Study of Avian Diversity in andaround Chinari, DistrictHattian, Azad Jammu andKashmir, PakistanMASAUD, N1., AWAN, M.S1., MINHAS, R.A1.,DAR, N. I2.,AND ALI, U3.1Department of Zoology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, 2Wildlife andFisheries Department of AJ&K, 3Department of Environmental Science, PMAS-AridAgriculture University Rawalpindi
INTRODUCTIONBirdWarm blooded animals, body covered by feathers, layegg, evolved million of years agoOccurrence Found all over the world, from Arctic to Kalahari and Africato Himalayan forests. Tolerate extreme weather conditions.Diversity About 10,000 species found all over the world. Of them 1400 species are found in Asia. 688 species listed in Pakistan. 200 reported in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.
Continued….ImportanceImportant insect predators.Game animals.Provide esthetic pleasure (eco-tourism)Migration19% of the total bird species are migratory.Migrate for long distance, non-stop over seas,from north pole to south pole.Some fly as high as 20,000 feet above the sealevel.Migratory route of Pakistan is called GreenRoute or Route No. 4.
OBJECTIVESTo enlist and describe existing bird’s species andtheir abundance in the study area.To compare species richness and speciesabundance between study sites and differentseasons.To calculate the Shannon-wiener index of avianfauna in and around Chinari.Developing GIS based information regardingspecies richness and species abundance of bird’sfauna.
MATERIALS AND METHODSStudy AreaChinari is situated on 34o0834.292-0919.89 NLand 73o5016.26-5834.01E at an elevation of1066-1539 m.Qazinaag Game Reserve. Temperature of study area ranges between 1.1-35.5˚C with average rainfall of 330.7 mmannually.
Map of the study area showing study sites surveyed during study period
Continued….The important vegetation of the area includesPinus wallichiana, Cedrus deodara, Piceasmithiana, Abies pindrow, Taxus wallichiana, Acercaesium, Aesculus indica, Acacia modesta etc.The important shrubs of the area include Berberislycium, Indigofera gerardiana, Loniceraquinquilocularis, Parrotia jacquemontiana etc.
MethodologyTransect WalkPoint CountFor Larger habitat, radius was 50 m.For Smaller habitat, radius was 25m.SightingEarly in the morning at 5:30 am during spring, 5:00 amduring summer and 6:00 am during autumn.Before evening at 4:30 p.m. during spring, 6:30 p.m.during summer and 6:00 p.m. during autumn.
Results and DiscussionA total of 72 bird species belonging to 13 ordersand 39 families were observed and identified.Over all relative abundance was recorded highestfor Common myna (0.005) and lowest forCommon starling (0.001). Species richness was recorded highest in summer(n=54) followed by autumn (46) and spring(n=40).Species abundance was highest during summer(316) followed by spring (311) and autumn (280).
Continued….Out of 72 species, 69% belonged to orderPassariformes followed by Coraciformes (5.5%),Columbiformes, Strigifarmes (4.16% both),Psitassiformes, Accipitiformes, Faolconiformes,Charadiformes (2.77% of each), Piciformes,Galliformes, Apodiformes, Cuculiformes andCarimulyiformes (1.3% each).The prominent bird species includes, Wagtail,Kingfisher, Bulbul, Doves, Crows, Warbler,Vultures, Chats, Thrushes, Woodpecker,Flycatcher, Nuthatches, Magpie, Tree pie,Swallows and leaf birds.
Fig 3 Percentage relative abundance of bird species belonging to differentorders recorded during the year 2009
Fig 4 Species richness of bird’s species recorded during different seasons ofthe year 2009
Fig 5 Species abundance curve among study sites surveyed during the year2009
Fig 6 Species richness curve among study sites surveyed during the year 2009
Map 2 showing compression between species richness and abundance indifferent sites of the study area during study period.
Fig 7 Abundance of bird’s species recorded during different seasons of theyear 2009
Map 3 showing the compression of species richness between different seasonsat different sites of the study area during 2009.
Fig 8 Diversity indices of different seasons recorded during the year 2009Seasonal Shannon-wiener index of these species were recorded highest (4.95) insummer season followed by spring (4.2) and autumn.
Fig 9 Migration status of bird’s species along with their percentages recordedduring the year 2009Of the total 8 (11.1%) species were resident birds, 9 (12.5%) species wereresident confined to Himalayan ecosystem, 7 (9.72%) species were summarvisitors, 5 (6.94%) species were winter visitor, 12 (16.6%) species showedseasonal altitudinal migration while remaining 30 (41.6%) species were confinedto Himalayan ecosystem.
Fig 10 Population status of bird’s species along with their percentagesrecorded during the year 2009The population status is calculated as 50 (69%) species were common, 4 (5.55%)species were abundant, and 9 (1.25%) species were rare while the remaining 9(1.25%) species were frequent.
Plate 20 Common mynas sitting on rock at Tillikot
Plate 21 Grey tit sitting on tree of apple at Gujar bandi
ConclusionA significant difference in the biomass of thebirds between the different seasons of theyear, 2009.The availability of food may be one of thecause of this variation.Breeding in summer season could be animportant source of variation and higherdiversity index in summer.Migration from higher altitudes towardslower decrease diversity index in winter.
Continued….Besides natural vegetation, cultivated areasare important source for the diversity ofavian fauna in the study area.Most of the birds depend on the food inthe form of seeds, grains, weeds or insectshence they are closer to the agriculturallands.Due to different requirements of food andspace, the interspecific and intraspecificcompetition seemed within the bearablelimits.
Continued….Destruction of the habitats resulted in theeradication of some species like goldenoriole, vultures, and rollers and havemigrated to higher elevations, vegetatedand undistributed areas around Chinari.
RecommendationsResearch collaboration should be built betweenWildlife Department AJK and Department ofZoology, the University of AJK to carry outdetailed surveys for the proper management andof wildlife species of the area.Some endangered and vulnerable species (Cheerpheasant and Westren horned tragopon)categorized under international conservationstatus are present in the study area. It is therefore,pertinent that protection and conservationprogramms for the area should be based on thepresence of these species.