Tick infestation majid m. m.

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Tick infestation majid m. m.

  1. 1. Prevalence of tick infestation onPrevalence of tick infestation onlivestock animals in Pothwar,livestock animals in Pothwar,PakistanPakistanMajid MahmoodMajid Mahmood MajidMajid and Mazhar Qayyumand Mazhar QayyumDepartment of Zoology, PMAS Arid AgricultureDepartment of Zoology, PMAS Arid AgricultureUniversity Rawalpindi, PakistanUniversity Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroductionTicks:Ticks:• Ectoparasites: blood suckingEctoparasites: blood sucking• Affect the productive potential of livestockAffect the productive potential of livestock• Transmit protozoan parasites viz.,Transmit protozoan parasites viz., BabesiaBabesia spp. andspp. andTheileriaTheileria sppspp..
  3. 3. • The information on ticks prevalence is scanty inThe information on ticks prevalence is scanty inPakistanPakistan• No previous study in Pothwar regionNo previous study in Pothwar regionObjective:Objective:• To find out the prevalence of ticks infestationTo find out the prevalence of ticks infestationpattern among different livestock animals ofpattern among different livestock animals ofPothwar regionPothwar region
  4. 4. Materials and MethodsMaterials and MethodsStudy PeriodStudy Period• October 2008 to August 2009October 2008 to August 2009Study AreaStudy Area• The main study site: Barani LivestockThe main study site: Barani LivestockProduction Research Institute KherimuratProduction Research Institute Kherimurat(BLPRI), District Attock(BLPRI), District Attock
  5. 5. • Other livestock farms surveyedOther livestock farms surveyed– ChakwalChakwal– Kallar KahaarKallar Kahaar– Tala GangTala Gang– ChakriChakri– RawaatRawaat– Chak Baili KhanChak Baili Khan– Kallar SayyadanKallar Sayyadan– National Agriculture Research Center (NARC)National Agriculture Research Center (NARC)IslamabadIslamabad
  6. 6. Animal hosts screenedAnimal hosts screened 18041804 SheepSheep 481481 GoatsGoats 10151015 CattleCattle 214214 CamelsCamels 9494
  7. 7. TicksTicks collectioncollection• All body parts of the animals were thoroughlyAll body parts of the animals were thoroughlyinspectedinspected• Picked with the help of rubber coated forcepsPicked with the help of rubber coated forceps• Stored in 70% ethyl alcoholStored in 70% ethyl alcohol• Properly labeledProperly labeled
  8. 8. Ticks processing for identificationTicks processing for identification• Washed with distilled waterWashed with distilled water• Boiled in 10% KOH for 30 minutesBoiled in 10% KOH for 30 minutes• 10% glacial acetic acid for 5 minutes10% glacial acetic acid for 5 minutes• Washed with distilled waterWashed with distilled water• Stained with 10% acid fuchsin for 2 minutesStained with 10% acid fuchsin for 2 minutes• Washed with distilled waterWashed with distilled water• Dehydrated through 30%, 50%, 70%, 80%, 90% andDehydrated through 30%, 50%, 70%, 80%, 90% andabsolute alcoholabsolute alcohol• Cleared in clove oilCleared in clove oil• Mounted in Canada balsam on glass slideMounted in Canada balsam on glass slide
  9. 9. IdentificationIdentification• Morphological examination underMorphological examination understereomicroscopestereomicroscope• Identified according to the keys andIdentified according to the keys anddescriptions given by Hoogstraal (1979) anddescriptions given by Hoogstraal (1979) andWalkerWalker et alet al. (2003). (2003)
  10. 10. ResultsResultsTotal animals surveyedTotal animals surveyed 18041804• InfestedInfested 814814• Percentage prevalencePercentage prevalence 45.145.1
  11. 11. Infestation rate in different animal hostsInfestation rate in different animal hosts• Highest infestation rate:Highest infestation rate: Cattle (58.8%)Cattle (58.8%)• Camel (52%)Camel (52%)• Sheep (50.9%)Sheep (50.9%)• Goats (38.8%)Goats (38.8%)• Highest tick burden: Cattle (22.9 per animal)Highest tick burden: Cattle (22.9 per animal)• Camel (18.8 per animal)Camel (18.8 per animal)• Sheep (10.9 per animal)Sheep (10.9 per animal)• Goats (10.5 per animal)Goats (10.5 per animal)
  12. 12. Comparison of tick infestation amongComparison of tick infestation amongdifferent livestock animalsdifferent livestock animalsAnimalAnimal TotalTotalExaminedExaminedTotalTotalInfestedInfestedPercentPercentInfestationInfestationMean tickMean tickburdenburdenGoatGoat 10151015 394394 38.8%38.8% 10.510.5SheepSheep 481481 245245 50.9%50.9% 10.910.9CattleCattle 214214 126126 58.8%58.8% 22.922.9CamelCamel 9494 4949 52.1%52.1% 18.818.8TotalTotal 18041804 814814 45.1%45.1% 15.815.8
  13. 13. Tick GeneraTick Genera• Only 700 tick specimens were identified from sheep,Only 700 tick specimens were identified from sheep,goats and cattlegoats and cattle• Six genera of ticks foundSix genera of ticks found– Haemophisalis =Haemophisalis = 28.1%28.1%– RhipicephalusRhipicephalus = 24.8%= 24.8%– IxodeIxode = 20.0%= 20.0%– HyalommaHyalomma = 14.1%= 14.1%– BoophilusBoophilus = 11.5%= 11.5%– Dermacenter =Dermacenter = 1.3%1.3%
  14. 14. • Haemophesalis:Haemophesalis: Most abundant on sheepMost abundant on sheep• Rhipicephalis:Rhipicephalis: Most abundant on goatsMost abundant on goats• Ixode:Ixode: Most abundant on cattleMost abundant on cattle
  15. 15. Comparison of different tick genera on Sheep,Comparison of different tick genera on Sheep,Goats and CattleGoats and CattleSheepSheep(n=291)(n=291)GoatGoat(n=257)(n=257)CattleCattle(n=152)(n=152)TotalTotal(n=700)(n=700)HaemophesalisHaemophesalis sppspp 129 (44.3%)129 (44.3%) 38 (14.7%)38 (14.7%) 30 (19.7%)30 (19.7%) 197 (28.1%)197 (28.1%)RhipicephalusRhipicephalus sppspp 83 (28.5%)83 (28.5%) 85 (33.0%)85 (33.0%) 6 (3.9%)6 (3.9%) 174 (24.8%)174 (24.8%)IxodeIxode sppspp 30 (10.3%)30 (10.3%) 63 (24.5%)63 (24.5%) 47 (30.9%)47 (30.9%) 140 (20.0%)140 (20.0%)HyalommaHyalomma sppspp 40 (13.7%)40 (13.7%) 38 (14.7%)38 (14.7%) 21 (13.8%)21 (13.8%) 99 (14.1%)99 (14.1%)BoophilusBoophilus sppspp 9 (3.1%)9 (3.1%) 33 (12.8%)33 (12.8%) 39 (25.6%)39 (25.6%) 81 (11.5%)81 (11.5%)DermacenterDermacenter sppspp 0000 0000 9 (5.9%)9 (5.9%) 9 (1.3%)9 (1.3%)
  16. 16. Per month infestation and mean tick burdenPer month infestation and mean tick burdenMonthMonth AnimalsAnimalsExaminedExaminedAnimalsAnimalsInfestedInfestedPercentPercentinfestedinfestedMean Tick BurdenMean Tick Burden(per animal)(per animal)OctOct 3434 66 17.617.6 5.25.2NovNov 181181 1717 9.49.4 6.66.6DecDec 137137 99 6.66.6 3.43.4JanJan 221221 3131 14.014.0 7.77.7FebFeb 190190 7575 39.539.5 9.39.3MarchMarch 197197 7676 38.638.6 9.89.8AprilApril 206206 124124 60.260.2 20.820.8MayMay 170170 103103 60.660.6 18.918.9JuneJune 223223 151151 67.767.7 20.820.8JulyJuly 104104 9090 86.586.5 18.118.1AugAug 141141 132132 93.693.6 25.925.9TotalTotal 18041804 814814 45.145.1 15.815.8
  17. 17. Seasonal AbundanceSeasonal AbundanceInfestation rateInfestation rate was:was:• Very high in August and JulyVery high in August and July• High in February, March, April, May and JuneHigh in February, March, April, May and June• Low in October, November, December andLow in October, November, December andJanuaryJanuary
  18. 18. ConclusionsConclusions• Both infestation rate and average tick burden were veryBoth infestation rate and average tick burden were veryhigh in summer (rainy) as compared to winterhigh in summer (rainy) as compared to winter• Both were highest in AugustBoth were highest in August• Lower in may and June as compared to July and AugustLower in may and June as compared to July and August• Ticks seem to prefer high humidity and temperatureTicks seem to prefer high humidity and temperaturebut not dry-hot conditionsbut not dry-hot conditions

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