University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year 19t h La b. Pterygotes - Neopteran Insects: OrdersDermaptera, Phasmida and Isoptera Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objectives: this lecture gives knowledge about insects groupsEarwigs, leaf-like and stick-like insects and termites in theorders Dermaptera, Phasmida and Isoptera, respectively.Their classifications and identification keys. Focusing ontermites, the economically and ecologically importantinsects, and their social life.Scientific content:•Order Dermaptera (Earwigs)•Order: Phasmida (leaf-like and stick-like insects)•Order: Isoptera (Termites)•True Social life in termite colonies
Order Phasmida is divided into two families: Family: PHYLLIIDAE (leaf insects) Family: PHASMATIDAE (stick insects). Family: Phylliidae Family: Phasmatidae (leaf-like insects) (stick-like insects)Have Flattened & leaf-like Possess elongate & cylindricalbody bodyWinged, the forewings are They often apterousreduced & sclerotised, the (wingless)hindwings are membranous.With lamellate expansions of Without lamellate expansionsthe legs of the legs
Order Isoptera- Termites or White Ants- True Social Insects- Castes: - Primary Reproductives (King and Queen) - Secondary Reprodutives - Soldiers - Workers - Imatures
References:• David, B. V. and Ananthakrishnan, T. N. (2004). General and Applied Entomology. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi. India. 1184 p.• Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp.• Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht. The Netherlands. 831 pp.• Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison,• Markle, Sandra. (2008). Termites: hardworking insect families. Minneapolis, USA. Lerner Publications Company. 48 p.• Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.