Advances in GeneticsGenetic Engineering & HumanGenome• Genetic Engineers canalter the DNA code ofliving organisms.• Selective Breeding• Recombinant DNA• Cloning• Transgenic Organisms• Human Genome
Selective Breeding• Breed only thoseplants or animals withdesirable traits• People have beenusing selectivebreeding for 1000’s ofyears with farm cropsand domesticatedanimals.
Inbreeding; Crossing two individuals that have similar characteristics.Ex. Inbred organisms have alleles that are very similar to those of their parents.Hybridization; Breeders cross two genetically different individuals.Ex. Some one needs to breed the best traits that might help him to increase hisincome.
Gene therapy by recombinationof DNA• The ability to combinethe DNA of oneorganism with theDNA of anotherorganism.• Recombinant DNAtechnology was firstused in the 1970’swith bacteria.
Recombinant Bacteria1. Remove bacterial DNA(plasmid).2. Cut the Bacterial DNA with“restriction enzymes”.3. Cut the DNA from anotherorganism with “restrictionenzymes”.4. Combine the cut pieces of DNAtogether with another enzymeand insert them into bacteria.5. Reproduce the recombinantbacteria.6. The foreign genes will beexpressed in the bacteria.
Benefits of RecombinantBacteria1. Bacteria can make human insulin orhuman growth hormone.1. Gene therapy is used for treatment ofsome serious diseases such asHemophilia by replacing the defectiveallele on the X chromosome.
The DNA of plants and animalscan also be altered.PLANTS1. disease-resistant andinsect-resistant crops2. Hardier fruit3. 70-75% of food insupermarket isgenetically modified.
How to Create a GeneticallyModified Plant1.Create recombinantbacteria with desiredgene.2. Allow the bacteria to“infect" the plant cells.3. Desired gene isinserted into plantchromosomes.
CloningA clone is an organism that has exactlythe same genes as organism fromwhich it was producedHuman Genome ProjectA genome is all the DNA in one cell ofan organism, its main goal was toidentify the DNA sequence of everygene in the human genome.
Genetically modified organisms arecalled transgenic organisms.TRANSGENIC ANIMALS1. Mice – used to study humanimmune system2. Chickens – more resistant toinfections3. Cows – increase milk supplyand leaner meat4. Goats, sheep and pigs –produce human proteins intheir milk
Human DNA ina Goat CellThis goat contains a humangene that codes for a bloodclotting agent. The bloodclotting agent can be harvestedin the goat’s milk..Transgenic Goat
Desired DNAisadded to anegg cell.How to Create aTransgenic Animal