University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year 15th Lab. Pterygotes-Paleopteran Insects: Order Ephemeroptera Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objectives:•This lab. Provides familiarities with Paleopteran insects(Mayflies).• Students will study old winged insect orders,Ephemeroptera in detail.Scientific content:- Paleopteran insects- Order: Ephemeroptera (Mayflies)
Subphyllum Hexapoda. 1. CLASS. Collembola 2. CLASS AND ORDER. Protura 3. CLASS AND ORDER. Diplura 4. CLASS. Insecta I. SUBCLASS. Apterygota ORDERS. Microcoryphia and Zygentoma II. SUBCLASS. Pterygota A. INFRACLASS. Paleoptera ORDERS. Ephemeroptera and Odonata B. INFRACLASS. Neoptera a. DIVISION. Polyneoptera (orthopteroid orders) ORDERS. Orthoptera, Grylloblattodea, Dermaptera, Plecoptera,Embioptera. Dictyoptera, Isoptera, Phasmida, Mantophasmatodea, andZoraptera b. DIVISION. Paraneoptera (hemipteroid orders) ORDERS. Psocoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera, and Thysanoptera c. DIVISION. Oligoneoptera (endopterygote orders) ORDERS. Mecoptera, Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera.Siphonaptera, Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Coleoptera,Strepsiptera, and Hymenoptera
Order: Ephemeroptera • Mayflies (order Ephemeroptera) represent the oldest order of the existing winged insects. • They are unique among the insects in having two winged adult stages, the subimago and imago.• As adults they generally live from 1 to 2 hrs to a few days, and mayflies spend most of their life in the aquatic environment, either as eggs or larvae.
Larvae• 12 – 45 molts• Chewing mouthparts always functional• Gills absent in instars early instars.• Variable median caudal filament (i.e., 2-3 “tails”)
Imago• Wings shiny, iridescent, with hind margins usually bare.• Short setaceous antennae.• Two-pair of triangular, membranous wings with many veins. The fore-wings are larger than hind- wings.• The wings are held vertically at rest.• Body glossy, upwardly concave trunk.• Forelegs much elongated, esp. males.• Caudal filaments usually not hairy, typically longer, brittle, straight.• Compound eyes prominent, glossy.• Mandibles stunted, non-functional.
References:•David, B. V. and Ananthakrishnan, T. N. (2004). General and AppliedEntomology. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi.India. 1184 p.•Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed.New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp.•Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht. TheNetherlands. 831 pp.•Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects,edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison,•Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects.USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.
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