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Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
Red flour presentation
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Red flour presentation

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  • 1. ByAN APPRAISAL OF RESISTANCE OF OLD AND NEW WHEAT GENOTYPES TORED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBIOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST).MUHAMMAD SIDDIQUEKHANZADADEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGYFACULTY OF CROP PROTECTIONSINDH AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY, TANDO JAMPAKISTAN
  • 2. Wheat, Triticum aestivum L. is the important cereal crop and staple food of people of Pakistan. It occupies the first position in area amongst the cereal crops and covers about 65% of foodcrop area of the country Wheat was grown on an area of 8.6 million hectares in the year 2008-09with production target of 25 million tons .Live adult insects were present in about 75% of the samples taken; the most common specieswere Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Rhizopertha dominica(Fabricius). and Sitophilus spp (Linnaeus) T. castaneum has been found one of major insectspecies in surveys Tribolium spp. in the food grains give pungent smell and infested flourbecomes dirty yellow in colour.LIFE CYCLE
  • 3. MODE OF DAMAGEThe damage caused by insect pests to wheat grain has been estimated at 10 to 20% Redflour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) is one of the major insect pests of stored grainswith cosmopolitan distribution.
  • 4. The research on the relative resistance of old and modern genotypes of wheat to redflour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was conducted in the laboratory, Departmentof Entomology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam.. Seeds of wheat varieties wereobtained from the Plant Genetics Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam.Grains of genotypes were made dust and straw free, and then the sound and healthygrains were selected. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory at 29+2 oC and65+5% R.H.,, replicated three times in completely randomized block design (CRBD) .The standard samples of each variety used in the experiment were 1000 grains, keptin plastic jars (15x 6 cm). Ten pairs of newly emerged adult red flour beetle, T. castaneum, (both sexes inequivalent numbers) of uniform age structure from laboratory-stock culture werereleased in each jar. The mouth of each jar was covered with muslin cloth, tightened with rubber band. The observations were taken at 15 days intervals and adult beetle populationfluctuations were recorded at each interval by counting the number of adults. Increase/decrease in adult numbers was considered criterion for the relative resistance of agenotype to insect attack.MATERIAL METHODS
  • 5. The following parameters were studied to judge the relative susceptibility of wheatgenotypes:a) Adult populationb) Percentage grain damage.c) Frass weight andd) percent germinationEach sample was passed through a 60-mesh sieve for separation of frass and grains.The grains containing holes were separated from the sound grains as damaged grains.The percent damage was calculated according to the method of the effect ofT. castaneum infestation on germination of seeds was determined after completionof resistance studies.The seeds of all genotypes were divided into three categories i.e., control seeds, healthyseeds and infested seeds from different treatments.Germination of seeds was tested in Petri dishes lined with moist (filter paper).Three replications were kept for every category of seeds of each genotype and therewere 25 seeds per treatment. After the compellation of germination, the germination willbe checked .The germination of treated (healthy) grains was germinated 100% and treated (damage)grains were not germinated 0%. In control grains 100% germination results.The data obtained were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and DMR test bycomputer programme. The coefficient of correlation between various parameters was alsodetermined.
  • 6. RESULTTABLE-1. SEED CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF WHEAT.S.No NAME OF GENOTYPES WEIGHT OF 1000 GRAINS IN (g)1 T1 Triticum durum 28.33 + 0.33 pqr2 T2 Triticum durum 28.00 + 0.57 qr3 T3 Triticum durum 30.00 + 0.57 lmnopq4 T4 Triticum sphaerococcum 31.67 + 1.33 jklmn5 T5 Triticum sphaerococcum 28.67 + 0.33 opqrr6 T6 Triticum sphaerococcum 30.33+0.88 klmnopq7 T7 Triticum sphaerococcum 31.00 + 0.57 klmnop8 T8 Triticum sphaerococcum 35.67 + 0.33 ghi9 T9 Triticum aestivum 31.33+1.202 jklmno10 T10 Triticum aestivum 34.00 + 1.00 hij11 T11 Triticum aestivum 41.33 + 1.20 cd12 T12 Triticum aestivum 36.33+ 0.66 gh13 T13 Triticum aestivum 33.00 +.57 ijk14 T14 Triticum aestivum 26.00 +1.15 r15 T15 Triticum aestivum 37.67 +1.76 fg16 T16 Triticum aestivum 39.67 + 0.88 def17 T17 Triticum aestivum 38.33 + 0.88 efg18 T18 Triticum aestivum 29.00 + 0.57 nopq19 T19 Triticum aestivum 29.67+ 0.33 mnopq20 T20 Triticum aestivum 37.67+ 1.333 fg21 T21 Triticum aestivum 29.33 + 0.33 mnopq22 T22 Triticum aestivum 32.33 + 1.20 jkl23 T23 Triticum aestivum 44.67 + 0.33 b24 T24 Triticum aestivum 32.00 + 0.57 jklm25 T25 Triticum aestivum 33.00 + 1.15 ijk26 Barani-70 40.33+ 0.33 def27 Bhattai 40.67+ 0.66 de28 Marvi-2000 51.67+1.20 a29 Mehran-89 43.67 + 2.33 bc30 T.J-83 45.33+ 1.45 b
  • 7. TABLE-2. Tribolium castaneum POPULATION AND DAMAGE CHARACTERISTICS ON DIFFERENTGENOTYPES OF WHEAT.S.NO NAME OF GENOTYPES NO. OF DAMAGEDGRAINSADULT POPULATION (%) INFESTATION FRASS WEIGHT (m1 T1 Triticum durum 43.67 + 3.18 mno 13.00 + 0.57 cd 4.37 + 0.31 no 36.67 + 0.88 ghijklmn2 T2 Triticum durum 38.67 + 0.88 opq 6.00 + 1.52 d 3.87 + 0.08 op 29.00 + 4.72 jklmn3 T3 Triticum durum 40.33 + 4.70 nop 16.33 + 4.09 cd 4.03 + 0.47 o 49.33 + 7.62 defghijkl4 T4 Triticum sphaerococcum 66.00 + 1.15 hij 14.67 + 2.66 cd 6.60 + 0.11 ij 41.67 + 7.26 efghijklmn5 T5 Triticum sphaerococcum 93.33 + 5.66 f 25.67 + 4.37 cd 9.33 + 0.56 f 71.67 + 2.72 de6 T6 Triticum sphaerococcum 77.67 + 5.36 gh 30.00 + 6.24 cd 7.76 + 0.53 gh 59.33 + 9.35 defghijk7 T7 Triticum sphaerococcum 87.33 + 1.20 fg 41.67 + 12..03 c 8.73 + 0.13 fg 104.33 + 3.38 bc8 T8 Triticum sphaerococcum 58.33 + 8.41 jkl 14.13 + 3.18 cd 5.83 + 0.84 jkl 61.33 + 35.83 defghi9 T9 Triticum aestivum 47.33 + 0.66 lmno 10.67 + 2.90 cd 4.73 + 0.06 mno 32.00 + 3.46 hijklmn10 T10 Triticum aestivum 124.00 + 8.54 d 24.33 + 4.41 cd 12.40 + 0.49 d 60.67 + 5.60 defghij11 T11 Triticum aestivum 42.33 + 0.66 mno 11.33 + 1.45 cd 4.23 + 0.06 no 30.00 + 13.29 jklm12 T12 Triticum aestivum 49.00 + 2.08 klmno 13.33 + 4.91 cd 4.90 + 0.20 lmno 30.67 + 2.72 ijklmn13 T13 Triticum aestivum 20.00 + 3.05 rs 8.33 + 5.36 d 2.00 + 0.30 qrs 18.00 + 7.00 mn14 T14 Triticum aestivum 29.00 + 5.03 pqr 4.67 + 1.76 d 2.90 + 0.50 pq 19.67 + 2.96 lmn15 T15 Triticum aestivum 41.00 + 3.21 nop 12.33 + 2.72 cd 4.10 + 0.32 o 35.33 + 8.87 ghijklmn16 T16 Triticum aestivum 138.67 + 3.33 c 95.00 + 30.07 b 13.87 + 0.33 c 132.67 + 14.51 b17 T17 Triticum aestivum 164.67 + 2.60 b 27.33 + 7.35 cd 16.47 + 0.26 b 130.67 + 21.82 b18 T18 Triticum aestivum 116.00 + 2.30 de 18.67 + 2.72 cd 11.60 + 0.23 de 63.67 + 4.91 defg19 T19 Triticum aestivum 40.67 + 1.33 nop 4.67 + 1.33 d 4.07 + 0.13 o 34.33 + 18.52 hijklm20 T20 Triticum aestivum 52.00 + 9.16 klmn 10.67 + 0.33 cd 5.20 + 0.52 klmn 38.33 + 6.33 fghijklm21 T21 Triticum aestivum 284.00 + 27.31 a 132.33 + 48.21 a 28.40 + 0.45 a 228.00 + 22.053 a22 T22 Triticum aestivum 61.67 + 1.33 ijk 15.67 + 3.66 cd 6.17 + 0.13 ijk 47.33 + 8.87 efghijklm23 T23 Triticum aestivum 109.33 + 1.45 e 25.33 + 4.84 cd 10.93 + 0.14 e 116.33 + 4.84 b24 T24 Triticum aestivum 26.33 + 2.66 qrs 7.00 + 1.00 d 2.63 + 0.26 qr 25.00 + 4.04 klmn25 T25 Triticum aestivum 44.33 + 3.71 mno 13.00 + 6.08 cd 4.43 + 0.37 mno 47.67 + 6.48 efghijklm26 Barani-70 16.33 + 1.45 rs 1.33 + 0.33 c 1.63 + 0.14 rs 14.00 + 2.08 m27 Bhattai 15.00 + 1.00 s 2.33 + 0.66 d 1.50 + 0.10 s 10.67 + 2.88 n28 Marvi-2000 72.00 + 4.16 hi 26.67 + 0.88 cd 7.20 + 0.41 hi 67.33 + 2.33 def29 Mehran-89 175.67 + 3.84 b 28.00 + 5.85 cd 16.57 + 0.84 b 80.33 + 6.33 cd30 T.J-83 54.67 + 3.33 jklm 15.00 + 2.51 cd 5.47 + 0.33 klm 37.33 + 5.03 fghijklmnLSD 13.01 31.01 1.08 31.67
  • 8. A correlation study carried out between T. castaneum adult populationand different damage parameters, indicated that there was highly significant(P<0.01), positive correlation between adult population and damagedgrains, % infestation and frass production (Fig.1-4).
  • 9. CONCLUSIONSUse of resistant genetic stock can be the most effective measure to minimize the damage, provided thaproper management practices are followed.Present studies showed that different varieties of wheat tested, T21 was found significantly susceptibred flour beetle. In the light of such findings, prolonged storage of such most sensitive variety shoudiscouraged.Whenever, such situation prevails then there is a dire necessity to adopt adequate remedy measures agthe storage insects such as red flour beetle. Through the methods of hybridization and genetic recombination, efforts are needed to enhance forevolution of insects resistance and high yielding cultivars like Bhittai. Transfer of pest resistance traitsFrom such resistant sources to agronomic ally acceptable variety can play an important role in the IPM of stinsects.
  • 10. SUGGESTIONSUse of resistance genetic stock can be the most effectivemeasures to minimize the damage, provided that propermanagement practices are followed.

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