What is semantics ???Semantics concerns knowledge of the meaning of lexical items how the meanings of grammatical combinations of lexicalitems, including sentences, depend upon the meanings of theirstructure and constituents.Semantics thus concerns knowledge of expression types thatcompetent speakers bring to particular contexts of languageuse.
EXAMPLE 11) “She had the same sharp features and the same rather small beady eyes but her lips were scarlet with paint, her cheeks lightly rouged and her short black hair permanently waved. Mrs. Sunbury took in all this at a glance, and she reckoned to a penny how much her smart rayon dress had cost her, her extravagantly high heeled shoes and the saucy hat on her head. Her frock was very short and she shoed a good deal of flesh colored stocking.”
• The definition of set will be further elaborated by the following example. “He was neat in his dress; he went to work in quiet grey trousers, a black coat and a bowler hat.” The scrutiny of the statement illustrates that trouser, coat and bowler hat comes under the category of set.
EXAMPLE• “on principle the Sunbury’s were total abstainers, but on Sundays, when to make up for the frugal lunch consisting of scone and butter with a glass of milk, which Samuel had during the week, Beatrice gave him a good dinner of roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, for his health’s sake she liked him to have a glass of beer”. “She poured out tea and asked Herbert to give a cup to his lady friend. ‘Ask Miss Bevan if she’ll have some bread and butter or scone, Samuel, my dear.’ Scone bread butter pudding roast beef milk beer tea
Kinship systems make an interesting area for componential analysis. Kinship isuniversal since all humans are related to other humans through blood ties throughmarriage, but kinship systems differ from society to society.
Theme Predicate AssociateSamuel Father-of HerbertBetty wife-of Herbert
Truth conditional semanticsHyponyms Antonyms Synonyms Converse Binary & antonyms non binary antonyms
Two or more words with very closely related meanings are calledsynonymy. They can often, though not always, be substituted foreach other in sentence in appropriate circumstances …
2) The kite, the new, expensive kite, was in fragments. Ithad been savagely attacked with the hatchet, thewoodwork was all in pieces, and the reel was hacked tobits.3) She was a little woman, but strong, active and wiry, with a sallow skin; sharp, regular features and small beady eyes.4) it was not without satisfaction that Mrs. Sunbury perceived that Betty was offended. 4b) ‘She said she’d never been so insulted in her life. I had a rare job pacifying her.5) There was a fresh breeze blowing and a number of kitessmall and large were sailing through the air.
• strolled and walk, • fragments and pieces, • offended and insulted, • breeze and airThe underline words have the same sense in thegiven context, they are the instances of synonymyand they are synonymous to each other. Synonymsshare the same meaning but they never have thesame range of syntactic occurrences. It can benoticed from the sentences given above that W.Somerset Maugham has expeditiously usedsynonyms in his literary piece, ‘The kite’.
1a) ‘Perhaps the acquaintance is a bit short for that,’ said Mrs. Sunbury witha gracious smile.1b) ‘I hope so.’ said Mrs. Sunbury with an acid smile, ‘I Wouldn’t dream ofletting you eat a piece of cake that’s been on the floor.
2) He was a stubborn boy and he wasn’t going to be beaten. Something was wrong and it was up to him to put it right. 3) She hesitated. Mr. Sunbury fidgeted, he didn’t know whether to stay or go. 4) Mrs. Sunbury was anxious because she had never let him play with the children in the street. Evil communication corrupts good manners.5) They weren’t flying the big kite which he was used to, buta new one, a box kite, a small one on the model for which he had made the designs for himself.
In the sentencesmentioned above….•gracious and acid;•wrong and right;•stay and go;• evil and good;• big and smallAre antonyms of each other. They differ inpolarity and are mutually contradictory.They are antonymous and are instances ofantonyms.
Binary antonyms• Non- binary antonyms Non-binary antonyms are those in which middle option is there …like OLD AND young ….it can be how old or how young …..
Example : Non binary antonyms: • 1) They were contemptuous of smaller kites than theirs and envious of bigger ones. Small and big are non binary antonyms and they are having various intermediate terms. Non binary antonyms are easily modified, like very big, quiet big, rather big, extremely small, very small, etc. 2) “Just the right height, said his mother ‘Not too tall and not too short.” In the above statement tall and short are binary antonyms.