University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year 21s t La b. Pterygotes - Neopteran Insects: Endopterygotes Orders: Neuroptera & Siphonaptera Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objectives:This lecture gives knowledge about this lecture givesknowledge about:Ant lions and Aphid lions (order Neuroptera),- Fleas (Order Siphonaptera) Focusing on fleas, themedically important mammalian ectoparasitic insectsScientific content:- Order Neuroptera (Ant lions and Aphid lions).- Order Siphonaptera (Fleas).
Order: Neuroptera• complete metamorphosis;• it includes the green and brown lacewings, antlions and some other insects• Neuropteran adults are soft-bodied, the abdomen is cylindrical and without cerci• Have four membranous wings that are similar in size, structure, and venation and that are held roof- like over the body while at rest• chewing mouthparts• Antennae filiform.• The adults may or may not be predaceous
Order: Siphonaptera• The Siphonaptera (Fleas) are laterally compressed, wingless, holometabolous insects.• All species are parasitic in the adult stage and possess mouthparts modified for piercing and sucking,• highly modified combs and setae on their body and legs, and legs that are modified for jumping.• Some species are vectors of disease.
FAMILY: Pulicidae, Some important cosmopolitan fleas thatattack humans and domestic animals, including:- Xenopsylla cheopsis (Oriental rat flea) ,-Pulex irritans (human flea)-Ctenocephalides canis (dog flea),-Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea).
References:• David, B. V. and Ananthakrishnan, T. N. (2004). General and Applied Entomology. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi. India. 1184 p.• Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp.• Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht. The Netherlands. 831 pp.• Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison,• Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.
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