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A few examples of books we have written, (mostly) edited, designed and published.

A few examples of books we have written, (mostly) edited, designed and published.


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  • 1. ‘The sharks I dodged, the tigers I slew, what ate me up was the bedbugs.’ Bertolt Brecht
  • 2. Copyright Disclaimer Copyright 2009, Hamilton-Fynch. All unauthorized reproduction strictly prohibited. Any unauthorized re-distribution will be considered a copyright infringement and grounds for a lawsuit. This book and the opinions and advice contained within it, is not a substitute for informed medical or other opinion and advice.
  • 3. Introduction: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 7 Chapter 1: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 10 Your Immune System ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 10 Boosting Your Resistance –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 11 Chapter 2: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 13 Large Mammals ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 13 Elephant ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 16 Hippo –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 18 Chapter 3: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 19 Reptiles –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––-––––––––––––––––––– 19 Snakes ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 19 Types of Venom and Symptoms –––––––––––––––––––––––––– 20 Treatment of Snakebite –––––––––––––––––––––––––– 21 Avoiding Snakebite –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 22 First Aid for Snakebite ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 22 Snakebite First Aid Summary ––––––––––––––––––––––– 24 Crocodiles ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 25 What To Do and What Not To Do ––----------------------------– 27 Chapter 4: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 29 Down by the Seaside ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 29 Sharks ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 29 What To Do and What Not To Do ––––––––––––––––––––––– 32 Bluebottles/Portuguese Man o’War ––––––––––––––––––––––––– 34 Stingrays ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 34 Mussels –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 34 Cone Shells ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 35 Moray Eels –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 35 Stone Fish –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 36 Electric Rays ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 37 Sea Urchins ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 37 Chapter 5: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 38 Insects and other Creepy Crawlies –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 38 Mosquitoes –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 39 Malaria ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 40 Malaria Symptoms –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 40 Anti-Malarial Drugs –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 41 Avoiding Mosquito Bites –––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 42 Mosquitoes and HIV ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 42 Flies ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 43
  • 4. Houseflies –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 43 Blow flies ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 43 Flesh Flies –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 44 Tsetse Flies ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 44 Sandflies ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 45 Blackfly –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 46 Ticks ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 46 Tick Fever ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 47 Lice –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 48 Fleas ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 48 Jigger Fleas –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 49 Bed Bugs ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 49 Beetles ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 49 Bees ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 50 Spiders ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 51 Dangerous Spiders –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 53 Widow / Button Spiders –––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 53 Violin Spider ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 54 Sac Spider ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 54 Six-eyed Sand Spider –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 54 Scorpions ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 55 General Prevention and Treatment of Insect and Creepy Crawly Bites ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 56 Insect Repellent and Bites –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 56 Table of Major Insect Borne Diseases ––––––––––––––––––––––– 58 Chapter 6: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 59 Parasitic Intestinal Worms –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––-––––––– 59 Tape Worms ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 60 Nematode Worms ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 60 Chapter 7: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 62 Hygiene Related Waterborne Diseases ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 62 Hepatitis –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 62 Cholera, Typhoid, Salmonella, Giardia and E-coli –––––---––––––– 63 Travellers’ Diarrhoea –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 64 Chapter 8: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 65 Serious Viral and Bacterial Diseases ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 65 Polio ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 65 Meningitis ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 66 Diphtheria ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 66 Tuberculosis ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 66 Chapter 9: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 67 Bilharzia ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 67 Chapter 10: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 70 STDs –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 70
  • 5. Chapter 11: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 71 Plants ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 71 Chapter 12: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 73 Sunburn / Sunstroke and Keeping Cool ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 73 Eye Irritations and Infections –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 75 Chapter 13: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 76 Important Vaccinations –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 76 Controversey ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 76 Tetanus –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 77 Hepatitis ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 77 Diphtheria ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 77 Measles, Mumps, German Measles, –––––––––––––––––––––––– 77 Influenza –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 77 Pneumococcal ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 77 Chickenpox –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 77 Chapter 14: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 78 Drinking Eating –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 78 Drinking ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 78 Eating ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 79 Chapter 15: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 80 Malaria Prophylactics–––––––––––––––––––––------––––––––––––––––– 80 Chapter 16: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 82 Personal Hygiene ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 82 Chapter 17: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 84 Storms and Lightning ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 84 Chapter 18: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 86 Personal Security –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 86 On the Street and on the Road –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 86 Mugging ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 88 Document Back-ups ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 89 Chapter 19: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 90 Travel First Aid –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 90 Hardware –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 92 Other Stuff ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 92 Chapter 20: –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 93 Emergency / Survival Kits ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 93 A Basic Survival Kit ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 94 Luxury Survival Kit –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 95
  • 6. In about 1175, Prester John wrote of the Afro-Indian region:- ‘. . . in our domains live elephants, dromedaries, camels, hippopotami, crocodiles, metagallinari, cametenus, tinsirete, panthers, onagers, red and white lions, white bears and black- birds, mute cicadas, gryphos, tigers, jackals, hyenas, wild oxen, centaurs, wild men, horned men, fauns and women of the same species, pygmies, men with dog’s heads, giants forty cubits tall, monocles, cyclops, a bird called the phoenix, and almost every kind of animal that lives beneath the heavens.’
  • 7. No wonder some people are a little Nile crocodile––well you were on apprehensive about a holiday to the same river––and if you know the Africa, and Prester John didn’t even crocodile performance specs. no touch on all the interesting parasites one will doubt your story. An Ameri- and diseases. can friend of mine, took this licence a little too far (in my opinion) when This book is about everything––well he claimed he’d almost been blown lots of things––you don’t know up because he’d been here in the about health risks you might face on Lowveld of South Africa at the same a trip to Africa, and to equip you to time as a bomb blast in Cape Town deal with them without paranoia. A 1,800 kilometres to the south. list of things to look out for, cloaked in a package that we hope you will Since so many of these health find interesting and even entertaining; problems concern parasites, flesh as Rossini boasted, eating microbes, and result in liquid gut content spillage and copious ‘Give me a laundry list and I’ll amounts of blood following removal of some portion of the anatomy, set it to music.’ after dining story time is obligatory. Actually many of these risks are glo- Having said that, we have lived in bally common throughout the tropics Southern Africa for 40 years, largely and sub-tropics––Mexico, Costa outdoors in various natural habi- Rica, Belize, Thailand, Malaysia, tats in the region, from the ocean India and the rest. Africa at least to sand forests, savannahs and doesn’t have that loathsome little swamps, and apart from bilharzia, Amazon fish the candiru, that is two or three spider bites, a couple of alleged to swim up your urine scorpion stings, a single squirt from stream, although scientific opinion some sort of acid spraying beetle in suggests that is an urban myth. a suburban bed, another squirt from a spitting cobra, and thousands of Those problems that you are most mosquito and sand fly bites, we likely to experience are given the have escaped unscathed. I did once most space, but you ought to know get bitten by a not very poisonous about some of the others, because snake, but I had provoked it just to they provide good material for post- see what it was like to be bitten. In prandial stories and make you seem fact my only serious injuries inflicted more intrepid. You could dine out for by an animal were administered years on how you narrowly escaped by a neighbour's rotweiler and a becoming breakfast for a six metre
  • 8. runaway horse. What follows is a ‘If I don’t know I know, I think Although there is much of impor- guide only. It’s not intended to be a I don’t know’. tance to anyone on a tour bus or substitute for informed professional even living in Africa in the book, a medical advice––which means your good deal of it is for those of you Although if you are sensible, you G.P. may not be the best advisor who are off on your own adventure are unlikely to suffer any severe either. You need to distinguish and out from under the protective illness or unfortunate encounter between a doctor with 25 years’ wing of a guide. with wildlife during your trip, if experience and a doctor with one you do, the consequences could year’s experience repeated 25 If you do get off the beaten track, be serious. Take care, but don’t times and who needs to read the a little common sense and knowl- be paranoid, measure the risks, package insert when prescribing edge might save you spending your take precautions and follow up on your tropical disease prophylaxis or holiday hunched over a toilet bowl. anything you feel is an uncertainty– treatment. Although a good part of Africa 'ain’t –above all enjoy yourself. for sissies'––it’s not Europe or the Specific travel health advice is USA––whatever you might think The fact is that the economy of important on an individual basis, after visiting Johannesburg or much of Africa is increasingly de- to take into account the personal Cape Town. Your consciousness of pendent on tourism. Africa is home health of the traveller, medical and possible threats is likely to be no to around 1,100 species of immunisation history, intended more than liminal except if you are mammals, Southern Africa alone activities, itinerary, style of travel, in real trouble. You'll have a great has about 300 species of land type of accommodation, time of time and you'll never forget Africa. mammals, 37 species of marine year, altitude and length of stay. mammals and over 900 species Whether to have some vaccines or of birds. There is spectacularly not, such as rabies and tuberculo- diverse scenery, from savannahs sis, may be very much influenced and forests to the ±4,000 metre by specific destinations, risk and Drakensberg, the volcanoes of East length of stay. In the context of Africa, the incomparably dry Namib, malaria, locality specific and up- coastal mangroves and wetlands. to-date advice is essential. British As result, Africa is a premier Airways travel clinics are an excel- destination for eco-tourists. lent start. Tour operators, hotels and lodges You should not underestimate the have made huge investments in potential for ‘health challenges’ (or their operations and just can’t in plain English, to get very sick, afford to have guests falling prey to injured or worse) to ruin your day. wild animals or contracting diseases from their kitchens. Take the perspective of philosopher R. D. Laing seriously;
  • 9. Your Immune System What you need to remember is that you do have an immune system, which has evolved, according to some opinions, from a viral infection of one of our remote animal ancestors and which now resides in your system. As for which ancestor, well not everyone is comfortable with even their recent evolutionary origins but we’re not talking Neanderthals, Australopithicines or even apes here, we’re talking about an ancestor that will make you much more uncomfortable, a lamprey, some 450 million years ago; it’s a parasite itself. 0
  • 10. You also have a well-developed There are three main defence It’s actually your own and instinctive sense of repulsion systems, the anatomic response; immune system that provides at the thought of close contact the inflammatory response; and the the protection, not your with many things that are poten- immune response. The anatomic tially dangerous, from flies, oozing defence is the simplest and taken doctor or the immunisation wounds and stinking drains to for granted. It includes protection fluid itself, so have faith in crocodiles. Independent of age, by the skin, nostrils, mucous your immune system. culture and gender it’s a good membranes that line our lungs, and instinct to follow. stomach acids, all of which either kill or isolate most potential infec- Boosting your resistance tions. The second line of defence is There are some things you can do About six billion people, the inflammatory response, which to enhance your natural resistance. actually the world’s entire causes increased inflammation and population, are exposed to If you’re coming from a temperate an allergic response at the site of innumerable bacteria, viruses an invasion and finally, there is the climate and have a skin unused to and fungi every day. immune response, your system’s sun, you can raise your skin’s ultimate weapon against infections. protective capacity and reduce Many of these are potentially lethal, potential cancerous damage by but 450 million years of evolution Occasionally, when viruses, bacteria boosting your anti-oxidant intake has given us an immune system and other organisms mutate, or two months or so before you leave that protects us––under most when you move to a new environ- home. circumstances. ment with a new suite of diseases unfamiliar to your immune system, During this period and during your Our immune system is a sophisti- or if you suffer a heavy invasion by visit, many health practitioners cated, interactive masterpiece com- viruses and bacteria, it can’t cope recommend a supplement of 1,000 prised of an array of cells, tissues and that’s when you’ll need help. mg per day of Vitamin C, 500-550 and enzymes, each with specific Remember that there are people mg of Vitamin E and a carotene tasks, and all working together to with immune systems so efficient cocktail. provide defence. It works so well that they are able to carry hepatitis that the great majority of a vast and typhoid without suffering ill Cider vinegar and olive oil airborne mist and waterborne soup effects themselves––and just look taken together, and a glass of infections, from viruses to blood at what your dog can eat without of red wine (or two or three) parasites are easily eliminated. even throwing up. As a whole, it’s one of the most is said to be a good way complex biological systems known, Immunisation simulates natural to get a shot of vitamins, and your best defence against infections and allows your body to including Vitamins E and C health problems whilst travelling is prepare immune responses ahead and a belt of antioxidants to maintain it. of time. Trust your doctor if he including carotenoids. recommends them.
  • 11. Some naturopaths recommend information, is even more ily, provided they are addressed cutting down sugar intake, paying enthusiastic about red wine than quickly, although sometimes special attention to a high intake I, so in this instance I invariably treatment spans a longish time of dark green leafy vegetables choose his advice since it usually frame. and citrus, and taking pro-biotic involves red wine consumption to supplements which boost the level support the immune system. Don’t count on cures for encounters of protective bacteria in your gut. with large crocodiles or large Echinacea is also said to boost If your immune system does let you mammals, they are much faster your immune system. I’m inclined down, pretty much all the and far stronger than you imagine towards homeopathy but consequences of suffering an at- and after a close encounter you unfortunately, most naturopaths are tack by any of the creatures (apart may have no need for medical less enthusiastic about red wine from the heavy duty ones with assistance at all. Your immune than I am. My doctor, actually a teeth) and diseases which follow system won’t be of much help either. pathologist so he has inside are curable, more or less eas-
  • 12. Large Mammals The best advice with regard to wildlife encounters is to ignore the TV programmes that stage encounters suggesting you can take liberties with wild animals and walk away from the experience. Perhaps you might survive––but probably not. Treat wildlife with great respect. Most people will instinctively avoid the obvious ‘red in tooth and claw’ threats, like lion, leopard, rhino and buffalo, but beware the apparently laid-back elephant and hippo.
  • 13. So there we were, a warm after- but it can also happen in the short deaths caused by hippopotamus. noon in the bush, driving along in grass. And if you do survive the The seventh victim was killed by a our pick-up, obeying the speed initial biting, clawing, goring and bull elephant with toothache. limit, not drinking beer (I have trampling, then make sure you get friends who might dispute this, and expert medical treatment. Wounds During the same period there were I did once hear the BBC’s Jeremy rapidly turn septic, you may 14 non-fatal attacks on tourists, Clarkson claim it was obligatory contract tetanus, and/or a severe including five by hippo, three by to be drunk whilst driving a pick- and resistant staphylococcal buffalo, two by rhino, and one each up truck), ticking birds off our subsidiary infection, and most by a lion, leopard, zebra and a list, when we came across a car threatening of all, rabies. musth elephant (a bull elephant stopped in the middle of the road. looking for a party). All except the A short, stout, balding man, pale Any bite from a wild animal, incident involving the elephant in as a gecko’s belly, wearing pink musth took place when tourists were or even domestic if you don't pastel shirt and pale blue shorts, on foot. Without a guide you are know the owner, should be white socks and sandals––German likely to make mistakes and to mis- for sure––was wandering from the treated as if the animal had interpret animals' behaviour––and road into the long grass waving a rabies. if you try to approach them they will video camera in the direction of almost certainly misinterpret yours. a giraffe. His wife was spreading The treatment is no longer the un- a picnic on the bonnet of the car. pleasant series of large injections Don’t take risks, and make Thing is, this was the Kruger Park into your abdomen that it used to sure your guide, if you are on and apart from it being illegal to be. Untreated, the consequences of foot, knows exactly what he wander about on foot, it’s not what rabies are as fatal as ever. informed adventurers do. Giraffes or she is doing. routinely kick lions to death and this In the 10 years from 1988 to 1997 guy didn’t even have a rough beard South Africa requires that field seven tourists, were killed by wild or a copper bracelet. guides pass a stringent training mammals in South Africa. Three of programme to make your wildlife the four deaths from lions were a experience both memorable and Almost all mammals from result of sheer stupidity when tour- safe. squirrels to lions and ists on foot tried to take close-ups of lion prides without the benefit of elephants will bite, gore, rip, a telephoto lens. In general, when in wildlife kick or trample you if they areas, stay in your car, raise feel threatened or provoked. An inquiry found that the fourth the windows when there are death was caused by negligence baboons close by and give Peter Hathaway Capstick, who on the part of management of a way to game on the road. earned full colours for hunting in game reserve. Ignorance of animal Africa, once wrote about it––it’s behaviour and a flagrant disregard called ‘Death in the Long Grass’–– of rules were the cause of two
  • 14. Incidentally if you are thinking of feeding baboons you might like to know that a large male baboon has larger canines than a lion, so if you do embark on a feeding relationship that turns sour when he decides he wants everything you have to eat in the vehicle, you can expect trouble. Would you offer a Hell’s Angel a beer and then tell him you were saving the rest for later? I don’t think so sunshine. There are two mammals perceived as essentially non-threatening but with which tourists habitually take liberties, and both of these are extremely dangerous––elephant and hippopotamus. Elephant
  • 15. Be especially wary of elephants, don’t try to thread your car through a herd on the road and particularly don’t get between a cow and her calf. Adults in herds are always mostly females and they always have calves of various ages in the herd. Protective mothers with young calves are much more dangerous than the big old bulls. Adolescent and full grown males tend to be alone or in small groups of two or three and unless they have a hangover, a wound or are hell-bent on some recreational time with a female, they are not usually a problem. The lone males with the dark wet patches running down their faces from the glands between their ears and eyes are elephants to avoid, these are the ones in musth. For that you can read extreme sexual tension. When these males encounter you, they feel as you did when you had just passed your driving test and finally are in a car at a drive- in movie with your dream girl, the windows steamed up, movie forgotten, necks already bruising––and then a popcorn vendor knocks on your window. To the elephant you are the popcorn vendor. If one of these bulls approaches you, reverse calmly until you can get out of his way (this works for
  • 16. popcorn vendors too). You may fill it with fruit (or popcorn) and then Keep your engine running if you’re have to reverse a long way –– we spend an idyllic two weeks in the watching a herd with young at close once had to do this for a kilometre. pit eating fruit and making love. quarters. At picnic sites, especially If you are somehow stuck in your if you are the only people there, car between an elephant and a keep your eyes peeled. Elephants Do not drive too close to hard place, keep cool, and if a move almost silently and before elephant and pay attention to charge looks serious i.e. his/her you know it, several can be trunk down or rolled up and ears their behaviour, they will let sharing your picnic (they are very back against the sides of the head, you know when you are fond of oranges). try revving your engine, s/he may getting too close. If you think change its mind––or not. Remember picnic sites are they are uneasy, they probably are. Keep an exit just another piece of real Incidentally, talking of drive-in movie theatres, it’s not true that route open––avoid ‘rock and when elephants pair they dig a pit, a hard place’ scenarios.
  • 17. Hippos (although you may see bubbles or Unlikely as it may sound, hippos Thinking of a kayak trip and you a vague v-shaped wake marking are sometimes also found in the think crocodiles are dangerous? their track). sea, close to estuary mouths. Well so they are, but: They are especially In many areas, numbers of Hippos kill more people in aggressive when courting wild mammals are greater Africa than any other females or busy with than they have been for a large animal. territorial disputes. hundred years. Leopards are now common in many places, Take this quote in a Lowveld Hippos tend to stay in the same including some suburban newspaper by a fisherman who pools with deep water and had shared a pool with a hippo areas. At night, in the camps sandbanks for long periods, so and been bitten when he tried to guides generally know where to in reserves, stay tuned in to retrieve his nets. ‘I was surprised expect them. If you’re on foot, take what is happening around to see my intestines hanging out.’ care in and near shady places on you. Although you will feel –– well you would be wouldn’t you? river banks in the afternoon where very secure, all the big five He was lucky. they might hang out, especially if a and many other mammals nearby known favourite pool looks Wildlife photographers Des and uncharacteristically quiet. including hippo have been Jen Bartlett have a brilliant found inside fence lines, and underwater hippo sequence during If you get between them and the many camps do not have a which they are almost bitten in two water you are likely to be ground fence at all. Use a torch and (well into four I suppose, there are bait for crocodiles. two of them) by a hippo. Des got a don’t creep about. If there is tusk through his calf and Jen a tusk In particular, hippo might make their anything around, you ought through her face mask. way from rivers and waterholes to ensure it knows you’re Give them a wide berth when onto the lawns of camps to graze coming before you’re forced you’re in a boat (hippos, not Des ––‘Death in the Short Grass’––and to meet without the benefit of and Jen Bartlett), take care if they it has happened more than once. seem aggressive and submerge an introduction. with their business end pointed in your direction because they cover a lot of ground along the bottom where you can’t see them
  • 18. Reptiles Snakes Most people are unreasonably frightened of snakes, most snakes, over 80% in Africa, are harmless. But that means 20% are venomous (not ‘poisonous’, a little technical perspective that game guides like to use to intimidate you), and you need to avoid a confrontation with them. There are an estimated 20,000 snakebite deaths per year in Africa (WHO).
  • 19. If you do see a snake, you will be it ruined the weekend. Never, ever If you find a snake in your extremely lucky, most people never confess if you lose a large snake in hut, call someone to take it see a snake, much less one of the your home. out. more exciting ones; dangerous and both chilling and beautiful, like a In all probability, by the time Keep your eye on it all the time black mamba. you see it, the snake will and try not to frighten it into moving already be on its way to as somewhere that will make it hard The best thing to do is to to catch. All snakes are extremely far from you as possible. If freeze until it leaves, or if you good at disappearing into the back not, then give it room. Don’t just can’t stand the tension, of fridges, into stoves, bedsprings, try to catch or kill it. and apparently the thin air of make a very slow retreat. bathrooms. Spitting cobras and rinkhals can A 300 mile round trip, hitch spray venom two or three metres hiking both ways to bring a Types of venom symptoms so be cautious. Snakebite (except girlfriend teaching in a distant It greatly assists decisions on treat- in a bottle) is extremely unusual in school back to my place for the ment if you know what snake has tourist environments. Don’t even weekend. It’s dark and late, but the bitten you. If you don't, the symp- think about it––but if it does candles have been lit, the wine cork toms, if there are any, will fairly happen, follow the drill. popped, a casserole bubbling on quickly give a reliable indication of the wood stove. The salad is pre- which major group has inflicted the Very small, newly hatched pared; extra virgin olive oil, balsamic bite. vinegar. A crisp baguette laced with snakes are as venomous garlic and butter is warming in the as adults, so be cautious. The neurotoxic venoms of most oven filling the house with a rich Some species such as cobras and mambas which affect and savoury fragrance. the entire nervous system are indi- rinkhals and some cobras, cated by slurred speech, drooping sham death very ‘Time for a quick shower?’ she eyelids and difficulty both swallow- asked––’Yes, just let me catch my convincingly, so don’t pick ing and breathing. python in the bathroom first’. I had one up because it looks dead been given a three metre python and you’d like a snakeskin Cytotoxic venoms destroy tissue as I was leaving home, and locking and are standard issue to adders belt. it in the bathroom seemed a good and spitting cobras. They cause idea at the time, now it’s missing. pain and swelling at the bite and Thread a snake shamming death Losing a three metre python and in the affected limb, and swollen through your belt loops and subse- worse, admitting it and trying to lymph glands. The tissue damage quent necrosis may determine the get your date to help you hunt for and necrosis (tissue death) can extent of your family line. it is a mistake. I never found it and result in gangrene in the affected although a non-venomous snake, limb and even parts of the torso 0
  • 20. well removed from the site of the Most of the stories of dying in especially in the field, because punctures, weeks after the initial minutes are fantasy and there are of the risk of anaphylactic shock. bite. Most bites in Africa are much better fantasies to indulge in Asthmatics or people who have inflicted by puff adders. if you’re headed to hospital––like been treated previously, are Juliette Binoche, the nurse in the especially vulnerable. In hospital, movie “The English Patient”–– antivenin, drips, antihistamines, Slow acting cytotoxic venoms although I think you’ll find the small blood transfusions and respiratory may take days to kill you. print in your insurance policy support are routinely administered. indemnifies your insurer against Boomslangs and vine snakes have failing to supply a similar nurse. Even without treatment, most haemotoxic venoms which destroy Unless a fang penetrates a blood your blood vessels, but they are people survive the bites of vessel, you probably have at least rarely seen, are back-fanged and most venomous snakes. 12 hours before death, even with- so find it difficult to sink their fangs out supportive first aid. However into you, except on fingers and a black mamba can deliver up toes and perhaps wrists, but they to 400 mg of venom; 10-15 are not aggressive. However if you mg will kill an adult. Without are bitten by one of these, medical treatment, death treatment is essential. from mamba bites might be in anything from 15 Untreated severe bites from minutes to three hours. these snakes will almost certainly be fatal; antivenin is Treatment of snakebite Treatment today is largely not readily available but since supportive, with a reluctance the venom acts slowly there by doctors to use anti is time to find venin, treatment.
  • 21. There are powerful little suction There may be long-term effects around barefoot at night. Oops! kits which may help suck out some and life support systems may be You’ve been bitten! of the venom, but they have to be necessary. used immediately. Sucking the bite Firstly don’t panic, get out of with your mouth probably won’t If you keep a cool head, the way and try to get a look help and could be dangerous; and ultimately you are almost besides, if you’re on your own at the snake. certain to make a full recovery you’re likely to experience extreme difficulty sucking the back of your even if bitten by a black Admittedly this is not easy in the knee joint. mamba. dark, but it is important because you may not have been bitten by a Non-venomous snakes such as venomous snake at all. Your time would be better pythons can sometimes cause spent applying a compres- problems since many of them eat Don’t take chances––two sion bandage and making rats and so may have a whole suite bites are much, much worse a phone call. Venom in the of infective agents living on their than one. The symptoms will eyes is extremely painful but teeth. Pythons in particular can indicate which venom has it can be washed out with inflict very nasty tearing bites susceptible to infection and leave been administered. water, cold tea or even urine. teeth embedded in the wound. Just be sure the irrigation of the If a snake bites and hangs on eye is thorough and get medical Avoiding snakebite to you, don’t let it chew. Pull it advice. A vet told me to wipe my To avoid bites, take reasonable off and throw it away in a nice dog’s cornea lightly with cotton care––step onto and not over logs smooth motion, but be quick wool whilst irrigating it with and rocks, wear shoes and baggy or it will bite your hand. water after the dog had received trousers, especially at night, look a serious spray of cobra venom. It where you put your feet, where brought off a mucous film stuck to you put your hand when you grab If someone is bitten by a the cotton wool; and in answer to branches in trees, keep your tent snake, assume it's venomous your question, urine in a healthy zipped up and shake out your if you are not sure. Phone person is sterile. sleeping bag, clothes and shoes for help and keep the victim before you get into them. still and reassured in order to A snakebite is going to hurt slow down fluid transport in quite a lot and be very First aid for snakebite the body. The most important unpleasant for the victim. Of course you may have been thing is to get the patient to a watching too much television, know better and try to catch your snake, doctor, preferably in a or you may have been walking hospital.
  • 22. It’s a great help if you can alert let the victim lie down and wait If they bite, they may strike repeat- the hospital in advance so that the for help to arrive. It may not be edly with the sharp end well off the proper treatment can be planned possible to do this so the next ground. Many victims of mambas before you get there. option is to carry the victim and have been bitten on the head and the last, have the victim walk slowly torso which makes first aid much More than 95% of snake to transport or help. more difficult. bites are on a limb. Keep the Do not use ice or a I understand that in Oz, a bitten limb immobilised, use a popular outback pastime is to tourniquet, these can both splint. grab a snake by the tail, swing it make matters worse, and around your head and then crack Use of a compression bandage is especially don’t start slashing it like a whip, which tears off the controversial, but CSL, the company about the bite with a blade. head, bonzer blokes or what? An that manufactures antivenins in Ozzie friend thinks so but says she Australia where snake bite treat- Cutting the bite doesn’t help at wouldn’t like to marry one of them. ment is perhaps the most advanced all and unless you happen to be in the world, recommends wrapping a surgeon you may sever major The possibility of snakebite has the limb in a firm (about as tight blood vessels, tendons and nerves. been greatly exaggerated by films, as a blood pressure cuff) but not In any case venom is transported and folklore. strangulation tight bandage for the primarily through lymph vessels. whole length of the limb if you can organise it. Several crepe band- Black mambas are often large and ages may be necessary. If possible aggressive and always fast. Puff adder Julius Rückert http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
  • 23. Snakebite First Aid Summary 24
  • 24. Crocodiles they are mostly found in game actually hunting you down I can’t Although messing with crocodiles is reserves especially Kruger Park, say––although I can guess. Under- apparently another Ozzie pastime, and in KwaZulu-Natal. In Botswana water, their eyeballs are protected I would recommend you don’t take there are good numbers in the by a nictitating membrane so they any chances with these animals. Okavango and in Namibia and don’t see well, although they are They are ancestors of birds and Angola, in the Cunene system. In very sensitive to vibrations. have excellent eyesight. I don’t Zimbabwe and Zambia they are still know of any extensive work on widely distributed, especially in the Above water, crocs see very their visual acuity but since they Zambezi and Luangwa rivers, and well, which is why they keep are predators and ancestors of in Lake Kariba. surfacing to check out where birds their vision might be as good as that of birds of prey. They have Nile crocs can reach six metres you are sitting on the bank been refining their hunting tech- and weigh 1,000 kilogrammes but enjoying your sundowner. niques for 200 million years or so animals over three metres have and have got so good at it, that become uncommon. They take their prey in the water or whilst we are all working on self- from right on the water’s edge and improvement, they don’t need to In spite of their relative rarity can cover the last few metres faster bother and have hardly changed for than you can react if you’ve been crocs can turn up in almost 100 million years. Tune in to that, surprised, especially if you’re on any warm water body, so 100 million years ago your ances- your third or fourth GT. tor was just a rat-sized mammal assume that all lakes, struggling to avoid becoming a dams and rivers are home to Some traditional magico-medicinal cocktail snack for a crocodile––and crocodiles, unless your guide plants such as white thorn (Acacia crocodiles had already achieved polyacantha) are believed to keep can give you good reasons perfection, and that with a brain of crocodiles away from bathing and why not. only the size and shape of a good watering points but I would suggest Havana cigar. that you don’t place too much faith In particular, after floods they can in them. turn up in places where they have Over the last century or so they not previously been recorded–– have taken a hammering from Although crocs are designed to such as lodge swimming pools. hunters shooting them for the belly take their prey in the water and not leather and taking revenge for the on land, a good guideline might be If you’re fishing or enjoying an fate of their canapé ancestors. A to keep out of the water and three evening gin and tonic on a river long time to hold a grudge. In metres from the water’s edge. In a bank, you will sometimes see one recent years crocodiles have canoe, don’t take chances. There slither off a bank opposite and become rare over much of Africa. is at least one incidence of some- submerge, reappearing a little one being taken from a canoe by a while later headed in your direction. There are very few in Swaziland crocodile––unusual to be sure but it Whether it’s just curiosity or if it’s and Mozambique. In South Africa has happened.
  • 25. Most attacks on people take Your friends could help However we are talking about small place during high summer so though. They can poke crocs here, let’s say up to 80 or 90 kilos and two metres long. that’s when you need to be pointed sticks into the croc. especially vigilant. particularly its eyes; or beat A six metre croc. can pull a its nose––better still empty a The winter months are too cold in fully grown buffalo into the handgun into it. general for crocs to be very active water. and so if you’re planning a canoe Handguns, especially .357 trip on the Zambezi you might want If you think a pointed stick is going Magnums and bigger are much to consider that time of the year. to help you in that scenario –– well more effective than pointed sticks. Crocs are plentiful in estuaries such dream on. Still, according to Pliny We know several people who have as the St. Lucia estuary in South the Elder, crocodiles always weep survived as a result; and inciden- Africa, where from time to time they after eating someone, so you know tally all of them were taken whilst eat anglers. After floods you may they will feel bad about having wading, not from the bank. even see them in the surf, which eaten you. should suggest to you that you do your swimming and surfing far from the estuary mouth. If you do get grabbed, try to poke your fingers in its eyes (although to be honest you’re likely to be too shocked and fighting for breath to know what’s happening).
  • 26. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY C O N S E R V AT I O N P L A N H A N D B O O K Tony A. Ferrar and Mervyn C. Lötter
  • 27. C H A P T E R 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M P U M A L A N G A’ S E C O S Y S T E M S An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment, interacting as a functional unit (NEMA). Ecosystems operate at various scales; from a single wetland to an entire region such as a range of mountains. Groups of ecosystems with common characteristics at a landscape scale are called biomes. This chapter briefly describes Mpumalanga’s main ecosystems, with some notes on their functioning, diversity and ecological status. 6.1 TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS THE BIOMES Mpumalanga is a warm summer-rainfall province, containing three of South Africa’s nine biomes: grassland (highveld and escarpment hills), savanna (escarpment foothills and lowveld) and forest (south and east facing escarpment valleys). Descriptions of these biomes are useful in understanding the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of the Province (Table 6.1). A map of the biomes is included in Figure 6.1. 9
  • 28. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK TABLE 6.1 Extent of Mpumalanga’s three biomes. BIOME TOTAL SIZE (km2) % OF REMAINING %TRANSFORMED MPUMALANGA NATURAL VEGETATION (km2) Grassland 531 61% 298 44% Savanna 338 39% 255 25% Greenshank Forest 40 0.5% 39 1% Tringa nebularia Total 874 100% 558 36% Most species are TRANSFORMATION completely dependent on Transformation refers to the removal or radical disturbance of natural vegetation, for a narrow range of example by crop agriculture, plantation forestry, mining or urban development. Transformation mostly results in: a serious and permanent loss of biodiversity, fragmentation environmental of ecosystems, and leads to the failure of ecological processes. Remnants of biodiversity may survive in transformed landscapes. conditions and the food and shelter offered by The MBCP transformation layer was created by merging the 1995 and 2000 National Land Cover maps. These maps were created from satellite images that had been classified (by the those conditions. Even CSIR and ARC) into various land-use types, using remote sensing techniques. The MBCP small changes can have transformation layer is the best available representation of lost natural habitat based on composite, six-year-old data. The composite layer was cross-checked against a false-colour lasting and devastating satellite image taken in 2000, allowing mis-classified areas to be corrected. effects on whole GRASSLAND populations. Birds like Grassland defines itself: landscapes dominated by grass. Although grasses are the most visible plants, grasslands have a higher diversity of other herbaceous species, especially those with the migrant greenshank below-ground storage organs such as bulbs or tubers. These plants produce many of our are not rare but they are spectacular wild flowers and contribute to biodiversity that is second only to the Cape Fynbos in species richness. Grassland species are particularly well adapted to being defoliated, restricted to feeding in whether by grazing, fire or frost. Repeated defoliation, within reason, does no real harm to such plants nor does it reduce productivity. water between about 40mm and 120mm deep. African grasslands are particularly old, stable and resilient ecosystems. Most plants are perennials and surprisingly long lived, with very few annual species, which are the pioneer plants needed to repair disturbance. This makes our grasslands vulnerable to destruction by cultivation; once ploughed they are invaded by weedy pioneer plants that are mostly alien. Although many grassland plants do produce seed, very little germinates, most being used as vital food for their rich rodent and insect fauna. Mpumalanga’s grasslands are mainly found in the highveld above 1000m. These are cool, dry open landscapes, with rainfall of over 500mm/yr. Frost, hail storms and lightning strikes M P U M A L A N G A are common. It is the natural occurrence of fire and these other defoliating events that favour Biodiversity grassland plants over woody species and help maintain the open treeless character of grass- lands. Grasslands have shallow rooted vegetation with a growing season limited to about six months of the year. The non-growing seasons are characterised by cool and dry conditions, during which time most foliage is removed or killed by frost, and dies back to ground level. 10 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 29. CHAPTER 6 - MPUMALANGA’S ECOSYSTEMS Large parts of our grasslands occur on deep fertile soils of will not pick them up and special skills are required to locate high agricultural value. Much of this landscape has already and identify them reliably. Highest biodiversity is found in been converted to crops, timber or intensive animal produc- rocky grassland habitats and on sandy soils. Clay soils generally tion. The unproductive winter and spring seasons in have the lowest biodiversity in grasslands. grassland require agricultural strategies for livestock and culti- SAVANNA vation that bridge this gap in economic productivity. Crop Savanna is the name for the typically African mixture of rotation, cultivated pastures and fallow intervals as well as trees, shrubs and grass, also referred to as the bushveld, and supplementary feeding of livestock, including the use of crop at lower altitudes, the lowveld. It varies from tall dense residues, are all part of good farming practice in these woodland in the warmest, wettest areas, through open regions. woodland to dense thicket. It includes wooded, shrubby hill slopes, and grassy plains with scattered trees or bush-clumps. Grasslands originally covered 61% of Mpumalanga, but 44% Diversity in savanna is provided by variation in soil-type and of this has been transformed by agriculture and other topography; koppies, river lines and anthills (termitaria) development. This substantial and irreversible reduction of provide localised changes in soil moisture and nutrients the biome is due mainly to cultivation, especially industrial- which create different habitats for plants and animals. scale agriculture and timber growing. These land uses destroy biodiversity but extensive livestock grazing can be Savanna used to cover 39% of Mpumalanga, but 25% of the reasonably biodiversity-friendly, provided good management original area of savanna has been transformed. Savannas are and safe stocking rates are applied. important for livestock, especially cattle and more recently the wildlife and tourism industry. Broad-leaved and woody The palatability of grass, its value as food for livestock, plants provide a valuable food source for browsers like kudu ECOSYSTEMS increases with decreasing rainfall, which is also correlated and giraffe. Grazing quality varies with rainfall: as rainfall with altitude. In grazing terms, this corresponds to sourveld increases, the nutritional value of grass decreases although in the moist highveld and sweet-veld in the dryer lowveld. there’s more growth; in low rainfall areas there is less grass This grass palatability gradient extends from grassland into but it is more nutritious. savannas. Although sweetveld grasses produce less biomass than sourveld grasses, they have higher food value and lower Rain is frequently delivered in thunder-storm events with a fibre. This means the plant nutrients are more available in high proportion of surface runoff. This creates flash flooding lower rainfall areas due to less leaching of the soil by high and vulnerability to soil erosion. The amount of rain that rainfall. The 650mm rainfall isoline approximately separates remains available to plants is reduced by the long hot dry- these two livestock zones. seasons, creating a strong water-deficit where evaporation far exceeds rainfall. This is an important limitation for production Fire is a characteristic feature of grassland (and savannas) and land uses for agriculture and livestock. Only the most fertile is a necessary component of good land management. deeper soils are used for cultivation. Bush encroachment or Grassland plants depend on fire, they re-sprout annually ‘induced thicket’ can result from over-grazing by livestock. from their root-stocks. Without frequent fire, grasslands Bush encroachment reduces carrying capacity and is difficult eventually become invaded with woody species and some to reverse, reducing the value of the land for livestock. herbaceous plants die. Regular burning to complement good grazing management helps to prevent the increase of species Savannas are hotter than grasslands and are deciduous, i.e. unpalatable to livestock, including woody species that form most plants loose their leaves or die back in the dry season bush encroachment. Timber growing is mainly restricted to to conserve water. The woody plants are deep rooted, grasslands but its impact is not limited to the plantation accessing moisture not available to grasses and herbs. The “footprint”. It significantly reduces surface and underground winter and spring seasons (May – October) are dry and have water and causes the spread of some of the most damaging high water-stress for plants. This increases the likelihood of alien species. These effects, along with flammability of its bushfires. Savannas are adapted to bushfires; grass and tree species and the fire protection measures required, also woody plants survive them well, so long as they are not too M P U M A L A N G A substantially changes the fire regime in grasslands. frequent or too fierce. A good wet season means lots of grass Biodiversity which in turn provides more fuel to burn and raises the risk The large number of rare and endangered species in of damaging wildfires late in the dry season. grasslands, are a particular problem for environmental impact assessment. They are mostly small, very localised and visible for only a few weeks in the year when they flower. Most surveys CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK 11
  • 30. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK FOREST The term ‘forest’ is used only for indigenous natural forests. In this sense commercial timber plantations are not forests. Indigenous evergreen trees that form a closed canopy are defined as forests. This year-round cover provides so much shade and moisture-conserving leaf litter, it limits the growth of ground-layer plants like grass. Forests have little to offer to livestock and are located mostly on steep slopes with sensitive soils not suited to cultivation. Forests are normally frost-free. Their dense vegetation and shade allow higher humidity and lower temperatures than surrounding areas. This means forest patches do not normally burn Nile Crocodile in bush-fires except around the perimeter. Very hot fires can shrink forests by continually Crocodylus niloticus eroding their edges. The vulnerability of the forest edge to fire is considerably increased by the presence of alien plants such as wattle, which increases the penetration of fire into forests. Crocodiles were once found in almost all warm In Mpumalanga, forests occur in small scattered patches, mostly in river valleys in the escarp- ment region. They require high rainfall (over 725mm/yr) boosted through the dry season by waters in Africa. These groundwater from associated streams and added precipitation in the form of mist. Their ancient reptiles extend scattered distribution and small patch size means they have rich biodiversity. This is dependent on the connectedness of patches, achieved through riverine linkages and access back in time even before by specialised forest fauna such as birds and monkeys. Forest patches are vulnerable to many impacts due to their high edge-to-area ratio. the last of the dinosaurs and have hardly changed Forests have significant cultural values as sources of traditional medicines and spiritual inspiration. Commercial harvesting of valuable plants and medicinal species, and the in their bodily form over need for structural timber, are the main pressures on forest biodiversity. From a scenic and wilderness point of view forests are very popular with visitors. Their location and interplay the last 100 million years. with rivers and mountains provides the backdrop to much of Mpumalanga’s most popular Persecution, hunting for scenic attractions. Hiking trails are strung with forest patches like beads on a necklace, running through the escarpment region. Indigenous forests protect water sources rather than their hides and a dry them out, as is the case with timber plantations of pine and gum trees. dwindling habitat as a Within biomes there are many ecosystems that can be defined at different scales. A useful result of drainage and way of classifying biodiversity within biomes is to use vegetation types as surrogates for ecosystems. Vegetation types work well for terrestrial ecosystems but do not effectively cover other human intervention the important aquatic or freshwater systems. has led to a great decline in their numbers. In South Africa they are now virtually restricted to the larger protected areas. M P U M A L A N G A Biodiversity 12 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 31. CHAPTER 6 - MPUMALANGA’S ECOSYSTEMS ECOSYSTEMS FIGURE 6.1: Distribution of three biomes and 68 vegetation types in Mpumalanga. Space precludes the inclusion of a key for the main map, see the MBCP CD Rom for details. 13
  • 32. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK 6.2 VEGETATION TYPES Vegetation types provide a good representation of terrestrial biodiversity because most animals, birds, insects and other organisms are associated with particular vegetation types (Rouget et al. 2004). In 2005 SANBI produced an extensively revised vegetation map for South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland (Mucina et al. 2005), with 441 vegetation types. Each vegetation type in the South African vegetation map has a biodiversity target set by the National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment. This vegetation map, with minor refinements, was used to define 68 vegetation types for Mpumalanga, shown in Figure 6.1. Red-backed toad Bufo carens With vegetation types defined and mapped, it is possible to assess their ecosystem status. Ecosystem status reflects the ecosystem’s ability to function naturally, at a landscape scale and in the long term. The single biggest cause of loss of biodiversity in South Africa is the Amphibians––frogs and loss and degradation of natural habitat. As the natural habitat in an ecosystem is reduced and degraded, its ability to persist is compromised. The degradation process is characterised toads––comprise about by: loss of ability to deliver ecosystem services; loss of biodiversity, including local species 130 species in South extinctions; and irreversible damage to ecological processes. All these combine, eventually leading to ecological collapse (Rouget et al. 2004). Africa. Many of them LISTING OF THREATENED play a crucial role in the ECOSYSTEMS IN TERMS OF THE BIODIVERSITY ACT control of a variety of The Biodiversity Act provides for listing threatened and protected ecosystems as follows: insects including 52 (1) (a) The Minister may . . . publish a national list of threatened ecosystems in need mosquitoes. of protection. (b) An MEC for environmental affairs may . . . similarly publish a provincial list of In recent years numbers threatened ecosystems. 52 (2) The following categories of threatened ecosystems may be listed in terms of of amphibians are subsection (1): believed to have ‘critically endangered’ ecosystems - that have undergone severe ecological degradation and are at an extremely high risk of irreversible transformation; decreased drastically. ‘endangered -’, or ‘vulnerable -’ ecosystems - being categories of reduced The reason for the degradation and risk, each less than the previous category above; ‘protected’ ecosystems – being ecosystems that are not threatened but decline is uncertain but it nevertheless are worthy of special protection. is believed to be largely a NOTE: DEAT and SANBI are in the process of developing criteria for identifying and listing result of climate change threatened and protected ecosystems. Systematic biodiversity plans such as the MBCP will provide an important basis for identifying these ecosystems. and increased exposure to ultra violet The purpose of defining vegetation types in terms of their ecosystem status is to identify ecosystems at risk. The ecosystem status categories are similar to those used by the IUCN for radiation. species: Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), and Vulnerable (VU). These categories are also used in the National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment (Driver et al. 2005). A vegeta- tion type is allocated an ecosystem status based on the proportion of its original natural M P U M A L A N G A habitat that remains. The classification system and categories used here are illustrated in Figure 6.2. In the MBCP analysis the endangered category is split in two in order to identify Biodiversity those ecosystems closer to critically endangered status. 14 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 33. CHAPTER 6 - MPUMALANGA’S ECOSYSTEMS 100% 100% of ecosystem intact LEAST THREATENED LT 80% If habitat loss continues, ecosystem functioning will be compromised % untransformed land VULNERABLE VU 60% ENDANGERED: LOW EN:L Threshold for conserving ecosystem functioning 50% ENDANGERED: HIGH EN:H A higher degree of ecosystem functioning lost - nearing CR status 19-28% Point beyond which many species may be lost CRITICALLY ENDANGERED CR 0% No natural habitat remaining; ecosystems cease to exist FIGURE 6.2: Classification of vegetation types into five ecosystem status categories based on % of natural habitat remaining. * Biodiversity target (see Appendix 2) ECOSYSTEMS FIGURE 6.3: The status of terrestrial ecosystems in Mpumalanga 15
  • 34. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK Appendix 2 presents the statistical characteristics of each the balance between these drivers that is important. vegetation type in Mpumalanga. Aquatic ecosystem drivers may be summarised as: The names of the 68 vegetation types together with Hydrological - the presence and the flow of water - their national biodiversity targets; which will vary seasonally and after rainfall in terms The percentage of natural habitat remaining for each; of speed and volume of flow; Their ecosystem status; Chemical and physical - water quality - which is a The proportion of the biodiversity target protected in measure of the dissolved chemicals, pollutants and formal protected areas; sediment contained in and transported by the Their protection level category; and water; The relevant biome and its percentage transformation. Geomorphological - the physical land surface - the types of rock, soil and the slope of the surfaces over Note that a vegetation type can be well protected (100% which the water flows – both in uplands and in the of its biodiversity target included in formal protected areas) water-courses of rivers and streams; this includes yet still be vulnerable or endangered if a large proportion of the plant cover that controls erosion. natural habitat in that vegetation type has been lost. Changes in ecosystem health may be measured by changes in river biota, such as fish, aquatic insects and riverine vege- tation. Health of a river system, including its wetlands, is 6.3 AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS usually good in pristine or well protected catchments. This is Aquatic ecosystems include both rivers and wetlands. These particularly true in headwater and upper level catchments. two are inter-related, with most wetlands feeding rivers, However, a section of river does not necessarily reflect the thereby extending and stabilising their varied and seasonal condition of the catchment it flows through. For example, flows. Together they function as arteries for the life-blood of the Olifants River flows through a protected part of its catch- our living landscapes and as kidneys that process much of ment in the Kruger National Park, but the health of the river the waste products of life – and of humanity. These functions has already been seriously compromised upstream. are sensitive to disturbance and overload. Successful protection of aquatic biodiversity and water supplies is the The management and use of water has the most obvious and foundation stone for sustainable development. direct effect on aquatic ecosystems. But their ecosystem status is equally dependent on the irreversible and wide- Rivers and wetlands are South Africa’s most important spread changes that take place on the land. Cultivation, hard ecosystems. Apart from the vital water they deliver they are surfacing and polluted return-flows from urban and irrigated also our most impacted and damaged ecosystems. Aquatic land, place pressures on river systems that are permanent biodiversity has its own specifically aquatic characteristics but and increasingly costly to manage. These impacts affect is strongly influenced by the terrestrial ecosystems within everyone at the personal level and economically at the each catchment. Freshwater plants, animals and micro- regional and national level. Disadvantaged communities are organisms act as useful indicators of the ecological health of most vulnerable to these impacts. aquatic ecosystems, which has the added benefit of reflecting aspects of the health of the entire catchment as RIVER ECOSYSTEMS well. Rivers are much more than channels where rainfall runoff races away to the sea. They provide important ecological Rivers and wetlands are controlled by three basic ‘drivers’ goods and services to the landscape and for human use. that define their health and ecological characteristics. It is Providing and purifying water are the most obvious of these M P U M A L A N G A Biodiversity 16 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 35. CHAPTER 6 - MPUMALANGA’S ECOSYSTEMS but there are many others such as providing fish, aquatic plants and animals and social goods and services. Headwaters, middle reaches and lowland stretches of rivers all perform different environmental functions and need to be managed differently. Mpumalanga has no coastline and no estuaries, but local river management is also required to provide water for downstream users in Swaziland and Mozambique. This responsibility is provided for by international agreements on shared water resources. Rivers are flow-driven linear systems, which means their biodiversity characteristics are difficult to represent and quantify spatially as we do for terrestrial ecosystems. (Terrestrial Giant Bullfrog biodiversity is inter-connected like the strands in a complex fabric of many threads in many directions. Aquatic biodiversity is more like string, the threads are all bound together and Pyxicephalus adspersus are more vulnerable to an impact that might sever one or more of them, especially those that control the ecosystem drivers.) One of the most Rivers are the sites of important ecological processes, mostly characterised by movement threatened of our along the river line (water and sediment downstream; aquatic and terrestrial biota in both directions). Selected rivers are used as the basis for many of the ecological corridors amphibians is the giant identified by MBCP to provide for long-term response to climate change as described bullfrog or giant pyxie. elsewhere (see Section 9.5). There are two special functions of rivers that add to their bio- diversity value. One is the ability of river headwaters to provide refugia for species in times These frogs can grow on of drought. The other is that segments of rivers may be identified as providing important the Highveld to around ECOSYSTEMS movement linkages in river systems increasingly interrupted by dams and other develop- ments, that need protection in order to maintain connectivity. 120mm in length and The flow-driven nature of rivers results in sediments and pollutants having both local and weigh a kilo, although extended downstream effects which may be cumulative. However, healthy rivers are self- cleansing systems. They are able to trap sediment and stabilise it with plant growth. They they are smaller in the also remove dissolved chemicals (nutrients and pollutants) and convert them into useful warmer Lowveld. Their biological resources. But the cleansing capacity of rivers is limited. They are easily overloaded by soil erosion and polluted runoff and seepage. Extremes of drought and flooding are numbers have declined increasing, due largely to development activities, which reduces the ability of rivers to greatly due to habitat perform their natural functions. Present trends in global climate change are likely to worsen these extremes. loss, pollution, possibly Both rivers and wetlands can be classified according to their functional and biodiversity increased ultra violet attributes. River ecosystems are classified using the ‘ecoregion’ concept, which is an expert- exposure and in some based classification that defines regions according to shared ecological characteristics and in terms of relationships between organisms and their environments (Kleynhans et al. 2005a; areas perhaps as a result see Figure 6.4). Ecoregions are based on the understanding that ecosystems and their biota display regional patterns that mirror causal factors such as climate, soils, geology, physical of exploitation for food. land surface and vegetation. The MBCP identifies healthy sub-catchments using a combination of Present Ecological State Category (PESC) (Kleynhans, 2000) and loss of natural habitat in each sub-catchment, as surrogate measures for healthy rivers, tributaries and wetlands. Heavily transformed sub- catchments are expected to have degraded wetlands and tributaries. After determining the M P U M A L A N G A health of each sub-catchment based on these measures, the proportion of each river type Biodiversity occurring within healthy sub-catchments was calculated as a percentage for each river type. Healthy sub-catchments are defined as sub-catchments with a PESC of A, or B sub- catchments that are more than 75% untransformed. CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK 17
  • 36. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK FIGURE 6.4: Rivers and wetlands in Mpumalanga. Rivers are classified into 30 types, based on Level 2 River Ecoregions. Wetlands are classified into four functional types, pans being temporary or perennial. (Note: not all wetlands are visible on the map because of map scale) In a similar approach to that outlined for terrestrial ecosystem status discussed above (Figure 6.2), the ecosystem status of river types was assessed as the proportion of each type occurring in healthy (natural, unmodified) sub-catchments. If a river type has more than 80% of its length running through healthy sub-catchments, it was classified as Least Threatened. If 80-60% of its length flowed through healthy sub-catchments, it was classified as Vulnerable, if less than 60% but more than its biodiver- sity target length occurred in healthy sub-catchments, it was classified as Endangered. And finally, if less than its target flowed M P U M A L A N G A through healthy sub-catchments, it was classified as Critically Endangered. Biodiversity The results are shown in Figure 6.5. Of Mpumalanga’s 30 river types, 83% are threatened. Thirty three percent are Critically Endangered, 40% are Endangered, and 10% are Vulnerable. A Critically Endangered river type is one for which there are a few remaining rivers occurring in healthy sub-catchments and that rehabilitation of catchments is required in order to meet biodiversity targets. This puts the biodiversity and ecosystems of these types of river systems at risk. 18 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 37. CHAPTER 6 - MPUMALANGA’S ECOSYSTEMS ECOSYSTEMS FIGURE 6.5: The status of river ecosystems in Mpumalanga 6.4 WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS Wetlands are areas that are wet temporarily, seasonally or permanently, including pans of open water. Most wetlands support a vigorous and diverse cover of water-loving plants, due to the high water-table. A distinguishing feature of all wetlands, even when they are dry, is that they occur on hydromorphic soils, i.e. soils that have developed under prolonged periods of water- logging. These living, porous soils provide for water storage and controlled flow of water above and below the surface. M P U M A L A N G A Wetland soil types are site-specific, relatively easy to identify, and highly adapted to local climatic conditions. They are also vulnerable to damage and once damaged or eroded are very difficult and expensive to restore or replace. Biodiversity Wetlands are specialised systems that perform ecological functions vital for human welfare and environmental sustainability. They are first and foremost important water management and storage areas - above and below ground. Their vigorous plant CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK 19
  • 38. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK cover slows runoff, filters and purifies water and reduces the impacts of droughts and floods by regulating stream flow. They provide special habitats for many species of plants and animals. Besides these benefits, wetland vegetation also provides economic resources such as grazing, food, medicinal plants and natural fibre for thatch and craft making. Wetlands are controlled by the same basic ‘drivers’ as rivers. These features define their health and sustainability. A key property of wetlands is that they present a convergence of aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity at important positions in the landscape. It is here, as well as in rivers, where the health of key components of natural ecosystems can best be observed Malachite Kingfisher and measured. Our wetlands are typically variable, with over 90 different wetland bio- Alcedo cristata diversity features recognised in the MBCP These are based on a functional and Ecoregion . level 2 classification as a surrogate for wetland biodiversity types. All wetlands may be allocated into three functional categories. Because of the ecological, social and SEEPAGE WETLANDS - are generally seasonal, small and widely scattered. Often referred to as seeps or sponges, they mostly occur on obvious slopes and in upland areas. They are economic importance of sometimes linear, across the slope and may be associated with bands of impermeable rock which provide an unexpected ‘perched water-table’. These are the least obvious wetlands as wetlands and their they are the most temporary and not located in obviously wet valley-bottom landscapes. threatened status in South VALLEY-BOTTOM WETLANDS – occur in bottom-lands and are generally wetter, and wet Africa, an extensive for longer periods, than seeps. In headwater areas they typically occur as seasonally water- logged, shallow grassy valleys (vleis). In the mid and lower reaches of rivers they are also inventory of wetlands, associated with streams and river banks, especially within the floodline. Valley-bottom their status and the wetlands include floodplains of the lower reaches of larger rivers, subjected to high-volume flood events. threats they face is underway. The inventory PANS – are shallow, usually seasonal bodies of open water; often circular and not directly connected to river systems by surface flow. Essentially they are internally draining systems is spearheaded by the that may contain either fresh or saline water, depending on local soil conditions. They may be temporary or perennial. Pans on different soils and at varying altitudes have substantially Department of different ecological characteristics. Agriculture and Land LAKES AND DAMS – there are no true lakes in Mpumalanga. Strictly speaking, lakes are Administration but natural impoundments within the continuous river line. Dams are artificial impoundments that are not considered as wetlands as we have no natural fauna and flora that are adapted includes a wide range of specifically to lake-type environments. The small ‘lakes’ in the Chrissiesmeer area are in fact stakeholders including: pans, occasionally interconnected by wet-season overflows. government departments, NGOs, conservation bodies and research institutes. M P U M A L A N G A Biodiversity 20 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 39. C H A P T E R 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B I O D I V E R S I T Y S PAT I A L A S S E S S M E N T WHAT IS A SPATIAL BIODIVERSITY PLAN? Biodiversity is not evenly distributed throughout the landscape. Some areas have higher levels of biodiversity than others. These ‘higher levels’ may include both a higher number of species or ecosystems, or a large number of threatened species. A spatial biodiversity plan takes this variability into account by collating and mapping information about: Biodiversity features (species, ecosystems, ecological processes); Existing protected areas; Current patterns of land use; Potential and conflicting patterns of land use. These mapped features can be linked for further analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to identify areas of high biodiversity and determine priority areas for action. Spatial planning can occur at a variety of scales. The NSBA (Driver, et al, 2005) was done at a broad scale and does not yield information suitable for land use decisions for a municipality or a specific river or catch- ment. The finer scale MBCP is suitable for use even at the farm level. This is because the underlying data on biodiversity features in the Province were recorded and mapped at a finer scale than the national data used in the NSBA. 21
  • 40. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK WHAT IS SYSTEMATIC BIODIVERSITY PLANNING? The process of identifying spatial biodiversity priorities in the MBCP is based on the Systematic Biodiversity Planning approach of Margules and Pressey (2000), also referred to as Systematic Conservation Planning. The underlying principle is to identify representative samples of biodiversity that are located where they can persist over the long term. The amount of biodiversity requiring protection must then be quantified by setting a target for each biodiversity feature. This numerical target tells us how much of the feature needs to be maintained or conserved, in order for it to persist and contribute to ecosystem functioning. Dung Beetle possibly Anachalcos convexus BOX 7.1: STEPS IN SYSTEMATIC BIODIVERSITY PLANNING (Margules Pressey 2000) Insects like dung beetles Systematic Biodiversity Planning has a set (systematic) sequence of procedures 1. Select and collate the biodiversity features and surrogates to be used in the have an important role to planning area. play as decomposers and 2. Formulate explicit conservation goals that can be expressed as quantifiable biodiversity targets. waste removal specialists. 3. Review the extent to which goals have been met in existing reserves. 4. Use systematic methods to locate and design feasible new reserves that are There are several families able to protect remainder of the biodiversity targets (that are not currently and thousands of species protected). 5. Prioritise and implement conservation actions on the ground. of dung beetle. By 6. Manage and monitor (adaptive management) within reserves to maintain biodiversity features. burying and eating dung, the beetles help nutrient Systematic biodiversity planning is at a more advanced stage for terrestrial than for aquatic cycling and improve soil ecosystems, usually resulting in such plans being done separately. The MBCP is the first provincial biodiversity plan to successfully integrate the two. Systematic biodiversity planning structure. Dung beetles makes use of sophisticated planning software to calculate the most efficient pattern of reportedly save the planning units required to meet biodiversity targets. The MBCP used a software package called Marxan (Possingham et al. 2000) briefly explained in the box below. United States cattle industry an estimated BOX 7.2: BIODIVERSITY PLANNING SOFTWARE USED IN MBCP-MARXAN AND CLUZ $380 million annually by CLUZ is a user-friendly ArcView GIS interface that allows users to design protected burying above-ground area networks based on Marxan algorithm. But its efficiency is in linking to the MARXAN livestock faeces. conservation planning software with ArcView, and for easy importing of data, analysis and exporting of output data. (BioScience, April 2006, Marxan is designed to produce very efficient solutions to the problem of selecting planning Vol. 56 No. 4, p. 312) units that meet a suite of biodiversity targets. Although several other conservation planning packages are available (such as C-plan), Marxan is unique in that it is able to address three important functions. These are: Incorporating boundary cost Incorporating planning unit cost Setting clump targets Marxan then aims to minimise the cost of the above three functions by adding a cost value to them, and then trying to minimise planning unit portfolio costs. 22
  • 41. CHAPTER 7 - BIODIVERSITY SPATIAL ASSESSMENT INCORPORATING BOUNDARY COST Just selecting planning units on their biodiversity features alone may result in a very fragmented and dispersed portfolio of planning units. Marxan is ‘spatially intelligent’ in being able cluster units, usually in a connected portfolio (i.e. lower boundary cost). INCORPORATING PLANNING UNIT COST Marxan can also assign a cost to the actual planning unit and use this value to influence selection. Many factors can be used as a cost, including financial value, habitat transformation, and ecosystem health. Marxan selects planning units which minimise these costs while still meeting the required biodiversity targets. This can be used, for example, to minimise land-use conflicts by avoiding areas with high development potential. In developing MBCP, ecosystem health for each sub-catchment was used as a cost surface in the aquatic biodiversity assessment. A summary of the aquatic assessment was then used as a cost surface for the terrestrial assessment. The terrestrial cost surface includes areas likely to be subject to future land-use pressures, thereby allowing them to be avoided to minimise land-use conflict. SETTING CLUMP TARGETS MARXAN can also set select clumps of biodiversity features so that they meet clump targets. So, for example, it is possible to select at least three large grassland patches of 10 000 ha. One is able to set a minimum clump size, a required minimum distance between clumps and the number of clumps required. CALCULATING ‘IRREPLACEABILITY’ USING MARXAN Based on the number of runs, the frequency of selection of planning units can be used to derive an irreplaceability value. If 100 runs are chosen, irreplaceability will range from 0 (never selected) to 100 (always selected – i.e. irreplaceable). This is however different from the irreplaceability measure calculated in C-Plan, which is a statistical measure. SPATIAL ASSESSMENT The MBCP used relatively small planning units, dividing the Province into a honeycomb of 65 000 hexagons of 118 hectares each. The biodiversity features were then overlaid and the amount of each feature occurring in a planning unit was calculated. The software then identified the required portfolio of planning units that best meets all biodiversity targets in the smallest possible area. Thus each planning unit is assessed in terms of whether it is needed to meet targets and what the likelihood is of other planning units being selected to protect the same biodiversity feature (a measure of irreplaceability). Sites with truly unique biodiversity are crucial in meeting targets. No alternative units will be offered because there are none, i.e. they are irreplaceable. Other sites may offer various alternative planning units to meet a target and thus have a lower irreplaceability value. INTEGRATING TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC ASSESSMENTS IN A SINGLE BIODIVERSITY PLAN The MBCP started from the premise of trying to be as inclusive and integrated as possible. This led to the decision to integrate the aquatic and terrestrial analyses into a single biodiversity plan. The general approach that underlies this process may be summarised as: Recognising the priority to conserve aquatic biodiversity within healthy sub-catchments; Assessing the biodiversity importance of high value aquatic areas and influencing the selection of terrestrial priorities towards these areas; Assessing future land-use pressures and influencing the terrestrial assessment to avoid these areas; Using spatially intelligent software (Marxan) to combine freshwater and terrestrial assessments in a single biodiversity plan; Producing a practical, meaningful output, useful at both provincial and municipal scales; Providing land-use guidelines for biodiversity conservation at the strategic or planning level. 23
  • 42. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK Thus the process started with the aquatic analysis, which was AQUATIC ANALYSIS then integrated into the terrestrial analysis to produce the The MBCP aquatic assessment is a first-of-its-kind in South final product, using the following steps; Africa. It incorporates several novel aquatic biodiversity Aquatic assessment preparation: collate spatial data on features: use of sub-catchments as planning units; biasing the biodiversity features, aquatic processes and high selection of required units to healthy sub-catchments; and water production areas; using Marxan to assess the required sub-catchments to meet Identify healthy sub-catchments; targets. Set targets for aquatic biodiversity features (Table 7.1); Do aquatic assessment using Marxan and identify PLANNING UNITS priority sites within the healthy sub-catchments Rivers are linear features driven largely by flow dynamics. needed to protect aquatic features; They are not well suited to analysis by two-dimensional GIS Convert the identified priority sub-catchments into a based procedures. Wetlands are ecologically and functionally GIS layer (cost surface) which will bias the selection linked to rivers and the two need to be treated as inter- of terrestrial planning units towards these important dependent. This indicates the suitability of small areas; sub-catchments as planning units. These were modelled from Terrestrial assessment preparation: collate spatial data the 90m SRTM DEM (digital elevation model). on biodiversity, ecological processes and protected areas; BIODIVERSITY FEATURES Set targets for terrestrial biodiversity features (Table 7.2); Rivers can be recognised for their unique biodiversity and Develop a GIS-layer for biodiversity/land-use conflict their functional types. They were thus classified according to (and convert to cost surface); both these characteristics using Ecoregion Level 2 criteria (as Combine output of the aquatic assessment with the surrogate categories for biodiversity) and River Signature land-use conflict layer; classifications respectively (Driver et al. 2005). Wetlands Do terrestrial assessment to meet targets for all include pans and were split into four functional types: terrestrial features, while combining cost layers perennial and non-perennial pans; seepage wetlands; and (favouring aquatic priorities and avoiding areas of valley bottom wetlands. Other features include peat land-use conflict); wetlands and four threatened fish species. Important aquatic Sort output into meaningful biodiversity categories; processes that were mapped include important pan Create land-use guidelines applicable to these and wetland clusters and high water-production areas categories. for continuity of flow. Table 7.1 summarises the aquatic biodiversity features used. Various analyses and trials were conducted to integrate the aquatic and terrestrial assessments to produce the overall biodiversity plan. Through this process, various products were generated, including: Assessment of the health and integrity of sub-catchments (Figure 7.1); Assessment of aquatic biodiversity (Figure 7.2); Assessment of future land-use pressures on biodiversity (Figure 7.3); Assessment of terrestrial biodiversity (Figure 7.4); Guidelines for land-use planning for biodiversity assessment (Chapter 9). M P U M A L A N G A Biodiversity 24 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 43. CHAPTER 7 - BIODIVERSITY SPATIAL ASSESSMENT TABLE 7.1: Biodiversity features and processes used in the aquatic biodiversity assessment FEATURE DESCRIPTION IMPORTANCE EXTENT/SIZE Rivers – biodiversity types Ecoregion Level 2 types: surrogate for aquatic biodiversity 30 types; 28 666 km of rivers Rivers – functional types River signatures: surrogate for functional types of rivers 24 types; 120 675 km of rivers Seepage and valley bottom Wetlands classified into functional types, 113 628 wetlands; totalling wetlands then according to Ecoregion Level 2 (for biodiversity) 312 771 ha; 51 types Pan wetlands Classified into perennial non-perennial pans, 23 922 ha of pans; 39 pan types and Ecoregion Level 2 biodiversity template Peat wetlands Known peat wetlands 77 point records Fish species Known distribution of 4 threatened fish species 908 km of river length Important pan clusters All pans buffered with 1 km, transformed and heavily 132 611 ha of important clusters fragmented areas removed ( 500 ha) Important wetland clusters Wetlands buffered with 1 km, transformed and 266 820 ha of important clusters heavily fragmented areas removed (1000 ha) High water-production areas Catchments producing 50% of Mpumalanga’s runoff High water-production areas equate mapped as high water-production areas to 19% of MBCP planning domain SPATIAL ASSESSMENT Aquatic refugia Refuge areas for maintaining fish populations during Selected sub-catchments (EISC) times of drought Migration areas Areas important for maintaining fish migration Selected sub-catchments (EISC) HEALTHY SUB-CATCHMENTS No direct measure of sub-catchment condition was available so we used a combination of PESC and the extent of terrestrial transformation, as measures of sub-catchment integrity. Present Ecological State Category (PESC) is the degree to which present ecological conditions of a catchment have been modified from natural (reference) conditions. The measure is based on an assessment of water quality, biotic indicators and habitat information. Results are classified on a 6-point scale, from Category A (largely natural) to Category F (critically modified). A limitation of this data set is that PESC was based only on the main rivers within a quaternary catchment, not the tributaries. Each sub-catchment was assigned the PES category of the parent quaternary catchment. At the sub-catchment level, the extent of habitat transformation is a good proxy for riparian integrity. Thus the extent of trans- formation was used as one of the surrogates for sub-catchment integrity because in heavily transformed sub-catchments, one can expect to have degraded wetlands and tributaries. So the MBCP used a combination of PESC and habitat transformation for each sub-catchment to identify healthy sub-catchments. This output was used in Marxan to bias the selection of planning units to meet targets in these healthy sub-catchments first. 25
  • 44. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK FIGURE 7.1: Sub-catchment health or integrity. The health was determined using a combination of PESC and sub-catchment transformation values. The sub-catchment health is summarised into 3 broad categories. These are then further displayed using the degree of transformation as shading. The darker the colour, the more transformed the sub-catchment was. RESULTS OF THE ASSESSMENT The smallest and most efficient portfolio of planning units that meets the targets for all aquatic features was determined using Marxan. The selection of these units was biased towards meeting targets in healthy sub-catchments. The results show that 28% of Mpumalanga is identified as important for meeting aquatic biodiversity targets (in addition to protected areas). However not M P U M A L A N G A all of this area is in a healthy state. Of the additional required catchments, only 57% are healthy; 30%, moderate and 13% modified. This implies that rehabilitation is needed in order to adequately conserve freshwater biodiversity with healthy sub-catchments. Biodiversity 26 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 45. CHAPTER 7 - BIODIVERSITY SPATIAL ASSESSMENT SPATIAL ASSESSMENT FIGURE 7.2: Sub-catchments required for meeting aquatic biodiversity targets. Figure 7.2 identifies the most efficient portfolio of planning units able to meet all the aquatic biodiversity targets. These planning units represent the most healthy sub-catchments possible to meet aquatic targets. For sustainable water production as well as biodiversity conservation, it is critical that measures are taken to prevent degradation and where possible protect and restore these important catchments. By comparison, the Aquatic Biodiversity Assessment image, (as displayed on the MBCP Map [Lötter Ferrar, 2006]) identifies the ‘irreplaceability value’ of each sub-catchment. This refers to the likelihood of any sub-catchment being required to meet M P U M A L A N G A aquatic biodiversity targets and indicates the options for meeting these targets. The most valuable catchments will always be required and this map serves to help prioritise conservation actions. Biodiversity CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK 27
  • 46. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK TERRESTRIAL ANALYSIS The terrestrial approach incorporates: Use of fine-scale planning units able to be used at provincial and local municipal scales; Selection of a wide range of species and ecosystem features to define biodiversity; Use of cost surfaces to create bias for meeting terrestrial biodiversity targets within important aquatic planning units (sub-catchments); and Avoiding areas of conflict or threats from other priority land uses. This combination of fine scale, large data sets, use of intelligent clumping of planning units Wild Dog and the integration of aquatic and terrestrial assessments, is also novel. Lycaon pictus PLANNING UNITS The accuracy and fine-scale mapping of biodiversity data has enabled the use of planning Also known as the Cape units that are small enough to be useful at the provincial and local municipal levels. A total of 65 000 hexagons were used as planning units, each 118 ha in size. Hexagons were chosen as hunting dog, this animal they are well suited to Marxan’s ability to cluster planning units and to produce ecologically is both the most sensible patterns of related units. successful PROTECTED AREAS The protected area network layer was updated and mapped to show current levels of protection hunting carnivore and the for terrestrial biodiversity features. These protected areas are discussed in more detail in most endangered Chapter 8 where both formal and informal protected areas are assessed. Only the formal protected areas, those managed and/or formally proclaimed as nature reserves, are carnivore in Africa. Only included in the terrestrial analysis. Conservancies and Natural Heritage Sites are legally and administratively weak at present and were not considered as providing effective long-term about 5 600 are estimated protection due to their uncertain future. See Appendix 3 for an extended list of all protected areas in the Province. to survive in the wild. Most of these live in BIODIVERSITY FEATURES Terrestrial biodiversity data, or surrogates for biodiversity features, were captured in GIS and Selous Game Reserve in allocated to planning units. Data sources included the MTPA’s threatened species databases, expert biologists, NGOs (e.g. Highland Crane Working Group), and museum databases. Tanzania, northern Species were selected based on their conservation importance. This generally included all Botswana and eastern Red Data Listed or threatened taxa for which sufficiently precise locality data were available. Priority was given to local endemics and the MTPA responsibility for protecting these Namibia. A few are still endemics is reflected in the biodiversity targets for these species. A complete list of species and their individual biodiversity targets is provided in the MBCP Technical Report. Table 7.2 found in Zambia, Kenya, lists the broad types and numbers of terrestrial biodiversity features used. All 340 terrestrial Mozambique, Zimbabwe biodiversity features are also listed on the main MBCP Map. and the Kruger Park. BIODIVERSITY TARGETS As previously mentioned, systematic biodiversity planning requires the setting of a target (e.g. a population size or area of habitat) for each biodiversity feature (e.g. species, ecosystem, community or process). The target indicates how much of the feature is needed for it to be conserved in the long term. The MBCP used the NSBA targets for vegetation types, except for forests. The NSBA targets M P U M A L A N G A are based on the species diversity within each vegetation type: higher species diversity corresponds to a higher target. For the vegetation types that occur in Mpumalanga, targets Biodiversity range from 19% to 28% of the original area of each vegetation type. Targets for forests are taken from the DWAF national systematic conservation plan for forests. These targets range from 59.5% to 71.7%. Species targets vary widely, up to 100% for Critically Endangered species localities. The terrestrial biodiversity features used in the analysis are summarised in Table 7.2. 28 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 47. CHAPTER 7 - BIODIVERSITY SPATIAL ASSESSMENT TABLE 7.2: Types of biodiversity features used in the terrestrial assessment BIODIVERSITY FEATURES DESCRIPTION EXTENT/SIZE Vegetation Types 68 Vegetation types: National Vegetation Types 68 Types: 9 forest; 28 grassland; and 31 other than forests (biodiversity surrogates) savanna Amphibians Modelled distributions of important species 3 species Birds 16 threatened species (known, modelled and/or Feeding and known sites - 19 spp nesting sites – 24 features in total) Nesting sites - 7 species Invertebrates Buffered known localities and point localities 17 species Mammals Modelled distributions, actual distributions and 13 species buffered sites Plants Known point localities 187 species Reptiles Modelled distributions 10 species Special features Selected pans and wetlands with unique Point records identify wetlands and pans with biodiversity; all natural caves unique features. Caves have 250m buffer Processes Key landscape features maintain ecological and Escarpment/summit corridors; evolutionary processes centred on biological Centres of endemism; Montane and highveld movement and connectivity grassland patches; Forest patches SPATIAL ASSESSMENT LAND-USE PRESSURES (CURRENT FUTURE) In trying to avoid areas where biodiversity is threatened, or where there is an anticipated conflict with existing land use, it is important to assess the socio-economic context and likely future pressures on biodiversity. Three factors that put pressure on natural habitats are included in this assessment: land of high agricultural potential (high capability land); high mining potential; and high urban growth potential. A fourth factor was included, representing areas with a high likelihood of being degraded by alien plant invasions (Fig 7.3). These factors were combined into one GIS layer representing areas of likely conflicts with biodiversity and therefore high risk areas for meeting biodiversity targets. Site selection is made to avoid these areas if options exist for meeting targets elsewhere. M P U M A L A N G A Biodiversity CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK 29
  • 48. MPUMALANGA BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK FIGURE 7.3: Maps showing future pressures on terrestrial biodiversity. RESULTS Marxan calculates the smallest area required to meet all targets while minimizing land-use conflict and protecting important aquatic areas. It is able to calculate the ‘irreplaceability’ value of a parcel of land. This irreplaceability value is defined as the likelihood of a particular parcel being needed to meet biodiversity targets. The irreplaceability value and the minimum area required were then sorted into meaningful biodiversity assessment categories. These categories are: Protected areas: already managed for biodiversity protection; Irreplaceable: 100% Irreplaceable - no other options available to meet targets; Highly Significant: 50 - 99% Irreplaceable - very limited options available to meet targets; M P U M A L A N G A Important Necessary: lower irreplaceability value, less than 50% but still required to meet targets; Least Concern: areas of natural habitat that could be used to meet some targets but not needed now, as long as other Biodiversity areas are not lost; No natural habitat remaining: virtually all natural habitat has been irreversibly lost as a result of cultivation, timber plantations, mining, urban development. 30 CONSERVATION PLAN HANDBOOK
  • 49. CHAPTER 7 - BIODIVERSITY SPATIAL ASSESSMENT Brief descriptions of these biodiversity assessment categories are included on the MBCP Map. Further details, in terms of how to respond to the designation of these categories in a particular area of interest, are located at the beginning of Chapter 9, Planning and Development Guidelines. Figures 7.4 and 7.5 show MBCP Biodiversity Status Categories. The proportion of the proposed biodiversity assessment categories are provided in Figure 7.4. The Protected areas contribute as much as 14.8% of the Province but the majority of this is because of Kruger NP, contributing 10.4% to this amount. The Irreplaceable, Highly Significant and Important Striped Mouse Necessary categories together make up 24% of the Province which additionally needs protection in order to meet the biodiversity targets. Protection means managed for the Rhabdomys pumilio conservation of biodiversity and excludes habitat transformation. The Least Concern and No Natural Habitat Remaining categories together make up 61% of the Province which is Aside from humans, the available and currently not required to meet any targets. striped mouse may be the The distribution of these ‘high biodiversity’ categories is not evenly distributed throughout the Province. The grasslands are less protected and also contain a larger number of threat- most common ened taxa. They thus also come up with more high biodiversity categories than the well mammal in protected savanna areas. The distribution of the biodiversity assessment categories was determined for each of the large District Municipalities for the Province. See Figure 7.5. southern Africa. They live Figure 7.6 presents the main MBCP map wherein the aquatic biodiversity assessment has in a wide range of been integrated. This is the fine-scale spatial map for which land-use guidelines and other habitats from the dry interventions need to be drafted to ensure the conservation of these biodiversity assessment categories. Kalahari to the grasslands of SPATIAL ASSESSMENT Protected area Mpumalanga where they Irreplaceable feed on grass seeds, Highly Significant Important Necessary herbs and berries and Least Concern paly a role in seed No Natural Habitat Remaining dispersal. FIGURE 7.4: Percentage of Mpumalanga covered by different biodiversity assessment categories. Protected area Irreplaceable Highly Significant Important Necessary Least Concern No Natural Habitat Bohlabela Ehlanzeni Gert Metsweding Nkangala Sekhukhune Remaining District District Sibande District District Cross District Boundary District FIGURE 7.5: Biodiversity assessment categories as a proportion of each district municipality. Note: Southern Kruger NP falls within the Bohlabela municipal district. This is obviously unusual as protected area land makes up 83% of this district. The Ehlanzeni District has the highest proportion of irreplaceable sites at 6.2%. 31
  • 50. ALL YOUR DAILY ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS produce smoot hie PRODUCT PROFILE NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION FREE FROM: PRESERVATIVES, ADDED SUGAR, COLOURANTS, ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS
  • 51. ALL YOUR DAILY ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS produce smoot hie PRODUCT PROFILE NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION FREE FROM: PRESERVATIVES, ADDED SUGAR, COLOURANTS, ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS
  • 52. FREE FROM: PRESERVATIVES,COLOURANTS, ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS, ADDED SUGAR
  • 53. OUR SMOOTHIE–––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 6 6 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION –––––––––––––––––––––––– 6 6 EIGHT PILLARS OF HEALTH ––––––––––––––––– 8 8 THE BENEFITS ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 11 ESSENTIAL PHYTONUTRIENTS –––––––––– 11 VITAMINS ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––1616 MINERALS ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1818 PHYTOCHEMICALS ––––––––––––––––––––– 00 COMMON NUTRITIONAL QUESTIONS ––––––– HEALTH PROBLEMS FACING US –––––––––––––– 8 8 QUESTIONS ANSWERS: CANCER ––––– 99 QUESTIONS ANSWERS: VIRUSES ––––– 00 QUESTIONS ANSWERS: BACTERIA –––– 11 ENERGY SMOOTHIES –––––––––––––––––––– FIBRE IN FOOD ––––––––––––––––––––––– CITRUS ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 66 BANANA–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 00 GRAPES–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– COCONUT––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– KELP –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––88 CINNAMON ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 5050 APPLE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 55 GINGER ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 5 FLAX SEED ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 56 NUTRIENTS IN OUR ENERGY SMOOTHIE –––– 58 5
  • 54. 1 EIGHT PILLARS WATER 2 SLEEP, REST AND FREEDOM FROM STRESS 3 WHOLE FOODS 4 EXERCISE 5 DETOXIFICATION 6 NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS 7 ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY –– pH 8 OF HEALTH ANTIOXIDANTS Your health is based on healthy systems able to efficiently perform the functions in the body that they were designed to perform. Although the systems can be studied independently of each other, they are all closely related. No single system can function for long in isolation from the others. Working together, the systems of the body perform a synergetic, holistic func- tion far greater than the sum of the individual components. 8
  • 55. 1. WATER Plentiful clean water, free of chemicals which might impair the im- mune system, is vital. All the body’s chemical and transport processes take place in solution, for which water is essential. Water provides the transport and disposal medium for oxygen, nutrients and waste products. Water is essential for temperature regulation, lubrication and maintenance of tissue structure. How much water you need to drink each day is hotly disputed and varies according to your age, weight, activity profile and environmental temperature. You should however drink throughout the day whenever you are thirsty. A reasonable guideline might be 1.5 litres. Our 10+ smoothie has a high fibre content and so it is very important to drink plenty of water to ensure that intestinal motility is improved or maintained. . SLEEP, REST AND FREEDOM FROM STRESS These are essential to the mind and the body. To give the body time for repair and to allow the mind to unconsciously work through its stresses and strains and prepare for a new day. Our smoothies are high in anti-oxidant Vitamin C and potent anti-oxidant bioflavonoids such as quercetin, rutin and hesperidin that fight stress and protect the cells against the damaging effects of stress-induced free radicals. The bioflavonoids, minerals and vitamins ensure there are sufficient essential nutrients to allow cell repair to take place whilst the body is asleep or resting. . WHOLE FOODS Eat and drink only the freshest foods including the skins and the peel if you can. Skins and peel are rich in valuable nutrients. If you need to cook food, cook it for the shortest time and in the least water possi- ble. Steaming is best but if you must use water then try to ensure that you use it in a wholesome stock, sauce or gravy or mashed into the vegetables to ensure you obtain the maximum quantity of nutrients. Try to avoid the additives present in most processed foods such as salt, colourants and preservatives. Buy organic vegetables if you can. Our smoothies are completely free of artificial additives, preservatives or colourants. 9
  • 56. Insoluble fibre - includes cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, which make up the structural parts of plant cell walls. Insoluble fibre adds bulk to faeces and helps prevent constipation and associated prob- lems such as haemorrhoids. Good sources include wheat bran, rice bran, the skins of fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, dried beans and wholegrain foods. Both types of fibre are beneficial to the body and most plant foods contain a mixture of both types. Because our smoothies are made from only whole fruits, you are guaranteed your daily fibre requirement of soluble and insoluble fibre and resistant starch, but the smoothie should be accompanied by plenty of water throughout the day. Resistant starch Resistant starch, while not traditionally thought of as fibre, acts in a similar way. Resistant starch is the part of starchy food (approxi- mately 10 per cent) that resists normal digestion. It is found in many unprocessed cereals and grains, firm bananas, potatoes and lentils. Resistant starch is important to bowel health. Bacteria in the large bowel ferment and change the resistant starch into short-chain fatty acids, which may protect against cancer. These fatty acids are also absorbed into the bloodstream and may play a role in lowering blood cholesterol levels. Resistant starch also helps weight loss programmes. Fibre and ageing Fibre is even more important as we age. Our body processes slow down and we are more susceptible to digestive disorders. The fibre in smoothies can help prevent this. Lowering blood cholesterol Recently, some studies have shown that regular intake of foods high in soluble fibre –– such as whole fruits, oat bran, beans and chickpeas –– reduces blood cholesterol levels. When blood cholesterol levels are high, fatty plaques are deposited along the inside walls of arteries,
  • 57. Protection against rheumatoid arthritis CITRUS Data collected by the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer Incidence (EPIC)-Norfolk study, a population-based, prospective study of over 5,000 subjects, showed that study participants with the highest daily intake of the bioflavonoids comprising carotenoids, zeaxanthin and A-cryptoxanthin, had a much lower risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis compared to individuals consuming the least of these beneficial phytonutrients. Those with the highest intake of zeaxanthin, found in whole bananas, were 5% less Orange’s red likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis, while those carotenoid may with the highest intake of cryptoxanthin, found in significantly oranges, had a 9% reduction in risk. lower the risk of developing Guarnieri S., Riso P., Porrini M. 007. “Orange juice vs vitamin C: effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in mononuclear lung cancer. blood cells.” Br J Nutr. 97():69-. PMID:179075. Cho E., Seddon J. M., Rosner B., Willett W. C., Hankinson S.E. 00. “Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy”. Arch Ophthalmol. 1(6):88-9. PMID:1519706. Ensminger A. H., Ensminger, M. E., Kondale J. E., Robson J. R. K.198. “ Foods Nutriton Encyclopedia”. Pegasus Press, Clovis, California. Ensminger A. H., Esminger M. K. J. et al. 1986. “Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia”. Pegasus Press, Clovis, California. PMID:1510. Lemons are packed Fortin F., Editor. 1996. “ The Visual Foods Encyclopedia”. Macmillan, New York. full of a range of phytonutrients from Galati E.M., Monforte M.T., Kirjavainen S., et al. 199. “Biological Vitamin C to the effects of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid. (Note I): anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity”. Farmaco. 0(11):709-1. PMID:1070. bioflavonoids. World Health Organisation. 00. “Diet,nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease” 9
  • 58. BANANA www.smoothie.com Whole bananas (including their peel) are rich in vitamin B6, potassium and fibre, including resistant starch; lutein which provides protection against macular degeneration; tryptophan, used by the body to produce serotonin, an important hormonal neurotransmitter that relays messages between different parts of the brain; and melatonin, a hormone that regulates the body’s natural rythms such as the sleep cycle. Banana also contains dopamine, levels of which in the brain, control mood and attention focus. Serotonin, melatonin and dopamine are also anti-oxidants. These hormones are critical to the maintenance of a balanced and healthy psyche and are abundant in bananas to the extent that bananas can relieve depression. Vitamin B6 is an essential vitamin involved in a host of bodily processes. Some of its functions are: Production of healthy red blood cells; Critical for manufacture of serotonin in the body; Critical for a healthy immune system; Essential for protein and fat metabolism; May alleviate symptoms of PMS / PMT; Required for normal nervous system function; Helps prevent osteoporosis; Essential for proper cell division and multiplication; Involved in the production of over 60 enzymes; Reduces stress-related disorders; Can help prevent cancer. Many diets are deficient in potassium and too high in sodium. High sodium intake is closely linked to high blood pressure. Banana’s high 0
  • 59. potassium and low sodium content helps regulate and normalise blood pressure, heartbeat and reduce the likelihood of stroke. The fibre in banana is a great contributor to the daily fibre require- ment for health, protecting against a range of disorders and disease including colo-rectal cancer and high cholesterol. Eating bananas has been linked to a 50 % reduction in kidney cancer risk. This seems to be due to its high phenolic phytochemical load. Bananas encourage and support the growth of essential bacteria in the gut and inhibit the growth of undesirable bacteria. Bananas are very high in the so-called, “resistant starch” a fibre intimately linked to efficient gut function and calcium absorption. Bananas also offer protection against stomach ulcers by thickening the mucus lining of the stomach increasing its protective action. They also eliminate the bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, that cause gastric ulcers. Altschul, A. 1981. “Sodium sensitivity, processed foods and hypertension.” Lillian Fountain Smith 1981 Conference for Nutrition Educators Proceedings. pp. 15-11. BBC News. 00 August 1. “Bananas could prevent strokes” Bender D. A. 199. “Novel functions of vitamin B6.” Proc Nutr Soc 199; 5:65-0. Chandra R. and Sudhakaran L. 1990. “Regulation of immune responses by Vitamin B6”. NY Acad Sci : 585:0-. [PubMed abstract] Clark N. 1990. “Sports nutrition guidebook: eating to fuel your active lifestyle”. Leisure Press, Illinois. Consumer Research. 001 “Banana facts” Darling M. 198. “Potassium: its functions and sources”. Agricultural Extension Service, University of Minnesota, Extension Folder 65. International Banana Association. 2002. “Study finds that bananas help boost bone mass” Meteljan G. 008. “World’s Healthiest Foods”. George Mateljan Foundation. www.whfoods.org The Observer, June 0, 00. “Pick of the bunch: top banana facts”. Dr. Damayanthi Piyadasa Perer D. P. 00. “Banana, serotonin and depression” , Daily News. www.dailynews.lk/00/01/6/fea06.html 1
  • 60. GRAPES www.smoothie.com Almost everyone has heard of the “French paradox”. The paradox is that people living on a Mediterranean diet and consuming lots of red wine, often heavy smokers or inhalers of second hand smoke in bars and restaurants and heavy consumers of high fat foods and sauces, have a lower incidence of cardio-vascular disease and cancers than their contemporaries in the USA and other parts of Europe. There has been considerable research over many years to investigate this phenomenon. It’s not easy to pinpoint a single element that confers protective properties on the body and its systems. The effect is probably a combination of eating plenty of phytonutrient-rich foods (bright orange, red and dark green vegetables, onions, garlic)––often eaten raw with olive oil . . . and red wine. Whilst all of these offer protection, largely derived from the wide range of bioflavonoids (plant pigments) they contain, red wine has come out on top as one of the richest sources of the most protective phytochemicals. Some wines are richer than others–– Zinfandel, Shiraz (Syrah), Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon are top of the list. A key flavonoid is resveratrol, found mainly in the skins and seeds of red grapes, which provides protection against prostate, lung, liver, colo-rectal and breast cancer. Resveratrol is produced by the grapes in response to stress such as drought and UV radiation. Organically grown grapes contain more since they are subjected to more stress from fungal attack. Resveratrol also protects against a major environmental contaminant, benzopyrene which is a known carcinogen. Not only has resveratrol been shown to halve DNA damage by the toxin but it also induces apoptosis––natural sequence of programmed cell death––in cells whose DNA has been damaged. In wine aged in oak barrels, a potent anti-cancer agent, acutimissin-A, is produced when a grape flavonoid called catechin reacts with a phenol in the oak barrel. Acutimissin-A blocks the action of an enzyme essential to the development of
  • 61. cancerous cells. Preliminary tests have shown that acutimissin-A is 50 times more potent than the clinical anti-cancer drug VP-16. Red wine is also rich in potassium, quercetin and other powerful anti- oxidants, protective flavonoids and tannins such as proanthocyanadin. Red wine also protects against Alzheimer’s; its high potassium content helps lower blood pressure and it extends life. Not everyone drinks alcohol and so it is good to know that many of the same benefits can be derived by drinking red grape juice or from the skins and seeds which we add to all our smoothies. Anderson J. C. 006. “Drinking red wine cuts risk of colo-rectal cancer.” Research presented at the 71st Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology in Las Vegas, Nevada. Corder R., Mullen W., Khan N. Q., Marks, S. C., Wood, E. G., Carrier, M. J., Crozier, A. 006. “Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.” Nature. (7119):566. PMID:1716085. Dai Q., Borenstein A. R., Wu Y., Jackson J. C., Larson E. B. 006. “Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer’s disease: the Kame Project”. Am J Med. 119(9):751-9. PMID:1695610. Donnelly L,. et al. 00 .“Inhibition by red wine extract, resveratrol, of cytokine release by alveolar macrophages in COPD”. Thorax; 58: 9-6l. Donnelly L. E., Newton R., Kennedy G. E,., Fenwick P. S., Leung,R. H., Ito K., Russell R. E., Barnes, P. J. 2004. “Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol in lung epithelial cells: molecular mechanisms”. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 87():L77-8. . PMID:1518090. Meteljan G. 008. “World’s Healthiest Foods”. George Mateljan Foundation. www.whfoods.org Waterhouse A. 2003. “Saponins, a new cholesterol fighter, found in red wine”. Study presented at the 6th national meeting of the American Chemical Society, September 7-11, 00, NYC. Wood R. 1988. “The Whole Foods Encyclopedia”. Prentice-Hall Press; New York. PMID:150. Zern T. L., Wood R. J., Greene C., West K. L., Liu Y., Aggarwal D., Shachter N. S., Fernandez M. L. 005. “ Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress”. J Nutr. 15(8):1911 PMID:1606716.
  • 62. COCONUT www.smoothie.com Coconut has only recently exploded onto the health and nutrition scene, but what an explosion! It is thought that the lauric acid in coconut is the compound that carries the life-giving secret of coconut. This is most concentrated in the oil, but fresh whole coconut, coconut milk and coconut cream all contain lauric acid. Mary Enig writes in her book “Know Your Fats” that lauric acid has been shown to inactivate and kill pathogens such as measles, herpes, influenza and pneumonia. Lauric acid is found in human milk and it is this acid that gives babies protection from many infections. The lauric acid is converted by the body to monolaurin which seems to kill viruses by destroying their protein envelope. Coconut oil has been called the healthiest oil on earth and has been used for thousands of years by the Pacific islanders who are much less prone to the killer diseases to which our lifestyle and diet exposes us. The Coconut Research Centre lists the following as some of the many benefits of coconut oil: Kills viruses that cause influenza, herpes, measles, hepatitis C, SARS, and other illnesses. Kills bacteria that cause ulcers, throat infections, urinary tract infections, gum disease and cavities, pneumonia, and gonorrhoea, and other diseases. Kills fungi and yeasts that cause candidiasis, ringworm, athlete’s foot, thrush, diaper rash, and other infections. Expels or kills tapeworms, lice, giardia, and other parasites. Provides a nutritional source of quick energy. Boosts energy and endurance, enhancing physical and athletic performance. Improves digestion and absorption of other nutrients including vitamins, minerals, and amino acids.
  • 63. Improves insulin secretion and utilisation of blood glucose. Relieves stress on pancreas and enzyme systems of the body. Reduces symptoms associated with pancreatitis. Helps relieve symptoms and reduce health risks associated with diabetes. Reduces problems associated with malabsorption syndrome and cystic fibrosis. Improves calcium and magnesium absorption and supports the development of strong bones and teeth. Helps protect against osteoporosis. Helps relieve symptoms associated with gall bladder disease. Relieves symptoms associated with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and stomach ulcers. Improves digestion and bowel function. Relieves pain and irritation caused by haemorrhoids. Reduces inflammation. Supports tissue healing and repair. Supports and aids immune system function. Helps protect the body from breast, colon, and other cancers. Is heart healthy; improves cholesterol ratio reducing risk of heart disease. Protects arteries from injury that causes atherosclerosis and thus protects against heart disease. Helps prevent periodontal disease and tooth decay. Functions as a protective antioxidant. Helps to protect the body from harmful free radicals that promote premature ageing and degenerative disease. Does not deplete the body’s antioxidant reserves like other oils do. Improves utilization of essential fatty acids and protects them from oxidation. Helps relieve symptoms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome. Relieves symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (prostate enlargement). 5
  • 64. Reduces epileptic seizures. Helps protect against kidney disease and bladder infections. Dissolves kidney stones. Helps prevent liver disease. Is lower in calories than all other fats. Supports thyroid function. Promotes loss of excess weight by increasing metabolic rate. Is utilized by the body to produce energy in preference to being stored as body fat like other dietary fats. Helps prevent obesity and overweight problems. Applied topically it helps to form a chemical barrier on the skin to ward of infection. Reduces symptoms associated the psoriasis, eczema, and dermatitis. Supports the natural chemical balance of the skin. Softens skin and helps relieve dryness and flaking. Prevents wrinkles, sagging skin, and age spots. Promotes healthy looking hair and complexion. Provides protection from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Helps control dandruff. Does not form harmful by-products when heated to normal cooking temperature like other vegetable oils do. Has no harmful or side effects. Is completely non-toxic to humans. 6
  • 65. COCONUT Coconut oil has been called the healthiest oil on earth. Enig M. G. 000. “Know your fats: the complete primer for understanding the nutrition of fats, oils and cholesterol”. (Bethesda Press 01-680-8600). Coconut Research Centre. www.coconutresearchcenter.org Meteljan G. 008. “World’s Healthiest Foods”. George Mateljan Foundation. www.whfoods.org 7
  • 66. KELP –– OCEAN MIRACLE For many people, kelp is the dark brown tangle of rotting seaweed that litters the beaches of the west coast following a storm. That may be true, but kelp is a nutritional treasure house. The Japanese have been eating kelp as part of their cuisine for years; it may be no coincidence that they also have the greatest life expectancy. Kelp and other seaweeds (algae) have been extensively studied, and research has revealed their multiplicity of benefits from weight loss, by improving and regulating function of the thyroid gland, to prevention of cancer. Seaweed does not have a root system. It clings to rocks and is con- stantly bathed in the mineral and nutrient rich waters of the ocean. Kelp is particularly rich in iodine, a vital mineral for thyroid function, as well as calcium, potassium, magnesium and iron. Kelp is packed with the immune-boosting vitamins A and C and some of the B vitamins. Some seaweeds contain more vitamin B1 than beef, chicken, or fish. Seaweed is high in soluble fibre that may have antioxidant properties, particularly that found in red and green algae. It is rich in bioflavonoids, particularly the lignans which have been shown to have cancer protective properties. Brown algae like kelp are also rich in fucans––complex sugars––with potent health giving properties such as anti-viral, anti-coagulant, anti-inflammatory and immune system boosting properties. In addition, kelp has been found to have more than 70 essential minerals. A study at the Hiroshima University School of Medicine in Japan found that seaweed extracts can boost the immune system by stimu- lating production of protective B-cells. Kelp has been shown to:- Alleviate arthritis pain; Increase energy levels; 8
  • 67. Boost immunity; Improve liver function; Fight against heart disease and cancer; Have anti-viral properties; Boost underactive thyroids; Control appetite; can help with weight loss due to its metabolism stimulating properties. Help with poor digestion, flatulence and constipation; Kill the herpes virus; Lower cholesterol levels; Maintain the health of the mucous membranes; Reduce hair loss. Toxic Metals Kelp may also play a role in reversing toxic metal poisoning. Our bodies are subjected to low levels of arsenic, mercury, nickel, and cadmium in our air, water, food and tooth fillings. Even at low levels, most toxic metals that reach the bloodstream are deposited into the tissues within a few hours of exposure and can lead to gradual, long term poisoning. Kelp can help detoxify the body before these metals inflict damage to our DNA and life systems, in particular the nervous, endocrine, reproductive and immune systems (8 Pillars of Health, see page 10). Osteoporosis Experiments with rats at the Calcium Research Institute in Japan showed that calcium supplements alone did not protect against degenerative bone disease. The addition of kelp to calcium supplements however improved bone density and mass. Blondin C., Chaubet F., Nardella A., et al. 1996. “Relationships between chemical characteristics and anticomplementary activity of fucans.” Biomaterials 17(6):597-60. Chida K., and Yamamoto I. 1987. “Antitumor activity of a crude fucoidan fraction prepared from the roots of kelp (Laminaria species).” Kitasato Arch Exp Med 60 (1-): -9. Fujita T., Ohue T., Fujii Y., Miyauchi A., Takagi,Y. 1996. “Heated oyster shell-seaweed calcium (AAA Ca) on osteoporosis.” Calcif Tissue Int. ;58 ():6-0 866195. Calcium Research Institute, Osaka, Japan. Wood R. 1988. “The Whole Foods Encyclopedia”. Prentice-Hall Press; New York. 9
  • 68. CINNAMON www.smoothie.com Cinnamon is the brown bark of the cinnamon tree sold either powdered or as a tubular piece of bark. Two varieties are commonly seen in the shops; a hard, dark single tube called “cassia” which is the bark of the Chinese variety and a more papery, paler and usually smaller stick from Sri Lanka. Either can be used with equally good effect although in the kitchen, the Sri Lanka variety is preferred. It is the essential oils in the bark that give cinnamon its unique properties. Cinnamon has attracted considerable attention in the medical research community because of its properties. Amongst these are: It is anti-inflammatory. It has a strong anti-microbial action. Tests showed that a few drops in a refrigerated carrot broth delayed growth of Bacillus cereus for 60 days. A similar broth without the cinnamon showed great bacterial growth. It also has anti-fungal properties and may be effective against Candida. Cinnamon has been shown to improve blood sugar control and to prevent insulin resistance. It has therefore become a significant element in control of diabetes. It may also reduce the risk of colon cancer by binding with bile salts which might otherwise damage colon cells. It may help lower cholesterol. By removing bile, the liver is forced to manufacture more bile from cholesterol thus lowering cholesterol in the blood. It contributes to the prevention of blood clots. 50
  • 69. Otsuka, H., Fujioka, S., Komiya, T., et al. 198. “Studies on CINNAMON anti-inflammatory agents. Vi. Anti-inflammatory constituents of Cinnamomum sieboldii .” (author’s transl). Yakugaku Zasshi. 10():16-7. Quale, J. M., Landman, D., Zaman, M. M., et al. 1996. “In vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against azole resistant and sensitive Candida species and a pilot study of cinnamon for oral candidiasis”. Am J Chin Med; ():10-9. Zoladz, P., Raudenbush, B., Lilley, S. 00. “Cinnamon perks performance”. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences, April; 1-5, 00 held in Sarasota, Florida. Cinnamon may help lower cholesterol. 51
  • 70. APPLE www.smoothie.com Whilst the greatest benefits come from eating whole fruits, many studies have shown that apple juice is rich in health giving nutrients. Our smoothies contain apple juice concentrate which helps give them their great taste. The concentrate is rich in highly protective, antioxidative polyphenols, sucrose and the simple, easily absorbed sugars, glucose and fructose. It is also a source of vitamin C. A study in Britain showed high consumption of fruit juices, including apple juice, reduced the incidence of kidney stones and raised the pH of urine––a healthy sign. Another study in the USA suggested that high consumption of fruit juices provided the protective phenols which reduced the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. The best protection seemed to come from different kinds of fruits combined. Apple concentrate could be an important contributor to phenol intake because apples supply a different range of polyphenols and other phytonutrients to those of citrus. Flavonoids found in apples are believed to be cardio-protective and may also help reduce or even prevent bone loss associated with the hormonal changes of menopause. Boyer J, Liu R. H. 2004 “Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.” Nutr J. 12;3(1):5. PMID:151061. Dai Q., Borenstein A. R., Wu Y Jackson J. C., Larson E. B. 006. “Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer’s disease: the Kame Project”. Am J Med. 119(9):751-9. PMID:1695610. Meteljan G. 008. “World’s Healthiest Foods”. George Mateljan Foundation. www.whfoods.org 5
  • 71. APPLE Flavonoids found in apples are believed to be cardio-protective and may also help reduce or even prevent bone loss. Schaeffer S., Baum M., Eisenbrand G., Dietrich H., Will F., Janzowski C. 006. “Polyphenolic apple juice extracts and their major constituents reduce oxidative damage in human colon cell lines.” Molecular Nutrition Food Research. Vol. 50, No1, pp. - ISSN 161-15. Van Der Sluis A. A., Dekker M., Skrede G. 00. “Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 1. Effect of existing production methods.” J Agric Food Chem 50(5):711-9. 5
  • 72. GINGER www.smoothie.com Ginger has been cultivated in the East for more than 000 years and was known in southern Europe before the time of the Romans. It has been used as both an important culinary spice, second only to salt in value, and as a medicinal herb. It has been used for several thousands of years as a remedy for hangovers and nausea and is still used by some against motion sickness because it does not have the side-effects of synthetic motion sickness preventatives. It has also been used to fight morning sickness during pregnancy. However recent research has shown it has several other valuable properties. Ginger is rich in phytonutrients called gingerols which have powerful anti-inflammatory properties. Arthritis sufferers have significantly reduced joint swelling and pain levels when ginger was taken over sustained periods of several weeks. Ginger also seems to give relief to tendonitis sufferers. Ginger has been shown to have more than 1 anti-viral components, some of which seem to be effective as treatments for colds and flu. Its phytonutrients oppose free radical damage to lipids such as cell membranes and, very importantly, reduce loss of the body’s natural and most powerful anti-oxidant––glutathione. Ginger is antimicrobial, promotes cleansing of the lymph system, thus boosting immune function, and improves circulation. It also seems to inhibit the action of prostaglandin which can cause inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain and lead to migraine. Ginger’s powerful anti-inflammatory action inhibits development of some cancers such as ovarian cancer, and in established cancers, has been shown to induce apopotosis (induced self-destruction of the 5
  • 73. cancer cells) and autophagocytosis (self-digestion GINGER of the cancer cells). Ginger has also been shown to inhibit growth of colo-rectal cancers. Bode A. 00. “Ginger is an effective inhibitor of HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma in vivo”. Paper presented at the Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research Conference, Phoenix, Arizona. Borrelli F., Capasso R., Aviello G., Pittler M. H., Izzo A.A. 005. “Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy- induced nausea and vomiting”. Obstet Gynecol. 105():89-56. Meteljan G. 008. “World’s Healthiest Foods”. George Mateljan Foundation. www.whfoods.org Ginger may help lower Rhode J. M., Huang J., Fogoros S., Tan L., Zick S., Liu J. R. 006. cholesterol. “Ginger induces apoptosis and autophagocytosis in ovarian cancer cells.” Abstract #510, presented April , 006 at the 97th AACR Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. 006. Srivastava K. C., Mustafa T. 199. “Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders”. Med Hypothesis 9:-8. 55
  • 74. FLAXSEED www.smoothie.com Flaxseed is one of the richest sources of omega- fatty acids. It is rich in alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), a fatty acid which the body converts into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and which is found in some fish oils such as mackerel and sardines. Oils from coldwater fish are the best source of omega-3 fatty acids but if these are not available or you prefer not to eat fish then flaxseed is an excellent substitute. Omega-3 fatty acids play a major role in reducing inflam- mation. This has a hugely beneficial impact on asthma as well as in- flammatory joint conditions such as arthritis and osteoporosis. Studies in the USA showed that omega- containing oils taken for a 10 week period could reduce inflammatory pain as well as did ibuprofen. Another study in Britain showed that regular intake of these oils reduced depression and hostility. Omega-3 containing oils prevent blood clots, maintain flexible cell membranes which helps control diabetes by optimising glucose absorption, protects colon cells from cancer causing toxins. Extensive studies of people in different parts of the world whose diets contained varying quantities of omega- fatty acids showed that higher intakes were associated with lower blood pressure and reduced cholesterol levels. Studies have also shown that omega- containing oils had a strong inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and reduced the risk of breast 56
  • 75. cancer. They also greatly moderated hot flushes FLAX associated with menopause. As well as omega-3 fatty acids, flaxseed is per- haps the richest source of the highly protective phytochemicals, the lignans, which have potent anti-cancer properties. It is the phytoestrogens in the lignans which provide the protective role against a range of cancers and which are also potent anti-oxidants. Flaxseed is perhaps the richest source of Brooks J. D., Ward W. E., Lewis J. E., Hilditch J., Nickell L., the highly protective Wong E., Thompson L. U. 00. “Supplementation with flaxseed alters estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women phytochemicals, the to a greater extent than does supplementation with an equal lignans, which have amount of soy”. Am J Clin Nutr. 79():18-5. potent anti-cancer Cassidy A. 2003. “Potential risks and benefits of phytoestrogen- properties. rich diets.” Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 7():10-6. Darlington G., Jump A., Ramsey N. 1990. “Dietary treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.” Practitioner; 8;(188):56-60. Flax Council. 2001. “Flax History”. http://www.flaxcouncil. ca/hisindex.htm 001. Ganry O. 005. “Phytoestrogens and prostate cancer risk.” Prev Med. 1(1):1-6. Mantzioris E., James M. J., Gibson R. A., Cleland L.G. 1995. “Nutritional attributes of dietary flaxseed oil”. Am J Clin Nutr.; 6():81-. Milder I. E. J., Arts I. C. W., Van de Putte B., Venema D. P., and Hollman P. C. H. 005. “Lignan contents of Dutch plant foods: a database including lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and matairesinol.” British Journal of Nutrition, 9:9-0. Thompson L. U., Boucher B. A., Lui Z., Cotterchio M., and Kreiger N. 006. “Phytoestrogen content of foods consumed in Canada, including isoflavones, lignans and coumestan”. Nutrition and Cancer, 5(), 18-01. 57
  • 76. SMOOTHIES FOR HEALTH AND LONGEVITY NUTRIENTS OF OUR ENERGY SMOOTHIE The message within the extensive global nutritional research is that our health and well- being is intimately and synergistically linked to our diet. All our protective systems need adequate and diverse nutrients, many of whose health benefits are only now being discovered. What is clear is that many of these nutrients, the phytonutrients, are abundant in fresh fruits, seeds, nuts, spices and vegetables and that the best way to ensure a consistent supply is to eat and drink selected whole fruits that provide the full range of nutrients for health. Our smoothies go a long, long way towards fulfilling this need. To learn more about health and the food that you eat, visit our web site and that of the George Mateljan Foundation “The World’s Healthiest Foods” at www.whfoods.org Live longer, live healthier with a daily smoothie cocktail of health-giving whole fruits, sea vegetables, seeds, nuts and therapeutic and protective spices. You’ll receive your daily vitamin and mineral requirements and a host of protective phytochemicals as nature intended. 58
  • 77. WHEN TO DRINK YOUR SMOOTHIE For maximum benefit it is best to drink your smoothie on an empty stomach––at least an hour after your last meal and at least an hour before your next. It is also important to drink plenty of water during the day because the smoothie is high in fibre and your body needs plenty of water to keep your gut functioning properly. 59
  • 78. CALORIE INFORMATION PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS Kilojoules 865.91 Protein (g) 1.0 From Carbohydrate 15.01 Tryptophan (mg) 8.90 From Fat 0.60 Threonine (mg) 7.60 From Protein 9.7 Isoleucine (mg) .10 Leucine (mg) 07.60 Lysine (mg) 0.10 CARBOHYDRATES Methionine (mg) 16.0 Total Carbohydrate (g) 5.01 Cystine (mg) 10.0 Dietary Fibre 60.8 Phenylalanine (mg) 8.00 Starch 1. Tyrosine (mg) 19.0 Sugars 10.97 Valine (mg) 79.0 Sucrose (mg) 65.50 Arginine (mg) 1.50 Glucose (mg) 1.17 Histidine (mg) 56.90 Fructose (mg) 1171.00 Alanine (mg) .70 Lactose (mg) 0.00 Aspartic acid (mg) 857.70 Maltose (mg) .0 Glutamic acid (mg) 918.0 Galactose (mg) 0.00 Glycine (mg) .50 Proline (mg) 559.00 Serine (mg) .00 FATS FATTY ACIDS Threonine (mg) 1.80 Total Fat (g) 8.50 Hydroxyproline 5.70 Saturated fat (g) .60 Monounsaturated fat (g) 0.81 Polyunsaturated fat (g) 1.60 Fatty acids 0.00 Omega- fatty acids (mg) 86.70 Omega-6 Fatty Acids (mg) 60. 60
  • 79. VITAMINS MINERALS Vitamin A (IU) 79.00 Calcium (mg) 1180.60 Retinol 0.00 Iron (mg) 11.50 Retinol Activity Equivalent 8.00 Magnesium (mg) 18.60 Alpha Carotene 7.00 Phosphorus (mg) 179.60 Beta Carotene 197.00 Potassium (mg) 180.70 Beta Cryptoxanthin 19.00 Sodium (mg) .0 Lycopene 7.00 Zinc (mg) .0 Lutein+Zeaxanthin 9.0 Copper (mg) 0.90 Vitamin C (mg) 16.60 Magnesium (mg) 18.80 Vitamin D (mg) 0.00 Selenium (mcg) 6.10 Vitamin E (mg) .60 Fluoride (mcg) .0 Beta Tocopherol 0.00 Barium (mg) 0.00 Gamma Tocopherol 11.00 Boron (mg) 0.00 Delta Tocopherol 0.0 Colbalt (mg) 0.00 Vitamin K (mg) 6.0 Iodine (mg) 0.00 B1 Thiamine (mg) 0.50 Molybdenum (mg) 0.00 B2 Riboflavine (mg) 0.0 Strontium (mg) 0.00 B Niacin (mg) .0 Sulphur (mg) 0.00 B6 Pyridoxine (mg) 1.00 Ash (g) 0.5 Folate (mcg) 6.00 Water (g) 88.90 Food Folate 6.00 Water added (g) 0.00 Folic Acid 0.00 Nutritional data are extracted from the Dietary Folate Equivalents 6.00 USDA’s National Nutrient Database for B1 Cobalamine (mg) 0.00 Standard Reference. While we cannot B5 Pantothenic acid (mg) 1.0 guarantee the absolute accuracy of every listing, we make every attempt possible Choline (mg) 6.10 to ensure the data accurately reflect our Betaine .10 product content. 61
  • 80. PHYTOCHEMICALS The phytochemicals number many thousands of different compounds. New ones are discovered almost daily. The functions of many are known and the functions of even more are not yet clear. What is clear is that many have highly unique and protective properties. Our smoothies contain a broad spectrum of these chemicals. The major groups of phytochemicals are: Caffeine ALKALOIDS Theobromine Theophyllin Cyanidin ANTHOCYANINS Malvidin Beta-Carotene CAROTENOIDS Lycopene COUMESTANS FLAVAN--OLS MONOPHENOLS Hydroxytyrosol Geraniol MONOTERPENES Limonene Chicoricacid HYDROXYCINNAMIC Coumarin ACIDS Ferulic Acid Scopoletin Daidzein ISOFLAVONES Genistein LIGNANS Silymarin Capsaicin Ellagic Acid PHENOLIC ACIDS Gallic Acid Rosmarinic Acid Tannic Acid Allicin Glutathione ORGANOSULFIDES Indole--Carbinol Isothiocyanates Sulforaphane 6
  • 81. Epicatechin Hesperidin Isorhamnetin Kaempferol Naringin FLAVONOIDS Nobiletin Proanthocyanidins Quercetin Resveratrol Rutin Tangeretin OTHER PHYTOCHEMICALS CAROTENOIDS FLAVONOIDS LIGNANS INDIOLES ISOFLAVONES OMEGA- FATTY ACIDS, OMEGA-6 FATTY ACIDS PHYTOSTEROLS We work constantly to improve our product and so, because of this and because of the seasonal availability of some produce, our ingredients may vary slightly from season to season. However you can be assured that our 10+ Smoothie will always be a high quality nutritional supplement. 6
  • 82. PRODUCED BY AFRICAN NUTRITIONAL WAREHOUSE CUSTOMER INFORMATION P O Box 875 Nelspruit 100 South Africa Tel: +7 1 75 79 Fax: +7 1 75 7815 HAMILTON-FYNCH 08 600 1765 Email: info@10plus.co.za www.10plus.co.za