University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year 22nd La b. Pterygotes - Neopteran Insects:Order ColeopteraOrder Lepidoptera Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objectives: • This lecture gives knowledge about the largest animal group (order Coleoptera), beetles. • Their classifications and identification keys. • Focusing on the most common and important families of beetles. • Butterflies and moths (order Lepdoptera). Their classifications and identification keys. • Focusing on the most common and important families of moths and butterflies.Scientific content:- Order Coleoptera General descriptions Classification: Suborder: Polyphaga Order Lepidoptera General descriptions Classification: Butterfly families and Moth families
Order: Coleoptera• Fore-wings modified to elytra and hindwings are membranous.• Chewing mouth parts,• Different kinds of antennae• No Cerci• Mostly terrestrial and some aquatic• Larvae (Campodieform or Scarabieform) with a distinct head and biting (chewing) mouthparts, with or without thoracic legs, only rarely with prolegs.• The pupae of beetles are either with legs tightly pressed against the body, or exarate, with the legs and wings held free from the body.
Suborder: Polyphaga• Family: MELOIDAE (blister beetle) Mylabris sp.• Family: SCARABAEIDAE Adults may be recognized by the lamellate terminal segments of their antennae. (Rhinoceros beetles) (Dung beetle)• Family: TENEBRIONIDAE (darkling beetles) (Tribolium spp.),• Family: COCCINELLIDAE (ladybugs, ladybird beetles) Coccinella septempenctata
Order: Lepidoptera• The most distinguishing characteristics; scaly wings and siphoning mouthparts.• Cerci are not present• Adults are terrestrial, mostly feeding on nectar• Larval Lipidoptera are polypod (caterpillar) and found in a variety of terrestrial habitats.• Chewing mouthparts feed on plant materials (leaves).• Mostly are regarded as serious agricultural pests.• Pupae are obtect usually within silken cocoons spun by the larvae, although many species pupate without a cocoon.
•Family: Bombycidae (Silkworm Moth) Bombyx mori
References:• David, B. V. and Ananthakrishnan, T. N. (2004). General and Applied Entomology. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi. India. 1184 p.• Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp.• Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht. The Netherlands. 831 pp.• Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison,• Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.