BYSHAGUFTA RANIKHANZADAEFFECT OF PLANT OILS ON ADULT EMERGENCE, FECUNDITY ANDWEIGHT LOSS OF COLLOSOBRUCHUS ANALIS (FAB.) IN GREENGRAM (VIGNA RADIATA L. ROXB). ”DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGYFACULTY OF CROP PROTECTIONSINDH AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY, TANDO JAMPAKISTAN
INTRODUCTION Pulses belong to family Leguminosae and they are excellent an inexpensive source of plant protein andprovide a balanced diet for millions of people when eaten in when combination with cereals. . The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus analis (Fabricius) Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is the pest of mung (Vignaradiata), mash (Phaseolus mungo), moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius), peas, cowpeas and other pulses. Both the larvae and the adults cause damage. The larva is recognized by its creamy-white, oval, flabbybody. The adult is an oval beetle,. The female is chocolate with a black trapezoidal area surrounding by whitestreaks on the three sides. This area is located in the centre of each elytra towards the outer margin. The young larva on emergence bores into the grain and feeds entire contents
Pupa of CallosobruchusanalisLarva of callosobruchusanalisEggs of callosobruchusLife cycle of Callosobruchus analis (Fabricius)adult of callosobruchusanalis
MATERIALS AND METHODSThe present studies on “Effect of plant oils on adult emergence, fecundity and weight loss ofcollosobruchus analis (fab.) in green gram (vigna radiata l. roxb). , the expriment were carried out underlaboratory conditions in postgraduate laboratory of Entomology Department, Faculty of Crop Protection,Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. The culture of C. analis was obtained from grain storage laboratory, Tropical Agriculture ResearchInstitute,Karachi University . Four different plant oils i.e. mustard (Brassica compestris ), coconut (Cocus nucifera), sesame(Sesamumindicum) and rocket seed (Eurica sativa) which are commercially available in market were purchasedandmixed with gree n gram grains. The standard concentration of each oil was 0.25 ml and which was mixed with the 250 grams of greengram. Weighted green gram grains were kept in plastic jars which were covered with muslin cloth and bandedwithrubber strips. The experiment was replicated four times and control (without treated grains). The culture wasdeveloped for
TABLE 3. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PLANT OILS ON THE GRAINWEIGHT LOSS IN TREATED AND NON TREATED GREEN GRAM BY PULSEBEETLE, C. ANALIS FABTreatmentsInitial weight(Grams)Final weightloss(Grams)weight loss(Grams)Calculation %Mustard oil 250 199.43 51.43 20.57Coconut oil 250 160.3 90.3 36.13Sesame oil 250 186.08 64.08 25.63Rocket seed oil 250 230.67 20.67 8.26Control 250 110.37 140.37 56.14
TABLE 4. WEEKLY MEAN, POPULATION OF PULSE BEETLE, C. ANALISIN LABORATORY WITH TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)Dates of observations Mean population Temperature oC Humidity %August 10, 072.5634.5 76174.6234.0 752412.1833.5 823130.9336.5 76September 07114.8138.0 8414213.1236.5 7521272.7539.0 6428269.5634.0 78October 05241.3135.5 7212208.1238.0 6219173.1835.5 7026.116.8734.5 70November 0274.0633.0 73940.6825.0 6616 24.5 67
CONCLUSIONS All the plant oils were comparatively better for keeping the pulse beetle belowinfestation level. Rocket seed oil (Jambho) proved more effective among the other oils. Population of adult emergence and fecundity increases the peak in the month ofAugust and September months. The minimum weight loss was found in Rocket seed oil in green gram. The maximum weight loss was found in control treatment in green gram. The temperature 39oC and humidity 64% was found favourable for pestmultiplication.