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    • INDONESIA:USURPATIONSCHAPTER 1 & 2ASSAULTS & Sitor:Reconstructing the Past
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS:-DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPHS• ROADS OF JAKARTA:“roads were edged with red mud”, “corrugated-ironfences”, buses with smoking exhausts”, “a feeling ofgreat choked city”, the highways marked with risingsmog”. “News-boys and beggar-boys with deformitiesworked the road intersections”.
    • HISTORICITYOF INDONESIA•Hindu-Buddhist past of Indonesia•the abolition of Dutch language by theJapanese when they occupied Indonesia in1942
    • DETAILED CHARACTERIZATION• “Suryadi was in his mid fifties, he was small, darkfrown, frail looking. He was born in east Java…….”• ABOUT SITOR “a small man of fifty-six, with asmall bony face, Chinese-Negvito, with bristlingeye-brows, a canvas shoulder bag with books gavehim an odd touch of contemporary undergraduatestyle”.
    • ETHNOGRAPHIC DETAILS :• Sitor‟s village, for being reinitiated into the tribe.• the skull of his grandfather was taken out of thestone sarcophagus with the lizard of good luck carvedon the lid.• Sitor held a plate with this skull and a lemon, thelemon an agent of cleansing.
    • DIALOGUES:• A dialogue between Suryadi and his daughter,he said, “But don‟t you have a mind any longer? Do youhave to go to that book every time? Can‟t you thinkyourself now?”she said‟ “The Quran is the source of all wisdom andvirtue”.
    • VIVID AND LONGDESCRIPTIONS :• of the hotel logo of Borobudur Intercontinental.• The ground plan of the Buddhist temple in culturalJava was the basis of that logo; three concentricdotted circles within five rectangles, stepped at thecorners with the rippling effect. It was stamped onashtrays; it was woven into carpets; in the elevators;it was rendered in tiles on the floor of large poolwhere the ripple of blue water added to the ripple ofpattern.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS•Authorial Perspective•Naipaul has always positioned himself alonestateless observer , devoid of ideology buthe makes assumptions in very settle way.• Naipaul added his personal view aboutMuslims.
    • • Naipaul’s works explore the themes of dissatisfaction, decay and he focuses on the ugly or darker aspects ofIndonesia.• land as overpopulated and the rivers were muddy and therewere rice fields around Surabaya. The houses werenarrow, they were at a little distance from the road and theyards were clean but shady. there were bananatrees, coconut, mango and sugar cane cultivated at theland of Surabaya. The rice fields began right at the back ofhouses. The population was four million at the beginning ofthe last century and now it has reached to eight millions.
    • CHARACTERIZATION•Prasojo , a nineteen year old collegestudent… Prasojo had been to Arizona for ayear on scholarship given by the AmericanField service. He spoke English well, with anAmerican accent…he was just above themedium height and of Chinese appearance.
    • DIALOGUES•Dialogue between Naipaul and Prasojo:•Prasojo: you can‟t say that. You can‟t spendfifteen minutes in a place and make yourmind about it.•Naipaul we didn‟t spend fifteen minutes
    • HISTORICITY• Pesantrens• In Hindu—Buddhist days in Java, a Pesantren was amonastery which was supported by the community inreturn for spiritual guidance.• In the end of the 19th century, in the Dutchtime, villagers want to educate their children and theybegan to change the Pesantren into the schools forchildren.HISTORICITY
    • IMAGERY•Highlighted the condensed, stinky and darkimages.•we walked about the narrow dirt lanes andmuddy gutters between the houses at theback of the compound...there was mud andrubbish outside the rough kitchen shed"
    • ETHNOGRAPHY• Description of the people and their houses.• They built their houses with distinct style andthese houses has hat shaped roof. The housescontaining red tile roofs and walls of woven wereof poor and concrete were for not so poor. Intraditional house ventilation was permitted bywalls of woven bamboo and light came throughgaps is the roof and they didn‟t require a window
    • CHARACTERS AND PLACESUmar kayamLinusMuslim „ KOUM‟ elderProsojoDarma-sastroVillage below mountmerapiVillage of LinusYOGYAKARTAJAKARTA
    • EVENTS• With Umar visited mount marapi , they visited Linus house• Hospitality was fabulous• With Umar and Linus they visited Home of koum „elder‟• Koum performs religious duties of Muslim• He was satisfied with his life and present condition ofvillage• He share his experiences when Japanese occupied Java• On asking about Sukarno he praised his leader• Sukarno was leader in Indonesia against dutch after 1945• Umar also showed traditional house of Javenese.
    • • Umar told story about PRAMBANAM villager as they werein conflict about religion …at once they appeared to beMuslims and on other hand they liked epics of Hindu‟s• Bt as no one was their to guide them as religion ofHinduism they decided remain on composite religion• As Islam was part of composite religion.• One day in Yogyakarta tourists visited fromJapan, Germany and Australia. One of them were preparinga scholarly paper on the charcoal-burners of Java• Australian apparently discovered about people who wereselling tomatoes or repairing shoes or pushing food cartsare Charcoal-burners.
    • • Naipual left for Jakarta and their he met Darma-sastro• Darma-sastro shared that „Among us there are now peoplewho have lost their identities and personalities. He saidthat people who migrated from villages to town had lefttheir associations with villages as they thought that goingback to their villages would be degenerations.• Darma-sastro shared that some of them have been abroadbut their minds have stayed in the country.
    • This country needed wealth and skills but there was rageabout the loss of old order and the old knowledge of goodand bad .Finally holidays ended all the multinationals and economistsreturned.There was peace in the corridors everything cameback to its order.
    • CRITICALANALYSIS•Chapter 4 and Chapter 5
    • V.S NAIPAUL TRAVELOGUE EXISTS IN THIRDCATEGORY INTELLECTUAL-ANALYTIC.IN THIS VOICE OF AUTHOR EMERGES. ITS„OBSERVATION AND DEPTH OF ANALYSIS’• Dissyanake and Wickramagamage gave three types oftravel writing; experiential information-oriented andintellectual- Analytic
    • •During the course of travelogue „Among theBelievers‟ Naipaul‟s personal point of views onobservations and his analysis about differentinstances is prevalent. He has given every singledetail starting from setting of locations tocharacterization, dialogues, imagery, andhistory, social and political aspects of Indonesiain detail depending on his own observations aswell as on his interaction with differentcharacters
    • NAIPAUL‟S ASSUMPTIONS, ACTUAL TRAVEL ANDNOTE TAKING , RETURN TO CENTER AND RE-ORGANIZATION OF EVENTS COULD NOT BE SAIDAS ACTUAL TRAVEL WRITINGS. . . . .•it is more influenced by author‟s personalinterpretations and views based on notesthat he took during his travel experiences.
    • •Travel writingstrategiesJOURNALIZINGETHNOGRAPHYHistoricalbackground
    • •Characters•Places•Events•Major Issues
    • CRITICAL ANALYSISDESCRIPTIVE PASSAGES•“in the darkness and lamplight, ofwide”, “silent streets”, “past vegetable andfruit stalls, to tea plantations, over whichraincloud and mist drifted, mixed with theblack exhaust of buses and trucks”
    • CHARACTERIZATION• Imaduddin is introduced as, His skin was smooth, his darkeyes bright, and he had a wide, humorous mouth. He wasattractive, full of welcome.• another character named Sitor Situmurang: a poet isintroduced as; Sitor was a man of power in Indonesia. He hadmade his name with his early lyrical poems. He was now morepolitical, general secretary of the League for NationalCulture; and he was represented in the anthology by threepoems he wrote after a visit to China.
    • HISTORICITY• the mass slaughter in Indonesia. In 1965 thecommunists had been wiped out. A million people hadbeen killed, not half a million, as was now given out.And more should have been killed: there were two anda half million communists at the time. So a million anda half had escaped killing, and many of them were stillaround.
    • DIALOGUES•a dialogue between the narrator andImaduddin, when narrator asked; “Is there anIslamic state where that has happened?”Imaduddin replied; “Yes. In the time of AbuBakr and Omar and all the first four Caliphs.”
    • IMAGES•Naipaul has shown the image of Islam inIndonesia as being passive, sarcastic which heauthenticates by saying; “One day the studentsfrom the pesantren will come to Jakarta andburn down this nice hotel. Islam can becomecocaine. It makes you high. You go to thatmosque and you get high. And when you gethigh, everything that happens becomes Allah‟swill.”
    • VIVID AND LONGDESCRIPTION•he described the color of langsat fruitwas considered the perfect colour foran Indonesian woman. The fruit waspale-ochre, a pale adobe colour; and thegirl on the scooter had aclear, southern-Chinese complexion.