Zoological congres
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Zoological congres Zoological congres Presentation Transcript

  • Tariq Mahmood, * Nausheen Irshad, Riaz Hussain,Muhammad Rais, IftikharHussain, Maqsood Anwarand Muhammad Sajid NadeemDISTRIBUTION, POPULATIONAND FOOD HABITS OF INDIANPANGOLIN (Manis crassicaudata)IN DISTRICT CHAKWAL,PAKISTAN
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Scientific Classification• Kingdom: Animalia• Phylum: Chordata• Class: Mammalia• Infraclass: Eutheria• Order: Pholidota (Weber, 1904)• Family: Manidae (Gray, 1821)• Genus: Manis (Linnaeus, 1758)• Species: crassicaudata
  • Basic Information Pholidota means"the scaled animal"(Atkin,2004). “Pangolin" is derived from the Malay wordpengguling which means, "something that rollsup". Local name "Salla”
  • Appearence
  • Species and DistributionSpecies Common name Biogeography StatusManis culionensis Palawan Pangolin Asia near threatenedManis crassicaudata Indian pangolin Asia near threatenedManis pentadactyla Chinese pangolin Asia endangeredManis javanica Malayan pangolin Asia endangeredManis tetradactyla Long-tailed orblack-belliedpangolinAfricaManis gigantea Giant groundpangolinAfrica near ThreatenedManis temminckii or Temmincksground pangolinAfricaManis tricuspis Tree or Africanwhite-belliedpangolinAfrica near Threatened
  • Distribution in PakistanThe only pangolin species present in Pakistan isIndian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata).Punjab (Sialkot, Jhelum ,Gujrat, Attock, Wah)Khyber Pakhtoonkha (Kohat,Mardan, Peshawar)Sindh (Dadu and Lerkana)Baluchistan (Mekran, Lasbela)(Roberts, 1997)
  • Economic Importance Food Medicine Clothing Ornamental Pest control Trade
  • Population Status andMajor Threats “Near threatened” (IUCN, 2006). Appendix II ofthe CITES (Inskipp & Gillett 2005) vulnerable toover-exploitation can be easily hunted used for trade have a very slow reproduction rate and do not easily breed in captivity(Lim and Ng, 2007)
  • Objectives To determine distribution of the Indian pangolin inChakwal district. To estimate the size of its population. Investigation of the food habits of the species.
  • METHODOLOGY
  • Study AreaFigure 1. Map of Punjab showing Chakwal district
  • Distribution of Indian pangolin extensive surveys burrows, fecal samples ants and termites colonies traditional knowledge distribution map of the species
  • Population EstimationPopulation estimationDirect method Indirect methodVisual observation/captureOf animalBorrow count Foot tract analysisFeedingLivingActiveInactiveD = n/A (D=density/km², n= no. of individuals, A=area surveyed)
  • Investigation of the diet compositionof Indian pangolina) Fecal pellet analysisb) Field obervations of the ants and termitescolonies
  • RESULTS
  • Surveillance surveysStartingTransectGeographicCoordinatesEndingTransectsGeographicCoordinatesDistanceCovered(km)ResultsChakwal-More(Mandra)N 33º 19’ 56.83”E 73º 14’ 31.41”Elevation 1569ftChakwal N32º 03’ 57.88”E 72º 58’06.88”Elevation1784ft60 +Tehsil ChockChakwal cityN 32º 55’ 26.07”E 72º 50’ 20.74”Elevation 1651ftTalagang Roadm2N 32º 55’20.06”E 72º 40’ 59.26Eevation1702ft18 +Talagang Road N 32º 55’ 23.01”E 72º 45’ 15.14”Elevation 1697ftKallar KaharRoadN 32º 50’42.82”E 72º 44’54.37”Elevation1881ft06 +Murred N 35º 53’ 47.77”E 072º 45’ 08.8”Elevation 1543ftBhaun N32º 53’ 33.7”E 072º 45’00.6”Elevation1605ft15 +ContinueTable 1: Details of the surveillance surveys (road surveys) conducted on motor vehicleto determine the distribution of Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in Chakwaldistrict during the current study period from March 2010 to April 2011
  • Surveillance surveysChakwal city N 32º 55’ 99.1“E 072º 53’ 49.7“Eevation 1524ftJubair pur N32º 55’ 50.5”E 072º 54’12.7”Elevation1500ft7 +Chakwal city N 32º 54’ 52.65”E 72º 52’ 36.57”Elevation 1640 ftChoa saidanshahN 32º 43’38.28”E 72º 59’20.26”Elevation1628ft30 +Choa Chowk N32º 53’ 56.04“E 72º 52’ 43.26“Elevation 1733ftSehgal abad N 32º 53’12.31“E 72º 57’15.22“20 +Chakwal city N 32º 55’ 09.37“E 72º 51’ 23.51“Elevation 1650 ftKallar Kahar N 32º 46’ 42.62”E 72º 42’ 14.74”Elevation2224ft25 +Bhaun Chowk N 32º 53’ 08.47”E 72º 48’ 47.93”Elevation 1766 ftKhokar Zair dam N32º 48’ 17.44”E 72º 51’ 32.86”Elevation1897ft10 +Choa SaidanShahN 32º 42’ 55.37”E 72º 58’ 39.01”Elevation 2203ftBasharat hills N 32º 45’05.29”E 72º 04’44.31”10 +
  • Figure 2: Distribution map of Indian pangolin in Chakwaldistrict
  • Population EstimationStudy site No of activelivingburrowsArea ofstudy site(km²)Density/km²DirectsightingsReportedsightingsFeacalsamplescountChumbiSurla2 2 1 _ 5-7 3Jubair Pur 2 2 1 1 4-5 2Murreed 3 2 1.5 2 5-7 4Bohn 5 6 0.66 0 3-4 0Chokora 2 2 1 1 3-4 0Khokar Zair 2 2 1 _ 1-2 0Dohk Surla 3 6 0.5 1 3-4 0Total 19 22 6.66 6 24-33 9Mean 2.71 3.142 0.30Table 2: Population Estimation of Indian pangolin By Burrows Counts in District Chakwal
  • Population density1 11.50.661 10.500.20.40.60.811.21.41.6DensityJabairpur ChumbiSurlaMureedvillageBhaun Chakora KhokharZerDhokeSurlaStudy SitesFigure 3. Population density (per kilometer square) of Indian pangolin (Maniscrassicaudata) at seven selected study sites in district Chakwal
  • Burrows countsStudy Sites Total Burrows Feeding Burrows Living BurrowsActive InactiveChumbi Surla 26 23 2 1Jubair Pur 9 6 2 1Murreed 20 17 3 0Bohn 22 19 4 1Chokora 20 18 2 0Khokar Zair 25 20 2 3Dhok Surla 32 29 3 0Total 154 132 18 6Mean 22 18.8 2.5 0.8Table 3. Numbers of burrows of Indian pangolin in different selected sites of thestudy area.
  • Burrows CharacteristicsStudy Area Feeding Burrows ( inch) Living (Burrows (inch)Length Width Depth Length Width DepthChumbi Surla 10.1 7.8 14.4 8 10.5 20Jubair Pur 8.5 8 12 8.5 8.5 24Murreed 8.5 10 8 8 10 35Bohn 6.8 8 12 10 12.5 32Chokora 8 10 8 8.8 12 28Khokar Zair 10 12 12.5 8 12 22Dhok Surla 10.5 10.5 14.5 7 10 28Total 62.4 66.3 81.4 58.3 75.5 169Mean ± SD 8.91 ±1.33 9.47 ±1.58 11.6 ±2.68 8.32 ±0.92 10.7 ±1.43 24±5.385Table 4. Characterisitcs of feeding and living burrows of Indian pangolin in district Chakwal
  • Body measurementsArea ofCaptureSex BodyWeight(Kg)Head-bodylength(inch)Taillength(Inch)Totallength(Inch)Snoutlength(Inch)Ear size(cm)Paw size(cm)Chakwal(Bhoun)Malejuvenile7 14 11 25 1 1 1Chakwal(jubair pur)Male adult 19.3 34 28 62 6.25 2 -Islamabad Male adult 15.4 29 28.5 57 6.25 2 5Table 5. Body measurements of captured specimens
  • Scale measurementsscales number Scale sizedorsal ventral head trunk tailHead trunk tail tail40 78 130 70 2.5 cm 4.5 cm 3cm79 81 158 106 3.5cm 5cm 4cm50 81 105 40 3cm 6cm 8cmTable 6. Body measurements of captured specimens
  • Fecal samplesArea of collection Sample No. Weight Length Diameter(g) (cm) (cm)1 8 4 6Chumbi Surla 2 5 3 33 7 3 2Jubair Pur 1 8 4 72 6 4 81 14 4 62 34 4 9Murreed 3 38 7.5 84 32 4.5 7  5 38 7 9.5Total 10 190 45 65.5Mean ±SD   19 ±14.40 4.5 ±1.52 6.55 ±2.5Table 7. Details of fecal samples collected from the the study area
  • Faecal analysisFood items recovered % Frequency(N=10)% Volume(N=10)Insects (Ants) Heads 100 (10) 7.6Other body parts 100 (10) 30.4Termites 0.00(0) 0.00Soil particles 100(10) 62Table 8. Analysis of the fecal samples of Indian pangolin collected from the study area.
  • Fecal sample analysisFigure 4. Percentage composition of fecal samples8%62%30%Insects head Other body parts of insects Soil particles
  • Fecal analysisFigure 5. Photographs of faecal samples with seperated ants,head and other body parts
  • Pangolin Prey SpeciesCamponotus confucil CamponotustermitidaeFigure 6. Prey species of indian pangolinTermite Species Odonto termis obesus
  • Recommendations1. To highlight the role of Indian pangolin inBiological Pest management2. To develop a Conservation Strategy
  • General habitat of area Termite coloniesFigure 7. General habitat of the area and termite colonies
  • Living burrow Feeding burrowFigure 8. Living and feeding burrows of indian pangolin
  • ScalesFigure 9. Scales of indain pangolin
  • Thankyou foryourkindattention