University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year 23r d La b. Pterygotes - Neopteran Insects: Order Diptera Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objectives: - This lecture gives knowledge about the medically and ecologically important insect group (order Diptera), Mosquitoes and flies. Their classifications and identification keys. - Focusing on the most common and important families of dipteran insects. Scientific content: Order Diptera - General descriptions - Classification: Suborder: Nematocera Suborder: Brachycera
Suborders Nematocera and Brachycera• In nematocerous families, the antennae are usually composed of many segments and are filiform, plumose, or pectinate• whereas brachycerous flies typically have the first flagellomere enlarged and the remaining flagellomeres stylate or aristate• The mouthparts of adult flies are vestigial or well developed of two general types: – (1) piercing and sucking, as seen in simuliids, culicids, and asilids, and – (2) lapping and sucking (Sponging), as seen in tipulids and most brachycerous groups.• Pupa: Most brachyceran have puparim (Coactate), while nematocerance have different forms of pupae (some groups have obtect pupa or coma shape pupa).
Dipterans Larvae• Larval Diptera are legless (apodous) and found in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats.• Most larvae are free-living and crawl or swim actively in: – water (e.g., Simuliidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae) – sediments (e.g.,Tipulidae, Psychodidae, Tabanidae), – wood (e.g., Tipulidae), – fruit (e.g., Drosophilidae), – decaying organic material (Muscidae, Sarcophagidae).• Other larvae inhabit the tissues of living organisms (e.g., Oestridae).
References: • David, B. V. and Ananthakrishnan, T. N. (2004). General and Applied Entomology. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi. India. 1184 p. • Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp. • Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht. The Netherlands. 831 pp. • Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison. • Markle, Sandra. (2008). Mosquitoes: tiny insect troublemakers. Minneapolis, USA. Lerner Publications Company. 48 p. • Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.