computer-integrated manufacturing Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) Programmable machine tools Controlled by common computer network Combines flexibility with efficiency Reduces setup & queue times 7
  8. 8. Flexible Manufacturing System Tools Conveyor Machine Machine Pallet Load Unload Terminal Finished Parts goods Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Integration of design, manufacture & delivery via computer technology CAD - uses software to create & modify designs CAM - uses programmable automation in manufacturing CAE - links functional design to CAD form design CAPP - creates processing instructions for CAM GT- classifies designs to benefit from prior experience Components of CIM CAD CAE GT DFM DFA TQM Product design CAD/CAMBar codes, EDI MRP CAPP Systems Process JIT/ management CIM planning Cellular kanban manufacturing DSS/ES/ AI MAP, Manufacture STEPLAN, TOP,satellites NC/CNC/ AGV, Automated Cells FMS Robotics DNC ASRS inspection and centers 8
  9. 9. Automated Material HandlingConveyorsAutomated guided vehicle (AGV) g ( )Automated storage & retrieval system(ASRS) Facility LayoutsCharacteristics° Product – based on equipment (assembly line - auto assembly)° Process – based on similarity of process (job shop -machine shop)° Fixed Position – item built in one place (project – ship building)° Hybrid – combines characteristics of other layouts (cellular, FMS, CIM) Process Layout Assembly Process A Process C 4 6 7 9 5 8 2 Process B 12 10 1 3 11 Process D A B C Raw materials 9
  10. 10. Product LayoutIN OUT Process Layout after PWP (cellular) Assembly 9 8 10 12 11 4 Cell1 Cell 2 6 Cell 3 2 1 5 7 3 Raw materials A C B Product Layout after PWP PWP # 1 High AA B D C Volume PWP # 2 Low B A C D Volume 10
  11. 11. Types of Focus Product focus Process type Technology gy Volume of sales Make-to-stock and make-to-order New products and mature products Mass Customization & Strategic Process Choices HIGH/ LONG Make to Order (MTO) Psychiatric Counseling Internet- based Education Volu Pre- Lead Time ume fabricated f bi t d COST/ homes Assemble to Order (ATO) Subway Dell Computers MASS CUSTOMIZATION TV Customization producerMake to Stock LOW/ (MTS) SHORT LOW Degree of HIGH Customization 11