HABITAT ANALYSIS,POPULATION ESTIMATES AND NESTING ECOLOGY OFTHREE FALCON SPECIES IN DISTRICT CHAKWALTariq Mehmood,* Riaz H...
INTRODUCTION
FALCONDIURNAL BIRDS OF PREYFAMILYFalconidaeORDERFALCONIFORMESGENUSFALCOSPECIES STATUS• “Falcon” (L) “ falx ”• “sickle"Bird...
Common Name Scientific Name Status OccurrenceLesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Vagrant Aaround Quetta (Balochistan), Dera Isma...
OBJECTIVES• HABITAT ANALYSIS• POPULATION ESTIMATION• NESTING ECOLOGY
STUDY AREAFig. 1 Map of Punjab province showing study district Chakwal
CHAKWAL• Geographical Coordinates32 56 0" N72 52 0" E• Area6524 Sq.km.• Administrative DivisionTehsil ChakwalTehsil Tala...
(May2009 to June 2010) Average temperature14.25 to 30.77 C Average rainfall0.00 mm (Dec, 2009)to 47.8mm (June, 2010)• Cr...
STUDY DESIGN• Preliminary surveys• Selection of study sites (8 Sites)• Area of each study site 2x2km• Data collected fortn...
Table2.Details of eight selected study sitesStudySite No.Name of Place GPS Location Elevation(m)HabitatTypeWaterSourceI Dh...
METHODOLOGY1. HABITAT ANALYSISVegetation Study (trees, shrubs, herbs) 2km• Point Centered Quarter method 800m(Cottom and C...
2. POPULATION ESTIMATION• Visual Observation Method.• Line transects traveled regularly by foot and by motor bikefollowing...
3. NESTING ECOLOGY• Search for nests by direct observation• Active or inactive• Nests probable to be occupied by three fal...
RESULTS
Table3 Density, frequency, relative dominance and IVI of the tree speciesSite No. Sr. No Scientific name Density/haRelativ...
Density, frequency, relative dominance and IVI of the treespecies at different study sites in district Chakwal.Site No. Sr...
Fig.3 A comparison of average values of IVI for tree species occurring in the eightselected habitats of the study area. Va...
Table 4 Density and frequency of shrub species at different study sites in Chakwal district.Site Shrub Species D/4m2 RD F ...
SHRUBS SPECIESFig.4 A comparison of average density of shrub species ineight selected study sites of district Chakwal from...
HERBS SPECIESFig.6 Density (per sq. m) of herb species ineight different study sites. Values expressed asmean SE.00.511.52...
POPULATION ESTIMATIONMonthSite I Site III Site V Site VI Site VIIMeandensity infive studysites ± SENo.ObsDensity/km2No.Obs...
POPULATION ESTIMATIONCommon Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)Population Density of Common Kestrel in selectedstudy sites from Ma...
Density of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in the selectedstudy sites of district Chakwal from May 2009 toJune 2010. p < 0.05...
Some details about the numbers of nests probable to be occupied by three falconspecies during the study period in selected...
Conservation StatusRed-headed Merlin• “Least Concern” (IUCN, 2010)• Appendix-II (CITES, 2010)• Global population estimated...
Threats• Loss of habitat• Commercial Exploitation - Trapping and Shooting(Ahmed, 2003)Recommendations• Tree cutting should...
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Presenation falcon 11 4-11

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Presenation falcon 11 4-11

  1. 1. HABITAT ANALYSIS,POPULATION ESTIMATES AND NESTING ECOLOGY OFTHREE FALCON SPECIES IN DISTRICT CHAKWALTariq Mehmood,* Riaz Hussain, Muhammad Rais,Iftekhar Hussain, Maqsood Anwarand Muhammad Sajid NadeemDepartment of Wildlife ManagementPir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. FALCONDIURNAL BIRDS OF PREYFAMILYFalconidaeORDERFALCONIFORMESGENUSFALCOSPECIES STATUS• “Falcon” (L) “ falx ”• “sickle"Birds are named due to• curved beak or talons(Webster and McKechnie, 1983).• shape of their spreading wings(Harper, 2001). Species in the world37 species 17 sub-species,(Collar, et al., 1994). Pakistan,09 species reported(Roberts, 1991; Ahmed, 2003 and Naoroji, 2006)
  4. 4. Common Name Scientific Name Status OccurrenceLesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Vagrant Aaround Quetta (Balochistan), Dera Ismail Khan(KPK) and Murree hills Pnjab).Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus Resident andbreederBalochistan areas; Zhob, Chaman, Quetta, Sibi, Kalatand Chaghi, Dera Ghazi Khan and salt range foothillzone in Punjab, winter visitor throughout the KPK,also seen in Gilgit and Bultistan.Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Winter visitor Balochistan, areas,Indus delta in Sindh. Attockdistricts, seen around Rawal lake (ISB), not recordedin the Potohar plateau, also a winter visitorthroughout KP K.Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Resident andwinter visitorCoastal areas of Karachi, found in Kirther hills andJacobabad , resident and breeds in Thal desert, Kohatand Chitral.Merlin Falco columbarius Winter passermigrantZiarat and Loralai (Balochistan), Mirpur Sakro inThata (Sindh), Jhang, Taunsa barrage, Raheem YarKhan(Punjab), itor to Kohat (Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa)and Gilgit.Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo winter visitor,summer breederKarachi, Sukkur and Mirpur (Sindh), coastal area ofBalochistan, hilly areas of Rawalpindi (Punjab) andwinter visitor to Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu (KPK).Red-headed Merlin Falco chicquera Rare Resident Tharparkar and Cholistan. Rawal Lake (Islamabad),Mianwali, Lal Sohanra NP (Punjab), Kohat andPeshawar KPK.Laggar Falcon Falco jugger Rare Resident Southern Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab and in the lowerplain areas of KPK..Sooty Falcon Falco concolor Summer visitor occurs as a summer breeder along the Makran coast inthe province of Balochistan
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES• HABITAT ANALYSIS• POPULATION ESTIMATION• NESTING ECOLOGY
  6. 6. STUDY AREAFig. 1 Map of Punjab province showing study district Chakwal
  7. 7. CHAKWAL• Geographical Coordinates32 56 0" N72 52 0" E• Area6524 Sq.km.• Administrative DivisionTehsil ChakwalTehsil TalagangTehsil Choa Saiden ShahTehsil Kallar Kahar• Ecosystem type.Salt Range (South)Potohar Range (North)
  8. 8. (May2009 to June 2010) Average temperature14.25 to 30.77 C Average rainfall0.00 mm (Dec, 2009)to 47.8mm (June, 2010)• Crops.wheat, peanut, maize, oat,sorgum, millet and barley.
  9. 9. STUDY DESIGN• Preliminary surveys• Selection of study sites (8 Sites)• Area of each study site 2x2km• Data collected fortnightly
  10. 10. Table2.Details of eight selected study sitesStudySite No.Name of Place GPS Location Elevation(m)HabitatTypeWaterSourceI Dhoke Chatal(Chakwal)N 32º58 0.00"E 72º55 26.5"503 *Mixed Barsati nalaII Dhoke Wadhan(Chakwal)N 32º03 27.17"E 72º57 41.07"515 OpencultivatedfieldsBarsati nalaIII Punjain(Chakwal)N 32º5338.12"E 72º59 50.62"473 Mixed Barsati nalaIV Jabairpur(Chakwal)N 32º5509.2"E 72º5334.2"512 Mixed Rain water pondandBarsati nalaV Karangli hill(Choa SaidenShah)N 32º4535.3"E 73º0148.8"1092 Hilly andForestBarsati nalaAnd natural springsVI Chumbi(Kallar Kahar)N 32º 4614.9"E 72º 4312.3"638 Mixed Barsati nala andnatural springsVII Chinji(Talagang)N 32º 4229.5"E 72º2217.2"697 Mixed Rain water pondsVIII Chaman Samsal(Tlagang)N 32º 5703.0"E 72º 1848.4"468 Open, lowvegetation.Rain water pondsFig.2 Satellite map showing location ofeight selected study sites
  11. 11. METHODOLOGY1. HABITAT ANALYSISVegetation Study (trees, shrubs, herbs) 2km• Point Centered Quarter method 800m(Cottom and Cartis, 1956).400m800m• Number of points on each transect line--- 07• Distance between points ----- 250m• Selected points on each transect line ----- 03• Shrubs and Herbs: Quadrate Method (Emlen 1956; Schemnitz, 1980).For shrub species quadrate 4m x 4mFor herb species quadrate 1m x 1mNumber of quadrates 06
  12. 12. 2. POPULATION ESTIMATION• Visual Observation Method.• Line transects traveled regularly by foot and by motor bikefollowing Kochart (1986), Milsap and LeFranc (1988).• Binocular (Olympus, 10 x 50 DPSI)• Digital camera (Sony 7.2 M.p and Sony Ericsson mobile phone 8.1 M.p)• Formula for Population density of the individual falcon species∑ nD =2W x L• Statistical AnalysisOne way ANOVA (population density of the falcon species)
  13. 13. 3. NESTING ECOLOGY• Search for nests by direct observation• Active or inactive• Nests probable to be occupied by three falconspecies
  14. 14. RESULTS
  15. 15. Table3 Density, frequency, relative dominance and IVI of the tree speciesSite No. Sr. No Scientific name Density/haRelativeDensityFrequency RelativeFrequencyRelativeDominanceIVII 1 Acacia modesta 0.40 4.13 16.66 6.25 2.89 13.272 Acacia nilotica 3.63 37.53 100.0 37.49 43.47 118.493 Zizyphus mauritiana 4.44 45.91 100.0 37.49 39.13 122.534 Dalbergia sissoo 0.80 8.27 33.33 12.49 13.04 33.805 Tamarix aphylla 0.40 4.13 16.66 6.25 1.44 11.82Mean 1.93±0.87 19.99 ±8.99 53.33±19.29 19.99±7.23 19.99±8.95 59.98±25.02II 6 Acacia modesta 1.03 12.50 50.00 16.66 1.45 30.617 Acacia nilotica 3.09 37.50 100.00 33.33 7.27 78.108 Zizyphus mauritiana 2.40 29.16 88.33 27.78 87.27 144.239 Dalbergia sissoo 1.03 12.50 33.33 11.11 2.90 26.5110 Melia azedarach 0.69 8.33 33.33 11.11 1.09 20.53Mean 1.64±0.46 19.99±5.65 60.99±14.0 19.99±4.51 19.99±16.85 59.99±23.42III 11 Acacia modesta 0.84 8.32 33.33 12.50 5.55 26.3712 Acacia nilotica 4.20 41.58 83.33 33.12 55.55 130.2513 Zizyphus mauritiana 3.37 33.33 100.0 37.50 27.77 98.6014 Eucalyptus globules 0.42 4.16 16.66 6.24 2.77 13.1715 Tamarix aphylla 0.84 8.31 16.66 6.24 4.16 18.7116 Melia azedarach 0.42 4.16 16.66 6.24 4.16 14.56Mean 1.68±0.67 16.64±6.70 44.44±15.31 16.97±5.90 16.66±8.68 50.27±20.77IV 17 Acacia modesta 1.65 20.88 50.00 18.75 15.00 54.6318 Acacia nilotica 2.30 29.16 88.33 31.25 50.00 110.4119 Zizyphus mauritiana 3.29 41.66 100.00 37.50 41.66 120.8220 Morus alba 0.33 4.17 16.66 6.25 4.66 15.4221 Eucalyptus globulus 0.33 4.17 16.66 6.25 5.00 15.42Mean 1.58±0.57 20.0±7.26 54.33±17.46 20.0±6.37 23.26±9.49 63.34±22.56
  16. 16. Density, frequency, relative dominance and IVI of the treespecies at different study sites in district Chakwal.Site No. Sr. No Scientific name Density/haRelativeDensityFrequency RelativeFrequencyRelativeDominanceIVIV 22 Acacia modesta 13.83 58.35 100.00 42.86 47.90 149.1123 Acacia nilotica 2.96 12.50 50.00 21.43 17.96 51.8924 Dalbergia sissoo 0.99 4.17 16.66 7.14 4.79 16.1025 Eucalyptus globulus 0.99 4.17 16.66 7.14 5.38 16.6926 Melia azedarach 0.99 4.17 16.66 7.14 17.96 292727 Olea ferruginea 3.95 16.66 33.33 14.28 5.98 36.92Mean 3.95±2.04 16.67±8.60 38.88±13.38 16.66±5.73 16.66±6.73 49.99±20.56VI 28 Acacia modesta 1.97 24.93 83.33 26.32 13.89 65.1429 Acacia nilotica 2.96 37.46 100.0 31.58 41.67 110.6430 Zizyphus mauritiana 0.33 4.18 16.66 5.26 2.78 12.2231 Dalbergia sissoo 1.65 20.88 66.66 21.05 27.78 69.7132 Eucalyptus globulus 0.33 4.18 16.66 5.26 4.17 13.6133 Melia azedarach 0.66 8.35 33.33 10.53 9.72 28.60Mean 1.31±0.43 16.66±5.47 52.77±14.54 16.66±4.59 16.66±6.20 49.98±15.81VII 34 Acacia modesta 2.40 37.50 100.0 37.08 27.03 101.6035 Acacia nilotica 1.87 29.21 66.66 24.72 27.03 80.9636 Zizyphus mauritiana 1.87 29.21 88.33 32.75 40.54 102.5037 Melia azedarach 0.26 4.06 16.66 6.17 5.40 15.63Mean 1.60±0.46 24.99±7.24 67.91±18.42 25.18±6.83 25.0±7.26 75.17±20.46VIII 38 Acacia nilotica 3.36 45.90 100.0 39.22 43.48 128.6039 Zizyphus mauritiana 2.74 37.43 83.33 34.64 32.61 104.840 Dalbergia sissoo 0.92 12.56 50.00 19.61 21.74 53.9141 Melia azedarach 0.30 4.09 16.66 6.53 2.17 12.79Mean 1.83±0.72 24.99±9.93 62.49±18.47 25.0±7.44 25.0±8.80 75.02±25.94
  17. 17. Fig.3 A comparison of average values of IVI for tree species occurring in the eightselected habitats of the study area. Values expressed as mean ±SE.020406080100120I II III IV V VI VII VIIIStudy SitesMeanIVI
  18. 18. Table 4 Density and frequency of shrub species at different study sites in Chakwal district.Site Shrub Species D/4m2 RD F RFI Zizyphus nummularia 0.66 23.53 50 23.07Capparis decidua 0.33 11.76 33.33 15.38Prosopis juliflora 0.83 29.41 66.66 30.79Calotropis procera 0.66 23.53 33.33 15.38Saccharum griffithii 0.33 11.76 33.33 15.38Mean 0.56±0.09 19.99±3.53 43.33±6.66 20.00±3.08II Calotropis procera 0.66 28.57 50 37.50Prosopis juliflora 0.33 14.28 16.66 12.49Saccharum griffithii 0.66 28.57 33.33 25.00Zizyphus nummularia 0.66 28.57 33.33 25.00Mean 0.57±0.08 24.99±3.57 33.33±6.80 24.99±5.10III Capparis decidua 0.33 15.38 33.33 22.22Prosopis juliflora 0.66 30.77 50 33.33Zizyphus nummularia 0.83 29.41 33.33 22.22Adhatoda vasica 0.33 15.38 33.33 22.22Mean 0.53±0.12 22.73±4.25 37.49±4.16 24.99±2.77IV Prosopis juliflora 1 31.58 50 25Calotropis procera 0.33 10.53 33.33 16.66Saccharum griffithii 0.5 15.78 33.33 16.66Ricinus communis 1 31.58 33.33 16.66Capparis decidua 0.5 15.78 50 25Mean 0.66±0.13 21.05±4.40 39.99±4.08 19.99±2.04V Justicia adhatoda 0.33 8.69 33.33 13.33Dodonaea viscosa 1.5 39.13 83.33 33.33Cannabis sativa 1.17 30.43 50 20.00Adhatoda vasica 0.5 13.04 50 20.00Ziziphus nummularia 0.33 8.69 33.33 13.33Mean 0.76±0.24 19.99±6.24 49.99±9.12 19.99±3.65VI Calotropis procera 0.66 23.53 50 27.27Cannabis sativa 1 35.29 50 27.27Adhatoda vasica 0.66 23.53 50 27.27Zizyphus nummularia 0.5 17.65 33.33 18.18Mean 0.70±0.10 25.00±3.69 45.83±4.16 24.99±2.27VII Zizyphus nummularia 1 37.50 50 30Justicia adhatoda 0.66 25.00 50 30Calotropis procera 0.5 18.75 33.33 19.99Prosopis juliflora 0.5 18.75 33.33 19.99Mean 0.66±0.11 25.00±4.41 41.67±4.81 24.99±3.12VIII Zizyphus nummularia 0.33 18.18 33.33 24.99Saccharum griffithii 0.66 36.36 50 37.5Calotropis procera 0.83 45.45 50 37.5Mean 0.60±0.14 33.33±8.01 44.44±5.55 33.33±4.17
  19. 19. SHRUBS SPECIESFig.4 A comparison of average density of shrub species ineight selected study sites of district Chakwal from May2009 to June 2010. Values expressed as mean SE.00.20.40.60.811.21.4I II III IV V VI VII VIIIStudy SitesAveragedensityper4meterSqFig.5 A comparison of average frequency of shrub speciesin eight selected study sites of district Chakwal from May2009 to June 2010. Values expressed as mean ±SE010203040506070I II III IV V VI VII VIIIStudySitesmeanfrequency
  20. 20. HERBS SPECIESFig.6 Density (per sq. m) of herb species ineight different study sites. Values expressed asmean SE.00.511.522.53I II III IV V VI VII VIIIStudy SitesDensityperSq.meter)Fig.7 Average frequency of herb species in thestudy areas from May 2009 to June2010.Values expressed as mean SE.010203040506070I II III IV V VI VII VIIIStudySitesFrequency
  21. 21. POPULATION ESTIMATIONMonthSite I Site III Site V Site VI Site VIIMeandensity infive studysites ± SENo.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2May-09 04 1.25 - - - - - - - -Jun 03 0.94 01 0.31 - - 01 0.31 - -Jul - - - - - - - - 02 0.63Aug 01 0.31 01 0.31 01 0.31 01 0.31 01 0.31Sep 01 0.31 - - 01 0.31 01 0.31 01 0.31Oct 01 0.31 - - - - - - - -Nov 01 0.31 - - - - 02 0.63 01 0.31Dec-09 02 0.63 - - - - - - 03 0.94Jan-10 01 0.31 - - 01 0.31 - - 01 0.31Feb - - - - 02 0.63 01 0.31 - -Mar 01 0.31 - - - - - - 01 0.31Apr 02 0.63 - - 01 0.31 02 0.63 - -May 02 0.63 - - 01 0.31 02 0.63 02 0.63Jun-10 01 0.31 - - - - 01 0.31 01 0.31Total 20 6.25 02 0.62 07 2.18 11 3.44 13 4.05Mean±SE 0.45± 0.09 0.04±0.03 0.16±0.05 0.25±0.06 0.29±0.070.238±0.06Red-headed Merlin (Falco chicquera)Average density (per sq. km) in differentselected sites of district Chakwal fromMay 2009 to June 2010. Values expressedas mean ±SE.p <0.05
  22. 22. POPULATION ESTIMATIONCommon Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)Population Density of Common Kestrel in selectedstudy sites from May 2009 to June 2010. p > 0.05Month Site II Site III Site IV Site V Site VIIIMeanpopulationdensity infive studysites±SENo.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2May-09 - - - - - - - - - -Jun - - - - - - - - - -Jul - - - - - - - - 01 0.31Aug - - - - - - - - - -Sep 01 0.31 - - - - - - - -Oct 01 0.31 - - 01 0.31 - - 02 0.63Nov 01 0.31 01 0.31 01 0.31 01 0.31 02 0.63Dec-09 02 0.63 01 0.31 02 0.63 01 0.31 01 0.31Jan-10 01 0.31 - - - - 01 0.31 01 0.31Feb 01 0.31 02 0.63 01 0.31 - - 01 0.31Mar 02 0.63 01 0.31 01 0.31 01 0.31 01 0.31Apr 01 0.31 01 0.31 - - 04 1.30 02 0.63May 01 0.31 01 0.31 02 0.63 02 0.63 01 0.31Jun-10 - - - - 02 0.63 01 0.31 01 0.31Total 10 3.43 07 3.13 10 3.13 12 3.48 12 4.06Mean±SE 0.25±0.05 0.22±0.05 0.22±0.06 0.29±0.05 0.25±0.10 0.246±0.05
  23. 23. Density of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in the selectedstudy sites of district Chakwal from May 2009 toJune 2010. p < 0.05Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug)Month Site V Site VIMeanpopulationdensity intwo studysites±SENo.ObsDensity/km2No.ObsDensity/km2May-09 - - - -Jun - - - -Jul - - - -Aug 01 0.31 - -Sep 02 0.63 01 0.31Oct 02 0.63 - -Nov - - - -Dec-09 01 0.31 - -Jan-10 02 0.63 - -Feb 01 0.31 01 0.31Mar 03 0.94 - -Apr 02 0.63 01 0.31May 02 0.63 - -Jun-10 03 0.94 - -Total 19 5.96 03 0.93Mean±SE 0.42±0.09 0.07±0.03 0.245±0.06POPULATION ESTIMATION
  24. 24. Some details about the numbers of nests probable to be occupied by three falconspecies during the study period in selected study sites.Common kestrel nest in cavity on a cliffRed -headedmerlin’s nestRed-headedmerlin juvenileSaker falcon’snest on a cliffStudy SiteNo.Falcon species inthe study siteNumbers of nests ofCrows/ Kites can beoccupied by the falconspeciesNumber ofactive nestsI Red-headed Merlin 28 1II Common Kestrel 24 -III Common Kestrel 19 -IV Common Kestrel 22 1V Saker Falcon &Common Kestrel07 2VI Red-headed Merlin 17 -VII Red Headed Falcon 26 1VIII Common Kestrel 15 -
  25. 25. Conservation StatusRed-headed Merlin• “Least Concern” (IUCN, 2010)• Appendix-II (CITES, 2010)• Global population estimated in 2009• 10,000 to 100,000 mature pairs(Bird Life Int., 2010)Common Kestrel• “Least Concern” (IUCN 2010)• Appendix- II (CITES, 2010)• Global population estimated is 5,000,000 (Bird Life Int., 2010)Saker Falcon• “Endangered” (IUCN, 2010)• Appendix-II (CITES, 2010)• Global population is between 9,400-17,700 breeding pairs(Dixon, 2009)
  26. 26. Threats• Loss of habitat• Commercial Exploitation - Trapping and Shooting(Ahmed, 2003)Recommendations• Tree cutting should be strictly stopped• Illegal Trapping should be checked
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