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  • ©2006 Pearson Prentice Hall — Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management — Bozarth & Handfield Jidoka is Japanese for “Stop everything when something goes wrong”, a form of stopping quality problems at their source. Poka-Yoke is Japanese for failproofing: Examples are gasoline nozzles, VCR cassettes (they are ejected if inserted incorrectly), inkjet cartridges, etc.

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  • 1. Just-in-Time/Lean Production A repetitive production systemin which the processing and movement of materials and goods occur just as they are needed! 1
  • 2. Pre-JIT: Traditional Mass Production Big lot sizes Lots of inventory ”PUSH” material to next stage Big purchase shipments ??? Lower per unit cost Big “pushes” of finished goods to warehouses or customers 2
  • 3. Post-JIT: “Lean Production”Tighter coordination along the supply chainGoods are pulled along — only make and ship what is needed Smaller lots Faster setups Smaller shipments Less inventory, storage space ”PULL” material to next stage Minimal or no inventory Goods are pulled out of holding plant by customer demand cost 3
  • 4. JIT Goals (throughout the supply chain)• Eliminate disruptions• Make the system flexible• Reduce setup times and lead times• Minimize inventory• Eliminate waste 4
  • 5. WasteDefinition:Waste is ‘anything other than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, space, and worker’s time, which are absolutely essential to add value to the product.’ — Shoichiro Toyoda President, Toyota 5
  • 6. Forms of Waste:• Overproduction• Waiting time• Transportation• Processing• Inventory• Motion• Product Defects 6
  • 7. Inventory as a Waste• Requires more storage space• Requires tracking and counting• Increases movement activity• Hides yield, scrap, and rework problems• Increases risk of loss from theft, damage, obsolescence 7
  • 8. Building Blocks of JIT• Product design MP C  Standard parts Sta ff OR G  Modular design Pro ce ss De s ig n  Quality Pro d uct Des ign• Process design• Personnel and organizational elements• Manufacturing planning and control 8
  • 9. Process Design• “Focused Factories”• Group Technology• Simplified layouts with little storage space• Minimum setups 9
  • 10. Personnel and Organizational Elements• Workers as assets• Cross-trained workers• Greater responsibility at lower levels• Leaders as facilitators, not order givers 10
  • 11. Planning and Control Systems• “Small” JIT• Stable and level schedules – Mixed Model Scheduling• “Push” versus “Pull” – Kanban Systems 11
  • 12. KanbanUses simple visual signals to control production• Examples:  empty slot in hamburger chute  empty space on floor  kanban card 12
  • 13. Kanban Example Workcenter A Workcenter BWorkcenter B uses parts produced by Workcenter AHow can we control the flow of materials so that B alwayshas parts and A doesn’t overproduce? 13
  • 14. Kanban card: Signal to produce Workcenter A Workcenter B Kanban CardWhen a container is opened by Workcenter B, its kanban card isremoved and sent back to Workcenter A.This is a signal to Workcenter A to produce another box of parts. 14
  • 15. Empty Box: Signal to pull Workcenter A Workcenter BEmpty box sent back. Signal to pull another full box intoWorkcenter B. 15