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LAND POLLUTION
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  • 1. LAND POLLUTION BIOLOGY PROJECT MADE BY HAMMAD.SHARIQ.AHMED GRADE IX-S
  • 2. WHAT IS LAND POLLUTION ? ? ?• Land pollution may be understood as the deterioration of the earth’s land surfaces, often directly or indirectly as a result of man’s activities.
  • 3. CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION TOPIC # 1
  • 4. DEGENERATIVE ACTIONS • Include a lot of human actions, like deforestation, overuse of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, desertification, mining , inefficient and / or inadequate waste treatment, landfill, litter, etc. Many of these are unavoidable; however, definitely the severity of these actions in terms of the effects they have on the land can be reduced by taking appropriate and adequate
  • 5. MISUSE OF LAND • Mainly refers to cutting trees to clear land for agriculture, as well as processes like desertification and land conversion.• Desertification is when effects of human development or other actions convert a piece of fertile land into desert-land or dry-land. Land once converted to desert-land can never be reclaimed by any amount of corrective measures.
  • 6. INEFFICIENT USE OF LAND• Inefficient use of land as such is not going to cause land pollution. However, inefficient use of land amounts to wastage, and hence shortage of land; and it is precisely during such conditions that man has to resort to measure such as deforestation and others to meet his needs. It is an indirect cause of land pollution that is often largely neglected.
  • 7. SOIL POLLUTION• When the top-most soil layer of land is destroyed or polluted. Soil pollution is again another cause of land pollution that affects not only the land, but also a lot of other things such as forest cover of a region, productivity of land in terms of agriculture, grazing etc. Soil pollution is also caused by wrong agricultural practices, such as overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
  • 8. LAND CONVERSION• When a piece of land is converted from its indigenous form to a form used for either agriculture or infrastructure. Land conversion is especially a growing problem that we possibly do not have a good solution for. Using a piece of land to its maximum potential is the key to eliminate many of the causes of land pollution, such as this one.
  • 9. OTHER …• … key causes of land pollution include - urbanization, improper waste disposal, industrial activities, nuclear research, chemicals released by all sorts of heavy industries, coal- fired power plants, metals production industries, etc.
  • 10. EFFECTS OF LAND POLLUTION TOPIC # 2
  • 11. EFFECTS ON CLIMATE• Land pollutions leads to loss in the forest cover of Earth. This is in turn going to affect the amount of rain. Less rain mean lesser vegetation. The effect of all different kinds of pollution will eventually lead to problems like acid rains, greenhouse effect, global warming.
  • 12. EXTINCTION OF SPECIES • Species are pushed towards endangerment and extinction primarily by two processes. Habitat fragmentation is the fragmentation of the natural habitat of an organism; cause primarily by urban sprawl. Habitat destruction, on the other hand, is when land clearing adversely affects animals special such that their natural habitat is lost. Both the actions can cause some species to go extinct and others to become invasive.
  • 13. BIO MAGNIFICATION• Process in which certain non-biodegradable substances go on accumulating in the food-chain. The most common example is of methyl mercury in fish and mercury in eagles. Not only does bio magnification put the particular species at risk, it puts all the species above and below it at risk, and ultimately affects the food pyramid.
  • 14. EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY• Species extinction and bio magnification is going to overthrow the balance of nature very significantly. The main reason for this is disturbance created in the food chain. To give you a very simple example - on account of bio magnification of mercury in eagles, they might go extinct in the subsequent years. However, we know eagles prey on snakes. Less (or no) eagles will then result in more number of snakes!
  • 15. PREVENTION OF LAND POLLUTION TOPIC # 3
  • 16. PERSONAL LEVEL• As you may have realized, land pollution is indeed going to affect a lot more things than we thought it will. Hence, I leave you with some corrective measure you can take on a personal level to reduce land pollution.• Encourage organic farming - buy organic food.• Proper garbage disposal - separate your garbage before you give it to the garbage collector; and strictly say NO to plastic.• Encourage recycling - buy recycled products, notebooks, paper, etc.• Restrict use of herbicides and pesticides - they are not only used in farm, but in your own backyard as well.
  • 17. DISPOSAL OF WASTES• Proper waste management is the most important thing to do for the prevention of land pollution. Several steps should be taken to ensure that the waste gets disposed in the most harmless way, i.e. produces less or no toxins.
  • 18. DISPOSAL OF WASTES• One of the ways of doing this is by separating dry and wet waste. Dry waste should be recycled or it can be burned. On the other hand, wet waste should be decomposed.
  • 19. DISPOSAL OF WASTES• This decomposed waste should be further dumped in pits so that it can be converted into compost and used for agriculture. When disposing of waste, the authorities should treat it with various kinds of chemicals, so that it has a very low level of toxicity.
  • 20. RECYCLING AND REUSE• People should buy and use products that have been recycled. For instance, plastic bags should be given up; instead, jute bags should be used. Reusing old items is another good way to reduce the stress on various resources. Clothes, paper, glass, everything should be recycled and reused, as far as possible.
  • 21. BIODEGRADABLE PRODUCTS• People should buy biodegradable products. Go organic - thats the mantra for avoiding land pollution. Organic farming, lessening the use of pesticides, buying organic fruits and vegetables and other products, will keep land pollution in check.
  • 22. GROW MORE TREES • Initiative should be taken to grow more trees. Researches show that trees can actually fertilize the soil. This means that by growing trees, soil will become fertile, agriculture will get boosted and land pollution will greatly reduce.
  • 23. EFFICIENT USE OF RESOURCES• There should be minimal wastage. There should be no littering. Oil and petrol should be used judiciously. So should all the other products and resources made from glass, plastic, metal and paper.
  • 24. SOME MORE … …• Both individuals and authorities have to make positive changes in the way they conduct things. Spreading awareness, amongst the common people, to use organic, biodegradable products and to efficiently use resources, should be taken up seriously by the government. The industries too should follow proper procedures of industrial waste disposal. In addition to this, trees should be saved and more plants should be grown. All these initiatives are mandatory for any project on the prevention of land pollution, to be successful.
  • 25. CITATION• http://www.buzzle.com/articles/c auses-and-effects-of-land- pollution.html• http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pr evention-of-land-pollution.html• http://www.all-recycling- facts.com/cause-of-land- pollution.html