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    Presentation on cabbage kami Presentation on cabbage kami Presentation Transcript

    • PSO/PL,IPMP, IPEP,NARC, IslamabadPresented By:
    •  The cabbage is a popular cultivar of the species Brassicaoleracea of the Family Brassicaceae or Cruciferae and is usedas a leafy green vegetable. It is a herbaceous, biennial, dicotyledonous, flowering plant. The plant is also called head cabbage or heading cabbage. The cultivated cabbage is derived from a leafy plant called thewild mustard plant.
    •  The only part of the plant that is normally eaten is the leafyhead. It is an excellent source of vitamin C. It also containssignificant amounts of glutamine, an amino acid that has anti-inflammatory properties. In European folk medicine, cabbage leaves are used to treatacute inflammation. Fresh cabbage juice has been shown to promote rapid healingof peptic ulcers.
    •  The cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) isfound on cole crops worldwide. It founds only on plants in the Cruciferae family(cole crops, mustard, etc.), with serious outbreaksoccurring only sporadically.
    •  Cabbage aphids (CA) are grayish-green with a waxycovering that gives them a grayish-whiteappearance. It have short cornicles (tube-like structures at the tipof the abdomen) and feed on the underside of leavesin large clusters, in the center of cabbage heads, oron the youngest leaves.
    •  Aphid outbreaks and damaging populations will usually occuronly under dry hot weather. Feeding damage from large numbers of aphids can killseedlings and young transplants. On larger plants, feeding damage results in curling andyellowing leaves, stunting plant growth, and deformingdeveloping heads. Dead aphids do not wash off easily and will cause a head tobe unsuitable for fresh market sales.
    •  Many insects and other pests infest cabbage plants,among them:Cabbage Butterfly:
    • hCabbage worm:
    • Mealy bug:
    • Thrips:
    •  wingless females producing live young (nymphs), are themost common. Asexual reproduction (males not needed), and extendedreproductive life-span (30+ days at 5-6 nymphs/day). It complete up to 15 generations (often overlapping) duringthe growing season. It over winters as black eggs in host plant debris near the soilsurface.
    •  Repellent Antifeedant (Feeding Deterrent) Oviposition Deterrent Chemo-sterillant Growth inhibitor
    •  Diaeretiella rapae, (Hymenoptera: Aphididae), is the mostcommon parasite of cabbage aphid. D. rapae itself may often be killed by hyperparasites. Small colonies of aphids can be effectively controlled bypredators such as ladybird beetles, syrphid fly larvae, andlacewing larvae. in wet or humid weather, fungal epidemics can help controlaphid populations.
    •  Since the Cabbage aphid over winters as a black egg in hostplant debris, the destruction of these remains at the end of theseason will help in killing over wintering aphids. Aphids may also be controlled with insecticidal (fatty-acid)soaps used at the recommended rates (e.g., Safer Soap );however we have very little data on the effectiveness of theseproducts. For the most effective control, time applications ofinsecticides early in infestation
    •  Bring the desired plant parts Dry it in shed for 7 days Clean it from unwanted material Grind it in grinder Pass through 40 mesh sieve
    •  Industrial scale neem extraction process make use of solventssuch as alcohol, ether, and hydrocarbons instead of water. Aqueous extracts are said to work nearly as well as others. The choice of method and solvent will depend on the natureof chemical compound to be extracted.
    • 1. Neem Leaf Extract2. Neem Seed Extract3. Neem Bark Extract
    •  Neem leaf extract has a fruit like smell and containsessential fatty acids They are used in a number of pesticides andinsecticides, high potency extracts are used to manufacturepersonal products like facial creams, skin creams,cleansers and oral care products.
    •  Mature green leaves are collected and allowed to drypartially. These dried leaves are then crushed and powdered. The crushed leaves are then subjected to either aqueous ororganic solvent to get a concentrated extract. Certain extraction process utilizes carbon dioxide atcritical temperatures and pressures to extract the activeingredients of the neem leaf
    •  To screen out the effective method to control cabbage aphid(B. brassicae) population experiments were conducted inInsect Pest Management Program (IPMP) at NARC,Islamabad. There was grown a check variety of cabbage (B. oleracea) andcauliflower in field in four and three different plotsrespectively. Four different concentrations (2%, 1%, 0.5% andno spray) of Neem water extract were sprayed on cabbage (B.oleracea) and three concentrations (2%, 1% and no spray)were sprayed on cauliflower to determine the level ofeffectiveness against aphid (B. brassicae).
    •  There was grown a check variety of cabbage(B.oleracea) in field in four different plots. Four different concentrations(2%, 1%, 0.5% and nospray) of Neem water extract were sprayed on cabbage(B. oleracea) to determine the level of effectivenessagainst aphid (B.brassicae). Data was recorded before and after spray as shown intable No 1.
    •  Average total population of aphids 32.9, 27.8, 30.2 and21.6 of the four fields these fields were sprayed three times with theconcentrations of neem extract 2%, 1%, 0.50% andcontrol (no spray) respectively. Data was recorded after each spray, after 3rd spray thepopulation of aphids decreased (graph 1) and the bestcontrol is showed by 2% concentration of neem waterextract and the aphid population decreases to theaverage of 2.3.
    • Conc.BeforeSpray1st Spray 2nd Spray 3rd Spray19.11.0923.11.094.12.097.12.099.12.0911.12.0917.12.0924.12.091.1.105.1.107.1.1012.1.1014.1.1018.1.1020.1.1022.1.102% 32.9 25.2 3.4 8.7 23.1 20.6 8.6 6.4 15.9 4.6 9.3 6.8 8.4 3.4 3.2 4.81% 27.8 29.2 4.4 2.2 17.6 13.5 8.8 13.7 12.3 5.8 10.9 6.3 13.7 6.1 9.4 12.80.50% 30.2 21.3 18.2 3.2 11.9 15 5.9 14.1 17.8 4.4 3.7 5.7 12.3 4.9 7.9 8.5Control 21.6 30.4 23 20.6 34 32.3 22.4 34.3 21.1 10.6 10.5 12.5 10.2 6.6 12.3 10.8
    •  Experiment was conducted at NARC field Islamabad on Cabbage toevaluate effect of Neem water Extract against Aphid population. Cabbage variety was grown in field in four different plots. Four different concentrations of Neem water extract (0.5%, 1%, 2% andno spray) were sprayed on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) to determine thelevel of neem effectiveness against aphid (B. brassicae). Data was recorded after each spray, after 3rd spray the population ofaphids decreased and the best control was recorded at 2% conc. Of neemwater extaract and the aphid population decreased to the average of 2.3. Neem water extract may possess bioactive chemical which make neemextract unfavorable for aphid. These studies of Neem water Extract need more studies and thus should beincluded in the breeding programs for further evaluation.