The cabbage is a popular cultivar of the species Brassicaoleracea of the Family Brassicaceae or Cruciferae and is usedas a leafy green vegetable. It is a herbaceous, biennial, dicotyledonous, flowering plant. The plant is also called head cabbage or heading cabbage. The cultivated cabbage is derived from a leafy plant called thewild mustard plant.
The only part of the plant that is normally eaten is the leafyhead. It is an excellent source of vitamin C. It also containssignificant amounts of glutamine, an amino acid that has anti-inflammatory properties. In European folk medicine, cabbage leaves are used to treatacute inflammation. Fresh cabbage juice has been shown to promote rapid healingof peptic ulcers.
The cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) isfound on cole crops worldwide. It founds only on plants in the Cruciferae family(cole crops, mustard, etc.), with serious outbreaksoccurring only sporadically.
Cabbage aphids (CA) are grayish-green with a waxycovering that gives them a grayish-whiteappearance. It have short cornicles (tube-like structures at the tipof the abdomen) and feed on the underside of leavesin large clusters, in the center of cabbage heads, oron the youngest leaves.
Aphid outbreaks and damaging populations will usually occuronly under dry hot weather. Feeding damage from large numbers of aphids can killseedlings and young transplants. On larger plants, feeding damage results in curling andyellowing leaves, stunting plant growth, and deformingdeveloping heads. Dead aphids do not wash off easily and will cause a head tobe unsuitable for fresh market sales.
Many insects and other pests infest cabbage plants,among them:Cabbage Butterfly:
wingless females producing live young (nymphs), are themost common. Asexual reproduction (males not needed), and extendedreproductive life-span (30+ days at 5-6 nymphs/day). It complete up to 15 generations (often overlapping) duringthe growing season. It over winters as black eggs in host plant debris near the soilsurface.
Diaeretiella rapae, (Hymenoptera: Aphididae), is the mostcommon parasite of cabbage aphid. D. rapae itself may often be killed by hyperparasites. Small colonies of aphids can be effectively controlled bypredators such as ladybird beetles, syrphid fly larvae, andlacewing larvae. in wet or humid weather, fungal epidemics can help controlaphid populations.
Since the Cabbage aphid over winters as a black egg in hostplant debris, the destruction of these remains at the end of theseason will help in killing over wintering aphids. Aphids may also be controlled with insecticidal (fatty-acid)soaps used at the recommended rates (e.g., Safer Soap );however we have very little data on the effectiveness of theseproducts. For the most effective control, time applications ofinsecticides early in infestation
Bring the desired plant parts Dry it in shed for 7 days Clean it from unwanted material Grind it in grinder Pass through 40 mesh sieve
Industrial scale neem extraction process make use of solventssuch as alcohol, ether, and hydrocarbons instead of water. Aqueous extracts are said to work nearly as well as others. The choice of method and solvent will depend on the natureof chemical compound to be extracted.
1. Neem Leaf Extract2. Neem Seed Extract3. Neem Bark Extract
Neem leaf extract has a fruit like smell and containsessential fatty acids They are used in a number of pesticides andinsecticides, high potency extracts are used to manufacturepersonal products like facial creams, skin creams,cleansers and oral care products.
Mature green leaves are collected and allowed to drypartially. These dried leaves are then crushed and powdered. The crushed leaves are then subjected to either aqueous ororganic solvent to get a concentrated extract. Certain extraction process utilizes carbon dioxide atcritical temperatures and pressures to extract the activeingredients of the neem leaf
To screen out the effective method to control cabbage aphid(B. brassicae) population experiments were conducted inInsect Pest Management Program (IPMP) at NARC,Islamabad. There was grown a check variety of cabbage (B. oleracea) andcauliflower in field in four and three different plotsrespectively. Four different concentrations (2%, 1%, 0.5% andno spray) of Neem water extract were sprayed on cabbage (B.oleracea) and three concentrations (2%, 1% and no spray)were sprayed on cauliflower to determine the level ofeffectiveness against aphid (B. brassicae).
There was grown a check variety of cabbage(B.oleracea) in field in four different plots. Four different concentrations(2%, 1%, 0.5% and nospray) of Neem water extract were sprayed on cabbage(B. oleracea) to determine the level of effectivenessagainst aphid (B.brassicae). Data was recorded before and after spray as shown intable No 1.
Average total population of aphids 32.9, 27.8, 30.2 and21.6 of the four fields these fields were sprayed three times with theconcentrations of neem extract 2%, 1%, 0.50% andcontrol (no spray) respectively. Data was recorded after each spray, after 3rd spray thepopulation of aphids decreased (graph 1) and the bestcontrol is showed by 2% concentration of neem waterextract and the aphid population decreases to theaverage of 2.3.
Experiment was conducted at NARC field Islamabad on Cabbage toevaluate effect of Neem water Extract against Aphid population. Cabbage variety was grown in field in four different plots. Four different concentrations of Neem water extract (0.5%, 1%, 2% andno spray) were sprayed on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) to determine thelevel of neem effectiveness against aphid (B. brassicae). Data was recorded after each spray, after 3rd spray the population ofaphids decreased and the best control was recorded at 2% conc. Of neemwater extaract and the aphid population decreased to the average of 2.3. Neem water extract may possess bioactive chemical which make neemextract unfavorable for aphid. These studies of Neem water Extract need more studies and thus should beincluded in the breeding programs for further evaluation.